soci 101, midterm 2 study guide
soci 101, midterm 2 study guide soci 101
Cal State Fullerton
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Date Created: 07/03/16
CH 6 Deviance and Crime What is deviance? • Any behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society o Involves violation of group norms, which may/ may not be formalized into law o Subject to social definition within a particular society at a particular time Deviance and social stigma • Stigma o Goffman and heckert o Labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups o Ex: ex gang member, short, etc à may cause lasting effects Deviance and technology • Technological innovations can redefine social interactions and standards of behavior related to them Types of deviance • Good/ admired behavior (heroism) • Odd behavior (women w/ 20 cats) • Bad behavior (commit crime) What considered deviant= can vary from society to society Ex: divorce= legal in US, illegal in Philippines Typically repeating an offence= can label you as deviant Deviant requirements 1. Must be committing a deviant act 2. Must be stigmatized by society Social control • Techniques and strategies employed for preventing deviant human behavior in any society • Parents, peer groups. Companies, govt • (fam/ job= restricts way you behave/ dress, etc) • sanctions o penalties/ rewards for conduct concerning a social norm o death penalty= ultimate form of sanction o subject of controversy centered on effectiveness of this sanction as social control conformity and obedience • milgram experiment o experimenter instructed ppl to administer increasingly painful electric shocks to a subject o experiment was rigged o want to see what ppl will do when told by a higher power • conformity o going along w/ peers who have no special right to direct behavior • obedience o compliance w/ higher authorities in a hierarchical structure o (police officer, president, etc à anyone w/ higher power than you) informal vs formal social control • informal o used casually to enforce norms o smile, laugh, raise eyebrow, ridicule o done through ordinary ppl (peers, neighbors, etc) • formal o carried out by authorized agents o informal social control can undermine formal social control, encouraging ppl to violate social norms social functions of deviance 1. unifies the group (same team, etc) 2. diffuses tension (break down issue) 3. provide jobs (holds jobs) 4. promotes social change ( want to change what don’t like) agents of social control deviance in mass media • the culture of feat-‐ glassner o why are we afraid of violent crime when it’s statistically minuscule? o Media= gives attention to crime, distorts ppl’s perception of crime § Bc it highlights only certain things Medicalization of deviance • Deviant behavior= often classified as medical disorder • These disorders= vary from time to time, place to place o Ex: IED, hysteria, leprosy • Pretty much everyone experiences symptoms of mental disorder Social explanations of deviance • Functionalist o Deviance= defines our moral boundaries • Conflict o Social, political or material inequalities of a social group • Symbolic interactionism o Deviance= occurs bc an act is labeled/ stigmatized as such o (deviant bc society said it is) what is crime? • Crime o Behavior that violates criminal law o Punished by a fine, jail term or other (-‐) sanctions o Ex: killing someone, speeding, etc Social functions of crime • Clarifies social boundaries • Promotes change and reform • Strengthens social cohesion (ex: neighborhood watch) Sociological explanations of crime • Functionalist o Responding to social and economic conditions in society • Conflict o Power, race, class and gender inequalities contribute to criminal/ delinquent behavior • Symbolic interactionism o Criminal behavior = LEARNED through interaction and socialization with others Biological explinations of crime Typologies • Cesare lobroso: 19 cent Italian physicist o Atavit (ppl born w/ large amounts of hair ) = born criminals (bc they look diff) § Not valid William sheldon (physician) • Mesomorphs o Muscular, aggressive and assertive o Sheldon said they’re more likely to be criminals • Endomorphs o Fat, soft, round, extroverted • Ectomorphs o Thin, wiry, sensitive and introverted Psychological explanations of crime • Focus on indiv characteristics • Ppl w/ lower IQ= commit more crimes than ppl w/ higher IQ • Validy of iq tests= have come under scrutiny bc maybe taught same thing w/ diff name (multiplication or times table—both mean same thing) Crime as a social problem • More property crime than violent crimes • Official statistics • National incident based reporting system (NIBRS) o CRIME STATS= NOT ACCURATE bc not all crimes are reported o Leading source of info on crime o Produced yearly by the FBI o Tracks 3 categories of reported crime § Violent crime § Property crime § Other offenses • National crime victimization survey o Probe frequency of unreported crime o Asking how many times they didn’t report a crime Crime: a sociological approach 6 TYPES OF CRIME differentiated by sociologists 1. Victimless 2. Professional 3. Organized 4. White-‐collar and technology-‐based 5. Hate crimes 6. Transnational crime Victimless crimes • Willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services Professional crime • Committed by a professional criminal o Person who pursues crime as day to day occupation Organized crime • Group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities • Dominates world of illegal business just as large corporations dominate conventional businesses • Serves as means of upward mobility for groups of ppl struggling to escape poverty White collar and technology based • White collar crime o Illegal acts committed in the course of business activities • Computer crime o Use of high technology to carry out embezzlement or electronic fraud • Corporate crime o Any act by a corporation that is punishable by the govt Hate crime • Offender= motivated to choose a victim based on religion, ethnic group, national origin or sexual orientation • Evidence= shows that hatred prompted offender to commit the crime • In 2011, official reports of more that 1700 hate crimes and biased motivated incidents • Most reported hate crimes o Race o Religion o Sexual orientation o Ethnicity o Disability Transnational crime • Crime that occurs across multiple national borders o Bankruptcy and insurance fraud o Corruption/ briber of public officials o Hijacking, illegal drug trades/money transfers/ sales of firearms o Trafficking, theft, terrorism o Sea piracy Rape • About 2/3 assaults= committed by someone victim knows o 38% of rapists= friend/ acquaintance • 44% victims= under 18 o 80% = under 30 • 54% of sexual assaults= not reported to police o 97% of rapists will never spend a day in jail • every 2 mins, someone in US = sexually assaulted o 200,000+ victims of sexual assault yearly crime: a sociological approach • crime data reported in US based on index crimes • violent crimes= crimes against people/ property o murder o rape o robbery o assault o burglary o theft o motor vehicle theft o arson crime statistic • crime index= disproportionately devoted to property crimes • only track crimes reported to law enforcement agencies • victimization surveys o surveys of ordinary ppl , not police officers, to determine whether they have been victims of crime understanding crime statistics • crime trends o public regards crime as major social prob, yet rate of crime being reported in 2012 was comparable to what it was in 1963 o changes in public policy, public health, technology, and demographics may explain • feminist o portion of major crimes committed by women has increased • international crime rates o violent crimes= much more common in US that western Europe in 1980’s and 1990’s o England, Italy, Australia and new Zealand= higher rates of car theft than US o Rapid rise in homicide rates in developing countries that supply drugs to industrialized countries More violent crimes than property crime Victimization rates= peaked in 1981 (more than 3x as high as 2009) Who commits crimes? • Ppl from lower socioeconomic backgrounds= more likely to be arrested for violent and property crimes • Ppl from upper class= generally commit white-‐collar or elite crimes • Low income African Americas= overrepresented in arrest data • Men= more likely to be arrested than women • Teens and young adults= most likely to be arrested for serious crimes (homicide, rape and robbery) Agent of social control Criminal justice system • Police o Most visible link • Courts o Determine guilt/ innocence o How are most criminal cases resolved? • Punishment and prisons o Retribution, social protection, rehabilitation and deterrence Can crime be solved? • Functionalist/ conservative o Community policy can help • Conflict/ liberal o Must reduce power differentialà solve prob • Interactionist o Teach ppl importance of law abiding behavior CH 5 Social Interaction Socialization • Key to our community • Process-‐ o a society, culture or group teaches individuals to become functioning members o indivs learn to and internalize the values and norms of the group social interaction • social interaction= the ways in which ppl respond to 1 another • micro sociological perspective= primary focus= face to face interactions (what ppl do when they’re in another’s presence) symbolic interaction • symbolic interactionism: study of human group life and conduct o coined by Herbert blumer • cooley= looking glass self • mead= stages of self • symbolic interactionist researchers = o investigate how ppl create meaning during social interaction, o how they present and conduct the self (“identity”) o how they define situations of co presences w/ others blumer-‐ 3 core principles to his theory 1. meaning • humans act toward ppl and things based upon the meaning they have given ppl or things 2. language • gives humans a means by which to negotiate through symbols 3. thought • modifies each indivs interpretation of symbols • thought based on lang= a mental conversation/ dialog that requires role taking/ imagining diff pov blumer-‐ symbolic interaction • stereotypes in everyday life o how 1 impressions= have lasting effect & value • personal space o get defensive when someones in our personal bubble o only close friends/ significant others= allowed • nonverbal communication o sign lang etc o can be misinterpreted o control personal bubble (by staring etc) goffman-‐ the presentation of self in everyday life • geoffman= termed dramaturgy into a social term • a theatrical metaphor for social interaction • to create an impressionà ppl play roles and their performance= judged by others who are alert to any slips that may contradict the role being asserted • these interactions= governed by a planned behavior designed to enable an individual to present a particular image to others o à in everyday interactions, this is to meet expectations of the role, not to fool/ deceive others dramaturgy theatre • actors • playing parts • on a stage • before an audience real life • people • performing roles • in social setting • before a group of others goffman • impression management o our efforts to manage the impressions that others receive of us o tendency to put our “best foot forward” in social situations • front stage o where presentations of self (or teams) occur • back stage o private areas for rehearsal of public presentations • YOU are in control of what ppl see of you ( bc we tailor what they see) Statuses • Status o Socially defined positions within a large group/ society o Can hold more than 1 status at the same time (mom, daughter, sister, friend) • Ascribed status o Status born with • Achieved status o Earned status o (Dr/ PhD, friend, teammate, student, employee, etc) • master status o dominates other statuses o determines a person’s general position in society o in US, ascribed statuses of race and gender= can function as master statuses social roles • social role o set of expectations for ppl who occupy a given status o ex: a nurse is expected to do certain things • role conflict o incompatible expectations arise from 2+ social positions held by the same person o student, parent and daughter= statuses 1 person holds o mom= surgery same time a paper = due and daughter = sick § à diff statuses conflict • role strain o difficulties that arise when same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations o status= student. Paper due for 2 classes @ same time § à same status conflicts • role exit o process of disengagement from a role that’s central to one;s identity to establish a new role o o 4 STAGES 1. doubt 2. search for alternative 3. action stage or departure 4. create new identity ex: cancer 1. doubt moleà cancer 2. maybe go away if get treatment 3. finally decide to remove mole 4. cancer free! à new identity CH 4 socialization Role of socialization • Socialization: process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors and norms of our social group The process of socialization • Begins in infancy and lasts throughout lifetime • Lifelong process • Language= facilitates socialization • (sometimes argue it starts before infancy) agents of socialization • the social groups, institutions and indivs that provide structured situations where socialization occurs • ex: family, schools, peers, mass media, workplace, religion and state family • single most significant agent of socialization in all societies • teaches us the basic values and norms that shape our identity schools • provide education • socialize us through hidden curriculumà teaches many behaviors thatll be important later on in life(mirror whats expected in society) • hidden curriculum= set of behavioral trails (punctuality, neatness, discipline, hard work, competition, obedience) peers (groups) • provide diff social skills • often become more immediately significant than fam, esp as move through adolescence media • had become an important agent of socialization • often overrides the family and other institutions instilling values and norms workplace • where indivs learn how to behave appropriately within the occupation • socialization within workplace= changes when go from part time to full time religion and govt (“the state”) • increasingly being recognized by social scientists as agents of socialization bc of their significance and impact on the life course the life course • life course approach o social factorsà influence ppl throughout their lives (birthà death) o includes gender and income • celebrating rites of passage o means of dramatizing and validating changing in a person’s status o drivers license, graduating, becoming a parent, marriage/divorce socialization • anticipatory socialization o person rehersing for a role they’ll most likely assume in the future • resocialization o discarding the former sense of self and behavior patterns and accepting a new one cooley= looking glass self • our views of ourselves, then comes not only from direct contemplation of our personal qualities but also from our impressions of how others perceive us • (how we think others see usà how we see ourselves ) • looking glass self = the self= produce of our social interactions w/ other people the self and socialization George Herbert mead= the self • recognize that who we are (the self) = emerges as we interact w/ others • self = distinct identity that sets us apart from others • not static phenomenon, but continues to develop and change throughout our lives (à social intensions by chance ) mead: stages of the self 1. preparatory (to age 3) • children= imitate ppl around them (like parent burping baby) • as get olderà become more adept at using symbols 2. play stage (3-‐5) • children= develop skill in communicating through symbols • role taking occurs o process of mentally assuming the perspective of another in order to respond from that imagined viewpoint 3. game stage (early school years/8-‐9) • consider several actual tasks and relations simutaniouly • generalized other= refers to the attitudes, viewpoints and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his/ her behavior • ex: o marco polo: lower voice so other person cant really tell where you are o hide and seek: have to hide someone think other person wont find you Mead: theory of the self • self= begins as privileged, central position in a person’s world • as person maturesà self = changes and begins to reflect greater concert about the reaction of others • significant others= indivs most important in the development of the self preparion= no self play = developing self game = has a self now
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