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Week 9: Health and Uncertainty

by: Emily Mason

Week 9: Health and Uncertainty COMM 2010

Marketplace > Clemson University > Communication > COMM 2010 > Week 9 Health and Uncertainty
Emily Mason

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These notes cover all of the Learning Objectives as seen on Blackboard for Week 9
Introduction to Communications Studies
Marilyn Pugh
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Mason on Monday July 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2010 at Clemson University taught by Marilyn Pugh in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communications Studies in Communication at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 07/04/16
Week 9: Health and Uncertainty Chapter 11  Patient- Provider Communication o Patient and provider interactions most often transact relationships that place the patient in a passive role and place the provider in a dominant role, o Providers tend to dominate interactions with patients through questions and directives. o Providers also focus most often on establishing a patient’s physical problems rather than psychosocial problems o Patient-Provider Identities:  Machines and Mechanics- providers are viewed as competent experts analytically diagnosing a physical problem and then fixing it; patients are passive and allow the expert mechanic to give them a proper tune-up with little or no input or objection  Children and parents: the provider clearly portrays a dominant role of expert while the patient assumes a submissive and dependent role; this view of provider and patient relationships is the most  Consumers: patients viewing themselves as paying providers for specific information and expecting them to carry out their wishes  Partners: patients and providers work together to solve a problem and are viewed as equals, each bringing special knowledge to the interaction o Benefits of Effective Patient-Provider Relationships  Satisfaction  Adherence to Treatments  Enhance Physical and Psychological Health  Decrease Malpractice Claims o Patient-Provider Communication Principles (Patient- Provider communication should acknowledge…)  Patient Stories- Stories reveal what people perceive as the most important details or elements of a situation.  Patient Expertise- Patients should be considered experts about their unique situation, regardless of how common the illness or medical concern.  Provider Expertise- Beyond utilizing specialized medical knowledge to confirm illness and to set forth treatment options, providers should use their knowledge to educate patients.  Physical and Psychosocial Connections- There exists a powerful connection between health and everyday life. Both patients and providers do not always recognize the importance of everyday life experiences and instead focus their attention on biological causes. A holistic understanding of patient experiences can improve diagnoses and treatment option.  Emotions- The expression, recognition, and subsequent transacted meaning of emotion should be recognize as a profound influence.  Reciprocity- Patients will act in accordance with provider interaction styles, and both must treat each other with respect and recognize the concerns and needs of each other.  Roles and Expectations- They must clearly express their expectations of the relationship, interaction, and each other.  Social Networks and Health o Social networks influence many of the lifestyle choices people make, from eating and exercising to smoking, drinking, and taking drugs. o Social networks also provide various forms of support o Friends and family members have an incredible influence on your food consumption and your exercise habits through both their actions and the ways in which they talk about these things  Supportive Functions of Everyday Communication: o Two Primary Types of Social Support  action-facilitating support: providing information or performing tasks for others  informational support: type of action-facilitating support providing someone with information in order to increase his or her knowledge and understanding of health issues  instrumental support: type of action-facilitating support performing tasks for someone  nurturing support: helping people feel better about themselves and the issues they are experiencing  emotional support: type of nurturing support enabling people to express their feelings and to have those feelings validated by others  esteem support: type of nurturing support making someone feel competent and valued o Secondary Roles  Identity roles- People desire to be seen as worthwhile and as decent overall (positive face wants) and do not wish to be imposed upon or treated in a negative manner (negative face wants).  communication privacy management theory: explains how people create and manage privacy boundaries in their relationships  Media, Technology and Health o Health issues make up a great deal of media and technology content. This content influences people’s lifestyles, awareness of health issues, understanding of health issues, and how people talk about health both with their social network and with their health provider. Entertainment media, for instance, can increase awareness of medical issues and procedures but may lead to inaccurate perceptions and expectations of health and medical procedures. Further, news media tend to focus on certain health and illness issues while neglecting others. Additionally, direct-to-consumer advertising increases patient awareness of illnesses treated by the medication, increases patient awareness of available treatment options, and increases the likelihood that patients will take a more active role in discussions with providers. Finally, the Internet serves as a source of information about a variety of health issues and as a means of managing health-related concerns. It is increasingly used to connect patients and providers. Chapter 12  ethnocentric bias: believing that the way one’s own culture does things is the right and normal way to do them o We all have some degree of such bias in our worlds of meaning o You do not just have or belong to a culture; you transact and perform culture. o Culture is not only geographical  Culture as Structure o This way of seeing culture focuses on large-scale differences in values, beliefs, goals, and preferred ways of acting among nations, regions, ethnicities, and religions o cross-cultural communication: compares the communication styles and patterns of people from very different cultural/social structures, such as nation-states o intercultural communication: examines how people from different cultural/social structures speak to one another and what difficulties or conflicts they encounter, over and above the different languages they speak o Limitations and Benefits:  First, multiple “cultures” exist in one national or regional group.  Second, multiple social communities coexist in a single culture and talk amongst themselves as part of their conduct of membership  From a communication point of view, we can study how all members of a nation partake of the customs or beliefs of the nation and its communication patterns and styles. o coded system of meaning: a set of beliefs, a heritage, and a way of being that is transacted in communication  Structure-Based Cultural Characteristics o Learning to communicate includes learning the habits of your particular culture or society. o Context- Context involves the emphasis placed on the environment, the situation, or relationships when communicating.  high-context culture: a culture that places a great deal of emphasis on the total environment (context) where speech and interaction take place, especially on the relationships between the speakers rather than just on what they say  low-context culture: assumes that the message itself means everything, and it is much more important to have a well- structured argument or a well-delivered presentation than it is to be a member of the royal family or a cousin of the person listening o Collectivism/Individualism  collectivist: subscribing to a belief system that stresses group benefit and the overriding value of working harmoniously rather than individual personal advancement  individualist: one who subscribes to a belief system that focuses on the individual person and his or her personal dreams, goals and achievements, and right to make choices o Time  Cultures are also categorized and differentiated according to their views of time. Consider how time is perceived in the United States: Time is money.  monochronic culture: a culture that views time as a valuable commodity and punctuality as very important  polychronic culture: a culture that sees time not as linear and simple but as complex and made up of many strands, none of which is more important than any other—hence such culture’s relaxed attitude toward time  Cultures also differ in the way they pay attention to the past, the present, and the future. Different cultures tend to assume that the present is influenced either by one’s goals and the future or by past events. In the latter case, fatalism and preordained destiny are seen as the controlling force over what happens in the present. o Conflict- real or perceived incompatibilities of processes, understandings, and viewpoints between people  conflict-as-opportunity culture: a culture based on four assumptions:  that conflict is a normal, useful process;  that all issues are subject to change through negotiation;  that direct confrontation and conciliation are valued;  and that conflict is a necessary renegotiation of an implied contract—a redistribution of opportunity, a release of tensions, and a renewal of relationships  conflict-as-destructive culture: a culture based on four assumptions:  that conflict is a destructive disturbance of the peace;  that the social system should not be adjusted to meet the needs of members, but members should adapt to established values;  that confrontations are destructive and ineffective;  and that disputants should be disciplined  Managing Conflict:  Dominating. Dominating styles involve forcing one’s will on another to satisfy individual desires regardless of negative relational consequences  Integrating. Integrating styles necessitate a great deal of open discussion about the conflict at hand to reach a solution that completely satisfies everyone involved  Compromising. Compromising styles are often confused with integrating styles because a solution is reached following discussion of the conflict. However, making a compromise demands that everyone must give something up to reach the solution, and as a result, people never feel fully satisfied.  Obliging. Obliging styles of conflict management involve giving up one’s position to satisfy another’s. This style generally emphasizes areas of agreement and deemphasizes areas of disagreement.  Avoiding. Finally, avoiding styles of conflict are just that: People avoid the conflict entirely either by failing to acknowledge its existence or by withdrawing from a situation when it arises. o Law of Jante  Theme: You are not to think you’re anyone special or that you’re better than us. 1. You’re not to think you are anything special. 2. You’re not to think you are as good as us. 3. You’re not to think you are smarter than us. 4. You’re not to convince yourself that you are better than us. 5. You’re not to think you know more than us. 6. You’re not to think you are more important than us. 7. You’re not to think you are good at anything. 8. You’re not to laugh at us. 9. You’re not to think anyone cares about you. 10. You’re not to think you can teach us anything.  Transacting Culture o co-cultures: smaller groups of culture within a larger cultural mass o speech communities: sets of people whose speech codes and practices identify them as a cultural unit, sharing characteristic values through their equally characteristic speech o speech (communication) codes: sets of communication patterns that are the norm for a culture, and only that culture, hence defining it as different from others around it o cultural persuadables: the cultural premises and norms that delineate a range of what may and what must be persuaded (as opposed to certain topics in a society that require no persuasive appeal because the matters are taken for granted)  Culture is Coded o Culture is coded in communication not only in the language spoken but also in thoughts expressed and assumptions made. Every time a person communicates, other people know something about his or her culture. Cultural beliefs and values are displayed by a person’s communication.  Cultural Groups are Created Through Communication o Multiple cultural groups are recognized and differentiated through their unique communication and meaning systems. Speech communities are cultures defining membership in terms of speaking patterns and styles that reinforce beliefs and values of the group. Essentially, cultural groups are set apart based on their unique communication styles.  People Enact Cultural Membership Through Communication o Enacting membership in a cultural group means communicating and assigning meaning in ways similar to other members of that group. However, it is not just the act of communicating that establishes membership into a cultural group; it is also, and more important, knowing the meaning of that communication that does so. Membership in a culture can be represented in and restricted by one’s knowledge of speech (communication) codes.


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