Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide PSYC 3341
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Reyes on Saturday March 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3341 at University of Houston taught by Waguspack in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 250 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/21/15
Chapter 6 VISIon The Stimulus Perceptual Dimensions of Color 0 Hue the dominant wavelength 0 Brightness intensity 0 Saturation purity Anatomy of the Visual System 0 The Eyes 0 Eye Movements Vergence movement cooperative movement of the eyes which ensures that the image of an object falls on identical portions of both retinas Saccadic movement rapid jerlq movement of the eyes used in scanning a visual scene SLIDE QUESTIONS and you notice their eyes I I Wavelength is to hue slightly movmg Pursuit movement movement 0 If a light source emits a blue of the eyes make to maintain an color which of the following image of a moving object on the MUST be true The dominant fovea l tracking something wavelength is short movmg across your VISIon 0 Anatomy of the Eye 0 Which of the following types of 0 Lens photoreceptors processes Ciliary Muscles control the color Cones shape of the lens 0 The fovea processes Accommodation changes in the and is densely packed with thiCkness 0f the lens Details of visual form accomplished by the ciliary muscles that focus images of near or distant object on the retina o Retina COHGS Neural tissue and photoreceptive cells located on the inner surface of the posterior portion of the eye Photoreceptors one of the receptor cells of the retina transduces photic energy into electrical potentials Rod sensitive to light of low intensity Cone maximal ly sensitive to one of three different wavelengths of light and hence encodes color vision Fovea region of the retina that mediates the most acute vision of birds and higher mammals Colorsensitive cones constitute the only type of photoreceptor found in the fovea o Other Cells of the Retina Bipolar Cell a bipolar neuron located in the middle layer of the retina conveying information from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells Ganglion Cell a neuron located in the retina that receives visual information from bipolar cells its axons give rise to the optic nerve l have action potential Horizontal Cell a neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent photoreceptors and the outer processes of the bipolar cells Amacrine Cell a neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent ganglion cells and the inner processes of the bipolar cells 0 Connections Between Eye and Brain Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus LGN A group of cell bodies within the thalamus that receives inputs from the retina and projects to the primary visual COFtEX Primary visual pathway know how visual system works CODING OF VISUAL INFO IN THE RETINA Coding of Light and Dark 0 Receptive Field portion of the visual eld in which the presentation of visual stimuli will produce an alteration in the ring rate of a particular neuron o Fovea has low convergence number of photoreceptors converging on few ganglion cells 0 Periphery has high convergence Many photoreceptors converging on few ganglion cells Coding of Color 0 Color Mixing Trichromatic Theory colors may be created by mixing various quantities of three colors Light waves not pigments Opponent Colors RedGreen YellowBlue Protanopia an inherited form of defective color vision in which red and green hues are confused quotredquot cones are lled with quotgreenquot cone opsin Deuteranopia an inherited form of defective color vision in which red and green hues are confused quotgreenquot cones are lled with quotredquot opsin Tritanopia an inherited form of defective color vision in which hues with short wavelengths are confused quotbluequot cones are either lacking or faulty o Adaptation Negative Afterimages Negative Afterimage the image seen after a portion of the retina is exposed to an intense visual stimulus consists of colors complementary to those of the physical stimulus Complementary Colors colors that make white or grey when mixed together ANALYSIS OF VISUAL INFO ROLE OF THE STRIATE CORTEX Anatomy of the Striate Cortex o Striate cortex of one hemisphere codes visual information from the contralateral half of the visual eld 0 Approximately 25 of the striate cortex is devoted to the fovea o Striate cortex has 6 principal layers 0 Contributions to depth perception o Perspective 0 Relative retinal size SLIDE QUESTIONS Fibers from the nasal portion of each retina cross at the optic chiasm True Severing the left optic tract would result in Losing the right visual hemifield Which of the following correctly describes the complete visual pathway RetinagtLGN thalamusgtstriate cortex NOT STRIATUM Which of the following is true regarding visual acuity Fovea has low convergence Combining all colors of light leads to a black color False Simultaneous excitation of red and green cones leads to the perception of yellow The dorsal visual stream processes information about spatial location The ventral visual stream connects striate cortex to inferior temporal cortex The physiology of the human visual system suggests that faces are processed differently than other objects True 0 Loss of detail through the effects of atmospheric haze 0 Relative apparent movement of retinal images with head movement Retinal Disparity o The fact that points on objects located at different distances from the observer will fall on slightly different locations on the two retinas provides the basis for stereopsis Color quotnot importantquot 0 Cytochrome Oxidase CO Blobs the central region of a module of the primary visual cortex revealed by a stain for cytochrome oxidase contains wavelengthsensitive neurons ANALYSIS OF VISUAL INFO ROLE OF THE VISUAL ASSOCIATION CORTEX Two Streams of Visual Analysis 0 Extrastriate Cortex a region of visual association cortex receives bers from the striate cortex and from the superior colliculi and projects to the inferior temporal cortex Dorsal Stream where system o A system of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of spatial location beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the posterior parietal cortex Ventral Stream what system 0 A system of interconnected regions of the visual cortex involved in the perception of form beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the inferior temporal cortex 0 Studies with Humans Cerebral Achromatopsia inability to discriminate among different hues caused by damage to area V8 of the visual association cortex Visual Agnosia de cits in visual perception in the absence of blindness caused by brain damage Prosopagnosia failure to recognize particular people by the sight of their faces D inferior temporal lobe Lateral Occipital Complex LOC a region of the extrastriate cortex involved in perception of objects other than people39s bodies and faces Fusiform Face Area a region of the visual association cortex located in the inferior temporal lobe involved in perception of faces and other complex objects that require expertise to recognize Perception of Form 0 Studies with Laboratory Animals Inferior temporal cortex is where analyses of form and color are combined and perception of 3D objects and backgrounds are achieved lnterior temporal cortex contains areas TE and TEO Chapter 7 Audition the body senses and the chemical sense The Stimulus Pitch frequency of vibration measured in hertz like hue in light 0 Loudness function of sound wave intensity 0 Timbre provides information about the nature or complexity of the sound 0 Anatomy of the Ear o Pinna external ear 0 Tympanic Membrane eardrum vibrates 0 Middle Ear hollow region containing the ossicles between the tympanic membrane and the cochlea o Ossicles middle ear bones Malleus lncus Stapes Cochlea snailshaped structure of the inner ear containing the organ of Corti 0 Organ of Corti sensory organ for the auditory system Basilar Membrane D basilar oor Hair Cells Tectorial Membrane l tectorial roof Oval Window opening in the cochlea where the stapes is located 0 Round Window opening in the cochlea Auditory Hair Cells and the Transduction of Auditory Information 0 Cilia hairlike appendage of a cell involved in movement or in transducing sensory information found on the receptors in the auditory and vestibular system 0 Tip Link elastic lament that attaches the tip of one cilium to the side of an adjacent one o lnsertional Plaque point of attachment of a tip link to a cilium The Auditory Pathway ECOLlMA 0 Connections with the Cochlear Nerve this is the eighth nerve so E stands for 8 Cochlear Nerve branch of the auditory nerve that transmits auditory information to the brain 0 Central Auditory System 0 Cochlear Nucleus nuclei in the medulla that receive auditory information this stands for C 0 Superior Olivary Complex nuclei in the medulla that receive auditory information from the cochlear nuclei this is the O remember there is also an inferior olivary complex 0 Lateral Lemniscus band of bers carrying auditory information through the medulla and pons this is L o Inferior colliculus helps us track where sound is coming from and orient to it this is l o Medial Geniculate Nucleus nucleus in the thalamus that relays the auditory information to the primary auditory cortex Perception of Pitch 0 Place Coding Coding of frequencies by different locations on the basilar membrane 0 Rate Coding Coding of frequencies by the rate of ring of neurons in the auditory system Somatosenses Introduction 0 Cutaneous Senses skin senses o Proprioception perception of body position and posture o Kinesthesia perception of body s own movements 0 The Stimuli o Cutaneous Senses Pressure Vibration Hea ng CooHng Tissue Damage pain Anatomy of the Skin and Its Receptive Organs KNOW THESE o Ruf ni Corpuscles vibration sensitive large receptive elds slow adap ng o Pacinian Corpuscles detects mechanical stimuli especially vibrations large receptive elds fast adapting o Meissner s Corpuscles touch sensitive small receptive elds fast adap ng o Merkel s Disks touch sensitive small receptive elds slow adapting Perception of Cutaneous Stimulation 0 Touch Involves Mechanoreceptors Highly Localized 0 Temperature Relative Perceptions Involves Free Nerve Endings Two Kinds of Thermal Receptors Warmth Coolness Pain 0 Involves Free Nerve Endings 0 Three Types of Nociceptors Highthreshold mechanoreceptors that respond to intense pressure stretching or pinching dropping something heavy on your foot etc Free nerve endings that respond to extreme heat acids and presence of capsaicin D pepper spicy things TRPA1 receptors that are sensitive to pungent irritants found in mustard oil wintergreen oil horseradish and garlic and to many environmental irritants These chemicals produces in ammation The Somatosensory Pathways in spinal cord run up to brain 0 Dorsal Column carries touch and kinesthesia information o Spinothalamic Tract carries pain and temperature information Sensory info from different parts of the body is processed by speci c regions of the primary somatosensory cortex Pain Perception 0 Highly complex phenomenon involving three primary components Sensory Component Immediate Emotional Component adaptive mechanism that helps them learn to get away from that situation LongTerm Emotional Component mechanism that helps you learn to quotnot touch the hot stove againquot Chapter 8 Control of Movement Skeletal Muscle O O O Striated muscles attached to bones Flexion limb movement that bends joints Extension limb movement that straightens joints Extrafusal Muscle Fibers responsible for force exerted by contraction of skeletal muscle Alpha Motor Neuron neuron whose axon synapses with extrafusal muscle bers lntrafusal Muscle Fibers functions as a stretch receptor Gamma Motor Neuron neuron whose axons synapse with intrafusal muscle bers Motor Unit motor neuron and associated muscle bers the neuromuscularjunction Neuromuscularjunction synapse between terminal buttons of axon and muscle ber Motor Endplate postsynaptic membrane of a neuromuscular junc on Endplate Potential postsynaptic SLIDE QUESTIONS Contraction of Skeletal muscles is stimulated by Alpha motor neurons The force and duration of a muscle contraction is controlled by the relative size of an action potential False Alpha motor neurons release Acetylcholine Alpha motor neurons release just enough aCh to cause the muscle to contract False The primary motor cortex is located just anterior to the central sulcus The motor homunculus functionally amp anatomically parallels the somatosensory homunculus True potential in the motor endplate when acetylcholine is released by terminal button 0 Smooth Muscle o Nonstriated muscle innervated by ANS o Multiunit Smooth Muscles in large arteries hair follicles and eye 0 Single Unit Smooth Muscles in gastrointestinal system uterus and small blood vessels 0 Cardiac Muscle 0 Muscle responsible for heart contraction Control of Movement by the Brain 0 Organization of the Motor Cortex 31215 0 Somatotopic Organization cont Thurs Topographical organizationmapping of parts of the body represented in particular brain regions Motor Homunculus humanlike gure designed based on the somatotopic organization in the motor cortex Cortical Control of Movement Descending Motor Pathways 0 Lateral Group the corticospinal tract the corticobulbar tract and the rubrospinal tract Involved in independent limb movements 0 Ventromedial Group the vestibulospinal tract the tectospinal tract the reticulospinal tract and the ventral corticospinal tract Involved in automatic movements Planning and Initiating Movements Role of the Motor Association Cortex 0 Supplementary Motor Area plays a critical role in behavioral sequences think of it as a piano Each key is struck and the quothammerquot kits to make a sound PreSMA involved in control of spontaneous movements 0 Premotor Cortex involved in learning and executing complex movements guided by sensory information Imitating and Comprehending Movements Role of the Mirror Neuron System 0 Mirror Neurons neuron in the ventral premotor cortex and inferior parietal lobule that respond when a particular movement is made or when one sees another make that movement Control of Reaching and Grasping o Parietal Reach Region region in the medial posterior parietal cortex that plays a critical role in control of pointing or reaching with the hands
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