US history 1301 final
US history 1301 final History 1301
Tarrant County College
Popular in U.S History to 1867
Popular in History
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Date Created: 07/07/16
Final Exam Review Economic Sectionalism The Importance of Economic Sectionalism ● 3 Distinct Sections ○ Northeast ○ Northwest ○ South The Northeast ● Business and Industrialization ○ Industry, banking, and commerce are the dominant economic activities ○ The NE are ahead of the Northwest and South in business and industrialization ○ Want higher tariffs and internal improvements ○ Decline in farmers ■ Northeasterners can’t compete with farmers in the south and the northwest ■ A lot end up working in factories ○ Movement of people from farms and suburbs into the city in order to work in factories ● Immigration ○ Immigrants are attracted to the NE because of the abundance of jobs ○ Mostly from Germany and Ireland ○ Slavery keeps a lot of immigrants out of the job market in the south ● Urbanization ○ Expanding workforce ○ Exponential increase in workforce ■ North has more manpower by the civil war Northwest ● Today's Midwest ● Northwest Territory ● Agriculture ○ Dominant economic activity ○ Difference from southern agriculture ■ Grains, corn cattle ■ Small, family farms ■ Meat packing ■ Industry is mainly processing farm products ● Transportation ○ Railroads ■ Ties the NW to the NE economically ● Cyrus McCormick ○ Invents the mechanical reaper in 1834 ○ Starts a manufacturing business in 1847 ● White man’s capitalistic democracy ○ Believe that slavery is bad because they can't compete with it ○ Want to keep slavery out of the NW territory ○ Also don't want to compete with free black people ● Homestead Act ○ Federal government will give land to any man who will go farm South ● Majority are small farmers who don't own slaves ○ 25% of farmers own slaves ● Rich southerners own slaves ● Slavery politically and economically runs the south ● Owning slaves is the American Dream for most southerners ● King Cotton ○ Cotton is the dominant crop grown in the south ○ Two types of cotton ■ Lowland(long staple) ● Only grows on the coast of Georgia and South Carolina ● Long, silky fibers and very few seeds ■ Upland(short staple) ● Can grow anywhere ● Main type that is grown ● Small bulb of fibers ● Full of seeds ● Eli Whitney ○ Invented the cotton gin in 1793 ○ Causes a boom in cotton agriculture ○ Cotton innovations and success drive the desire to move west ● Economic Underdevelopment ○ South lags behind in basically everything because of their over dependency and comfort in slavery and cotton farming ■ Easiest way to make money ■ Being a plantation owner became a status symbol ○ By 1830, only 10% of industry is in the south ○ Cotton factors ■ Middlemen for selling cotton ■ Sell cotton to businesses in return for a fee ○ Single crop dependency puts southerners at the mercy of outside economic forces ○ Hinton Helper ■ Writes “The Impending Crisis of the South” in 1857 ● Says that the south is becoming an economic colony of the North ● Southerners are dependent on northerners to supply them with manufactured and processed goods ■ Southerners literally run him out of town because they don't like what he had to say The Peculiar Institution Origin of Slavery ● The Dutch brought slavery to Jamestown in 1619 ○ First treated as indentured servants ● By 1700, race based slavery was in full force ● Economic ○ Slavery is the south’s answer to labor ○ Originally economic based ○ Southerners referred to slavery as the peculiar institution because slavery was peculiar or unique to the region ● Social ○ Africans become slaves because of racism ○ Africans seen as inferior or heathens ○ Slavery is as much about race control as it is about economics Slavery as an Economic System ● Slavery is the key to the economy in the south ● Slavery falls out of fashion after the revolutionary war and is revitalized by the cotton gin ● Most southerners aren’t slaveholders ● Profits from slavery are used to buy manufactured goods ● The top slaveholders are the top 1% of southern society ○ Have a lot of political sway ● Was Slavery Profitable? ○ Two questions ■ Is slavery profitable for the south as a whole ■ Is slavery profitable for the individual slave holder ○ In the long run, slavisn’tprofitable for the south as a whole ■ Stunts development for other capitalistic ventures because of lack of incentive ○ Slaveryisprofitable for the individual ■ Land is cheap ■ After the initial investments(slave, seeds, foremen),money pours in ● Slavery and Southern Economic Development ○ Slavery is the capitalism of the south Slavery as a Social System ● Slavery created a pecking order ● Slaves are always at the bottom ● Poor whites were also in favor of slavery because there was always somebody below them Conditions of Slave Life ● Chattel Property ○ Definition: moveable property ● Slaves have no promise of stability ○ Family members could be sold at any time ● Minimal legal protections ○ Killing a slave is murder ○ People couldn’t beat other people’s slaves ○ Can’t overpunish ● Slaves can’t own property ● Slaves worked from sun up to sun down ● Material Conditions ○ Stayed fed, but were mostly fed the poor parts of animals, pork, and, potatoes ○ Stayed in slave cabins ○ Issued clothes annually ○ Provided medical care because they are viewed as property and people wanted their property to last ● Three Support Systems ○ Family, Religion, and Music ○ Family ■ Slave marriages aren’t legally binding ● This is done because people wouldn’t legally be allowed to separate a married couple ■ Slave owners encourage marriages because they want children to be born into slavery ■ Having a family made life a little better for people ○ Religion ■ Christianity ● Gave slaves hope because it promised eternal life and freedom after death ■ Slaveholders encouraged church going mostly to appease their own consciences ○ Music ■ Usually the only form of cultural expression ■ Used as a form of protest ● Behaviors and Attitudes ○ Three types of slaves ■ Loyal servants ● Rare, if ever ■ Rebels ● Also pretty rare ■ “Best we could” ● Do what they need to do to survive ● Do the bare minimum required Slavery and the White South ● Managing plantations tended to make people turn paranoid and have a lower moral compass ○ Prepared to use force on another human being at any time ○ Always afraid of slave revolts ● Not really any animosity between slave owning whites and non slave owning whites ● Whites believed that freeing slaves would lead to a social upheaval ○ Believed that black people were lazy and would turn to crime ● By the 1840s50s, slavery turned from a “necessary evil” to a “positive good” ● Three proslavery positions ○ Racists ■ Black people are unfit for everything except for being slaves ○ Religionists ■ If you left slaves in Africa, they would remain heathens and never find Christianity ○ NeoFeudalists ■ The problem isn’t slavery, it’s democracy ■ Society needs inequality to function ■ George Fitzhugh ● Wrote “Sociology for the South or the Failure of Free Society” in 1854 ● Claims that the south is actually failing and that they should enslave their workforce ● Most southerners don’t read Fitzhugh ● Northerners read this and believed that Fitzhugh’s work was a common belief among southerners ● Significance ○ The South allowed their lives to be shaped by slavery ■ Intellectually, politically, socially, etc. The AntiSlavery Crusade American Colonization Society, 1817 ● Created in the south ● Some members were slave holders ● Encouraged slave holders to voluntarily free their slaves ○ Mostly for slaveholders to free their slaves after they died ● Send slaves to Africa and colonize them after freeing them ○ Ex: Liberia ■ Slaves were relocated to Liberia regardless of origin ● Starts to die out by the 1830s Gradual Emancipation ● Attempt to convince state legislatures to gradually phase out slavery ● Benjamin Lundy ○ Wanted to free the slaves who were living in Texas before Texas became a state and then send them to Haiti and colonize them ■ Doesn’t work ● Nat Turner’s Rebellion, 1831 ○ Led by an enslaved African Named Nat Turner ○ Nat believed that he was a prophet and the God meant for him to free other enslaved people ○ Led a massive slave revolt in Southampton, Virginia that led to the death of 5565 white people ○ Eventually hanged ○ Scared southern whites ○ Makes virginia stop considering ending slavery because they want to keep a stronger hold on black people ● Gradual Emancipation doesn’t work Radical Abolitionism ● Begins in 1831 ● Strongly believe that slavery must end immediately ● William Lloyd Garrison ○ Famous abolitionist ○ Recognized as the #1 radical abolitionist ○ Wrote “The Liberator” 1831 ■ Antislavery newspaper ○ Founded the American AntiSlavery Society, 1833 ■ Over 200,000 members throughout the north within seven years ● Frederick Douglas ○ Self educated former slave ○ Escapes to the North from Baltimore ○ Most influential abolitionist ○ Writes several autobiographies and names names after people doubted that he was ever a slave Abolitionism vs. Anti Slavery ● Radical Abolitionism ○ Hated slavery because of moral and religious reasons ○ Rejected politics ■ Believed that the US is too rooted in slavery to do anything about it ○ Believed in an immediate removal of slavery ● Anti Slavery ○ Oppose slavery, but believe that it needs to take time and will end gradually ○ Believe in stopping the spreading of slavery ○ More moderate Evaluation of Radical Abolitionism ● Radical Abolitionism isn’t initially popular among Northerners ○ Viewed as fanatics who are putting up the improvement of black people at the expense of whites ○ Afraid of free black people coming north and competing for jobs alongside them ● Elijah Lovejoy ○ Presbyterian minister and abolitionist newspaper editor for Southern Illinois ○ Printing press was destroyed several times ■ Killed by a mob for his abolitionist views ○ Considered a martyr ● Northerners are never majority radical abolitionist ● Radical Abolitionists get things done because they are persistent The Crisis and Compromise of 1850 Territorial Expansion and Slavery ● Wilmot Proviso, 1846 ○ Written by David Wilmot ○ No slavery in any territory won from Mexico ○ Written to support the war effort ■ A vote for the bill is a vote for the war effort ● Poison bill ○ Creates controversy in the North and the South ■ Northerners support the Wilmot Proviso because it touches on their fear of slavery spreading ■ Southerners hate it ○ Passes the House but is rejected by the Senate ○ No middle ground on the topic ○ Only dealt with slavery in the territories ● Views on Slavery Expansion ○ No one believes that the government has the power to ban slavery in the states ○ By the 1840s, it’s agreed that the fight over slavery is the fight over its existence ○ After the Mexican War, there are four positions that people could have over the expansion of slavery ■ 1.Most northerners believe that congress has the power to prohibit slavery in the territories ■ 2.Most southerners believe that congress has no power to prohibit slavery in the territories and that congress actually has a duty to protect slavery in the territories ● This idea is introduced by John C Calhoun ● Based on the 5th Amendment of the Constitution ○ People are entitled to due process if their property is being taken away ■ 3.Extend the 3630 line to the Pacific Ocean ● Doesn’t work because there’s no middle ground on the issue anymore ● Northerners want no expansion of slavery ■ 4.Popular Sovereignty ● Coined by Lewis Cass ● Let the people in the territories vote amongst themselves to do what they want ● Mainly pushed by Stephen Douglas ■ Mexican War is won while this is being argued Election of 1848 ● Lewis CassDemocrat ○ Doesn’t address popular sovereignty or any issues ○ Runs as a war hero ● Zachary TaylorWhig ○ Doesn’t run on any issues ○ Runs as a war hero ■ Mexican War ○ Big slave owner ○ Southerners assume that he’s on their side ● Free Soil Party ○ Made up of Democrats and Republicans who are against slavery ○ Van Buren is their presidential candidate ■ Charles F Adams for VP ● Zachary Taylor wins ○ Isn’t going to be a huge slavery supporter ○ Promised to support the welfare of the whole country, not just one section ■ Dissapoints the south Crisis of 1850 ● Because of the slavery debate, a lot of territories are still unorganized ● Many territories are overfilled and need statehood ● California is packed because of people flowing in for gold during the gold rush ● New Mexico is also packed with people ● Zachary Taylor’s Solution ○ Proposes for territories to apply directly for statehood rather than having to apply to be a territory first ○ California applies to be admitted as a free state and enters the union ● Nashville Convention, 1850 ○ Secession is discussed ○ Fueled by the admittance of California and New Mexico as free states ○ Angry southerners ○ Called for fugitive slave laws ○ Called for the extension of the Missouri compromise line to the Pacific ocean ○ Laid the groundwork for a confederacy Compromise of 1850 (THIS WILL BE ON THE EXAM) ● Made by Henry Clay ● Five points were made ○ California will be admitted as a free state ○ Territorial governments will be organized for Utah and New Mexico without mention of slavery ○ End the slave trade but not slavery in Washington, DC ○ Congress will pass stronger federal fugitive slave laws ○ Texas has to give up its claims to New Mexico in exchange for $10 million ● Takes seven months to pass ● Calhoun gives a speech a month before his death basically saying that the north needs to quit limiting slavery or else the south will be forced to fight the north ● Jefferson Davis takes Calhoun’s place as the leading southerner for slavery ● Zachary Taylor dies of food poisoning ● Millard Filmore, Taylor’s VP, takes his place ● Filmore signs the compromise ● Most people support the compromise ■ Extremists on both sides do not support the compromise Election of 1852 ● Winfield Scott ○ Runs as a war hero ● Franklin Pierce ○ Advocates for the compromise during his campaign ○ Wins ○ Considered a “dough face” ■ Name created by abolitionists ■ Northerner who is friendly to the south. Can be molded like dough ■ Makes Jefferson Davis his secretary of war Continuing Sectionalism ● Opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act ○ Northerners are completely against it ○ Many Northerners ignore it ○ Military is sent in to return slaves to the south since northern governments don’t really do anything ● Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852 ○ Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe ○ Puts a human face on slavery ○ Pushes an antislavery opinion in the North The House Dividing, 18541859 KansasNebraska Act, 1854 ● Stephen A. Douglas ○ Illinois senator ○ Sees slavery as a political issue, not a moral issue ○ Huge on popular sovereignty ○ Chairman of the Senate Committee on Territory ■ Want a transcontinental railroad starting in Illinois and ending at the Pacific Ocean ● Problem: ○ It would run through a lot of unorganized territory ○ There’s also competition with southerners wanting a transcontinental railroad ● Nebraska Bill ○ Drafted by Stephen Douglas ○ Would organize all that’s left of the Louisiana Territory and call it the Nebraska territory ○ Douglas believes the area is closed to slavery because of the Missouri Compromise ○ Southern Opposition ○ Changes are made and it becomes the KansasNebraska Act ● KansasNebraska Act ○ Northern portion of the territory would be Nebraska and the Southern portion would be Kansas ○ Slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty ■ Voids the Missouri Compromise ■ Douglas doesn’t believe that slavery will spread there ○ Backlash from Northerners ○ Hurts Douglas’s chances of becoming president ○ Destroys the Whig Party ■ Northern Whigs are against the compromise and Southern Whigs are for it ● Republican Party ○ Strictly Northern ○ AntiSlavery ○ Combined AntiSlavery politics with Whig economics ■ No slavery in the territories ■ High protective tariffs ■ Internal improvements Bleeding Kansas ● ProSlavery and AntiSlavery people pour into Kansas to influence whether or not it became a free state ● Anti Slavery people are led by John Brown ● Voter fraud committed by pro slavery people ○ The mayor allowed it ○ AntiSlavery people made their own legislature ● Miniature civil war occurs in Kansas because of fighting ● Causes a further divide ● John Brown ○ Bad at everything except having children ○ Radical abolitionist ○ Believes in racial equality ■ Believes this so much that he moved into an all black neighborhood in New York ○ Crazy af ○ Goes crazy after proslavery people burn down the town of Lawrence ○ Cuts off five people’s heads because they are proslavery ■ Pottawatomie Creek Massacre ● BrooksSumner Episode ○ Charles Sumner ■ Radical abolitionist ■ Believes in racial equality ■ Makes the “Crime Against Kansas” speech ● Attacks Douglas and others who supported the Kansas Nebraska Act ● Makes fun of Andrew Butler, who had recently had a stroke and wasn’t present ○ Preston Brooks, Butler’s cousin, was present ○ Brooks beats Sumner’s ass with a cane until the cane breaks in half ○ Massachusetts doesn’t send anyone to replace Sumner ■ This is done out of protest, but the south doesn’t really care ○ This incident horrifies the north Election of 1856 ● John C. FreemontRepublican ○ Antislavery ○ Wants to repeal the KansasNebraska Act ○ Transcontinental railroad ○ Internal improvements ○ Doesn’t appeal to the south at all ● James BuchananDemocrat ○ Saving the union ■ There are northern and southern democrats, whereas there are only northern republicans ○ Promises to leave slavery alone where it already is ○ Buchanan is the only democrat that people aren’t mad at ■ Wasn’t present during the KansasNebraska Act ○ Wins the election ● Freemont wins majority of the free states and barely loses ○ This scares southerners because it shows that a republican could possibly win the presidency with just northern states ○ Southerners decide to secede if a republican ever becomes president Dred Scott Decision, 1857 ● An enslaved african named Dred Scott is brought into Minnesota by slave owners ● Minnesota is a free state ● Abolitionists encourage Scott to sue and the case goes all the way to the Supreme Court ● Chief Justice during the case is Roger B Taney ● Outcome of the lawsuit ○ Taney ruled that Scott had no right to sue in court because he’s a descendant of Africans ○ Scott could not claim to be free by virtue of living in a territory made free by the Missouri Compromise because the Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional ○ Rules that the Missouri Compromise violated the 5th amendment ○ Outlaws banning slavery in the territories ○ Northerners are afraid that this will keep states from being able to ban slavery The Emergence of Abraham Lincoln ● Early Career ○ Lawyer ○ Served in the Illinois legislature a couple of times ○ Whig Party ○ Leaves in 1849 and takes a five year break from politics ○ Comes back into politics in 1854 at the age of 45 because of his disagreement with the KansasNebraska Act ● Stance on Slavery and Race ○ Becomes a huge antislavery politician, but not a radical abolitionist ○ Up until he met Frederick Douglas, he didn’t believe in racial equality ○ Believes that slavery shouldn’t be allowed to spread ○ Believes that the south want to implement the ideas of Fitzhugh ○ Dred Scott Case convinces him to run for Illinois legislature as a republican ● Senate Campaign, 1858 ○ LincolnDouglas Debates ■ Lincoln runs against Stephen Douglas for a seat in the senate ■ Series of seven debates ■ Freeport Doctrine ● Speech made by Douglas in response to a question from Lincoln over whether or not the people or the court would prevail on the issue of slavery in the territory ○ Basically asking Douglas to choose between popular sovereignty and upholding the decision of the court in the Dred Scott Case ● Stated that territories can’t pass laws banning slavery, but can refuse to pass laws protecting it ● Angers southerners and caused him to lose popularity among southerners ● Negatively affects Douglas’s chances of being elected president ■ Douglas is elected into the senate ■ Lincoln becomes a household name The Election of 1860 and Secession Harper’s Ferry Raid, aka John Brown’s Raid, 1859 ● Started by John Brown ● Attempt to initiate an armed slave revolt by taking over a US armory in Harper’s Ferry ● Not very well thought out ● Slaves want no part of this revolution ● Brown doesn’t keep his plan very secret and the US marines come to put down the raid ● Brown is taken under arrest and dies a martyr ● Northerners think that he’s crazy, but he does also become glamorized after he dies ○ Songs and poems are written for him ○ Martyr status ● Southerners become afraid and feel that they’re unsafe in the nation The Texas Fires, 1860 ● Fires occur in forests all across Texas ● People assume that the fires are from slave results ● The fires are not caused by slave revolts, but the Texans are paranoid ● Black people who couldn’t account for their whereabouts were being rounded up ● Convinces Texans that they aren’t safe Split within the Democratic Party ● Stephen Douglas is the frontrunner ● Delegates from the deep south want slavery protections ● Alabama Platform ○ Federal codes of protection for slavery ○ William C. Yancey ○ Backed by states from the deep south ○ Presented at the 1860 Charleston Convention ○ Alabama Platform is rejected and delegates from the deep south walk out ○ Douglas couldn’t achieve the two thirds vote that he needed ○ The southerners who didn’t walk out reconvened in Baltimore ● 1860 Baltimore Convention ○ The people in attendance are the southerners who didn’t walk out during the Charleston Convention ○ The states that walked out during the Charleston convention weren’t allowed to participate ○ Douglas gets the two thirds vote that he needs and becomes the candidate ○ The southerners at this convention became the Northern Democrats ○ The other democrats who had previously walked out become the Southern Democrats ■ John C Breckenridge is nominated as their candidate ■ Want federal protection of slavery Election of 1860 ● Stephen A DouglasNorthern Democrat ● John C BreckenridgeSouthern Democrat ● John BellConstitutional Union ● Abraham LincolnRepublican ● Republicans ○ Don’t condemn slavery but don’t want to allow it to spread ○ Want a government funded transcontinental railroad ○ Want a Homestead Act and tariffs ● Third Party: Constitutional Union ○ Basically all southern Whigs ● Stephen Douglas is the only one to campaign from town to town ● Southerner want secession by this point ● Lincoln wins ○ Gets all the free states, except NJ ○ More electoral votes than all the other candidates put together Reasons for Secession ● Southern states want to secede ○ Southerners don’t know Lincoln ■ Believe that he’s a radical abolitionist ○ South sees no future in the union ■ Slavery won’t be able to spread with a republican president ■ Outnumbered by free states ○ Emotions are at their highest point ■ Anti slaveholding sentiments ■ Revolts Secession, 18601861 ● South Carolina is the first state to secede ○ Hold a convention and use the compact theory of the constitution to defend secession ○ Dec. 1860 ● Seven states are gone before Lincoln takes office ○ Send delegates to Montgomery, Alabama to draft a constitution ○ Jefferson Davis is elected as the president in 1861 ● James Buchanan is still president during this time ○ Doesn’t do anything to stop secession ○ Doesn’t think that the states have the right to secede or that the federal government has the right to stop them from leaving The Crittenden Compromise ● Senator John J Crittenden ● Two parts to the compromise ○ Called for constitutional amendments to protect slavery where it was ○ Extend the 3630 line until it touches the border of California ● Senate kills the compromise ○ Lincoln encourages republicans to kill it ■ Lincoln doesn’t agree with the second part of the compromise ■ Doesn’t want any slavery in the territories North vs South, 1861 Lincoln’s View of Secession ● Failure of Democracy ○ People shouldn’t just leave because stuff didn’t work out in their favor ● Believes that it’ll be a loss of US land, market, and resources ● Politics ○ Lincoln doesn’t want to be the president that let the union break up and does nothing about it ● Lincoln is inaugurated March 4, 1861 ○ Speech is addressed to the South ○ Doesn’t acknowledge secession ■ Views secession as a rebellion Battle of Fort Sumter, 1861 ● After South Carolina had seceded, it demanded that all federally owned property in the state to be turned over to the state ● Major Robert Anderson concentrated his forces on Fort Sumter ● Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, which was one of only two forts still in union control ● Confederate General P.G.T Beauregard demanded Anderson’s surrender upon hearing that Lincoln planned to send supplies ● Anderson refused ● Confederates fired first ● US wins ● Congress issues a war on the confederacy the next day ● And Lincoln issues control without looking like the aggressor Completion of Secession ● Secession of Upper South ○ Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee secede ○ Decide to secede after the battle of fort sumter ● Situation in the border states(MD, KY, MO, DE) ○ Decide to secede after Lincoln calls for 75,000 people to join the war effort against the confederacy ○ Don’t want to fight against their fellow slave holding states ○ Baltimore Convention ■ People coming from Maine to join the War effort against the confederacy were Baltimore ■ Lincoln enacts martial law in Baltimore ■ Prosecession legislatures are thrown in jail ■ Maryland stays in the union ○ Kentucky ■ Wants to remain neutral ■ Union stay out and confederacy stay out ■ Kentucky stays ○ Missouri ■ Never secedes ■ Gets real nasty in the civil war ■ People on both sides of the war ○ Delaware ■ Maryland stays and so does Delaware Comparative Resources ● Population ○ South ■ 9 million people ■ 4 million of the 9 million are enslaved ○ North ■ 22 million free person population ■ There are also immigrants coming in ■ More manpower than the south ● Economy ○ North had a more diversified economy ■ Can produce weapons and more items for the war ● Navy ○ The North has the US Navy ○ The South has to build a navy from scratch ● The war is fought on southern soil ● South doesn’t need to conquer territory, it just has to outlast the North’s will to fight ● Political Leadership ○ Lincoln vs Davis ○ Davis ■ Former secretary of war ■ Loyal, but takes things personally and loses trust easily ■ Doesn’t like to delegate authority ○ Lincoln ■ Better war time leader ■ Good at getting people who hate each other to work together ■ Has a harder job than Davis ● Needs to motivate people to want to preserve the nation ● Military Leadership ○ South has the advantage ■ Robert E. Lee ○ North ■ Ulysses S. Grant ■ George McClellan King Cotton Diplomacy ● South wants to withhold cotton from Britain so that the British economy will suffer and they’ll feel more inclined to support the south ○ Use the blockade as an excuse ● Doesn’t work ○ Britain already has stockpiles of cotton ○ Britain doesn’t want to get involved in what looks like a family squabble ○ Britain doesn’t want to align itself with slavery ● Confederacy was not recognized as a country The Civil War 1st Manassas Campaign, (1st Bull Run), July 21st, 1861 ● The union wants to knock down the confederacy in one blow by capturing Richmond ● Confederate troops, led by Beauregard, take up fort in Manassas Junction to fight against union troops on their way to Richmond ● At first it looked like it would be a union victory, but inexperience and slowness on the union side allowed for confederate reinforcements to be able to arrive by railway from the Shenandoah Valley ○ Led by Joseph E Johnston ● Stonewall Jackson and the confederates stood their ground and led a very successful counter attack ● Huge confederate victory ● 1st time that railways were a factor in an ongoing war in North America ● Makes the confederates over confident and the union to hunker down Battle of Shiloh, April 6 & 7, 1862 ● Southwest Tennessee ● Union strategy is to move down to Tennessee using the Tennessee River ● Union soldiers camp on Pittsburg Landing on the west bank of the river ● Union is led by Grant ● Confederates are led by Albert Johnston and lead a sneak attack on the union, which results in the death of Johnston ● Union lead a sneak attack on the next day ● Ends in a draw ● Significance ○ More casualties in this battle than all previous US wars combined ○ Shocks the nation Battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862 ● Robert E Lee wants to invade the North ● Lee plans to divide his forces into 4 groups ● Two union soldiers found Lee’s battle plans carelessly left behind by confederate soldiers ● Union troops lead by George McClellan ● Fought at Antietam Creek in Maryland ● Ends in a draw ● Significance ○ Ends Lee’s raid on the North ○ Ends England’s movement toward intervention ○ Gave Lincoln an opportunity to issue the Emancipation Proclamation ○ Bloodiest Day of US history The Emancipation Proclamation ● Background ○ Slavery gives the south a huge advantage ■ 90% of the white male population is able to fight because slaves will take care of the household ○ Slaves in areas where the union army marches through would run away from the plantations and join the union army ○ Lincoln has the power to declare this because he’s the commander in chief ○ Approved by cabinet ○ Seward tells Lincoln to wait until there’s a victory before he gives the Proclamation so that it doesn’t look like an act of desperation ○ The goal is first and foremost to preserve the Nation ○ Frees slaves in rebelling states ● Lincoln gives the Proclamation on January 1st, 1863 The Tide Turns, 1863 ● Gettysburg, July 1st3rd, 1863 ○ Lee decides to raid Northward into Pennsylvania with the goal of threatening Baltimore or DC ○ Lee sends off his calvary into Pennsylvania ○ Lee’s men find out about a shoe factory in Gettysburg and head over there, but end up bumping into the union army there ○ Beginning of the battle ○ Battle lasts for 3 days ○ Confederacy has the advantage at first ○ Pickett’s charge ■ Led by General George Pickett of the Confederacy ■ Ordered by Lee to attack the union on the last day of the battle ■ Failed attack ○ Union victory ○ Significance ■ Bloodiest battle ■ Stops lee’s second invasion of the North ● Depletes Lee’s forces to the point that he can only be on the defensive for the rest of the war ● Vicksburg Campaign, AprilJuly, 1863 ○ Confederacy owned a stretch of the Mississippi River between Vicksburg and Port Hudson ○ Ulysses S Grant was given the job of taking Vicksburg ○ John Pemberton ■ Confederate General ■ Originally from the North ■ His men don’t trust him because he’s a northerner ■ Idiot ■ In charge of Vicksburg ○ Grant makes a successful blockade and blocks the confederacy in Vicksburg ○ Grant tries twice and fails to make it up the earth works at Vicksburg ○ Grant lays siege to Vicksburg for 47 days ○ Pemberton’s army and the civilians of Vicksburg are out of supplies and starving ○ Pemberton surrenders on July 4, 1863 ○ Significance ■ Turns the tide of the war ■ Gives the Union Army control of the Mississippi ■ Cuts the Confederacy in half ■ Makes Grant a hero ● Wins almost every battle that he’s in ● Lincoln puts him in charge of the union war effort ● Grant becomes General in Chief Victory, Defeat, and Assassination, 18641865 ● Grant vs Lee, 18641865 ○ Grant takes over the war effort in Virginia and goes after Lee ○ Grant delivers continuous attacks so that Lee has no time to restock on soldiers ● Sherman’s Drive to Atlanta, 1864 ○ Led by William Tecumseh Sherman ○ Atlanta is important because it’s a major railway and a trading hub ○ Successful ● Sherman’s March to the Sea, 1864 ○ Sherman decides to make war on confederate civilians ○ Burns his way up from Georgia to South Carolina ○ Caused millions of dollars in damage and destroyed a large portion of the South ● The Election of 1864 ○ Lincoln(Republican) vs George McClellan(Democrat) ○ Summer of 1864, it looks like McClellan will win ○ Tides turn when Sherman takes Atlanta ■ Faith is put back with Lincoln ■ Shows that the war is ending ○ Lincoln wins ● Appomattox Court House ○ Grant has Lee surrounded ar Appomattox ○ Lee surrenders on April 9th, 1865 ○ Grant is very lenient ■ Paroles the confederate armies ■ Lets the southerners keep their horses ○ War is over Lincoln’s Assassination ● Killed by John Wilkes Booth Civil War Significance ● Ends slavery ● Destroys secession ● Creates two problems ○ What to do with all the former enslaved people ○ What to do with the southern states
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