Midterm Review GEOG 2302
Popular in The Global Environment
Popular in Geography
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Hendershott on Thursday July 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 2302 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Anthony Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see The Global Environment in Geography at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 07/07/16
1. What is geography Geography is a science that studies the relationships among natural systems, geographic areas, society, cultural activities, and the interdependence of all these over space. 2. What is physical geography The physical elements of geography; spatial analysis of physical components and natural processes that combine to form the environment 3. What is the inner core, outer core, mantle, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceanic crust, and continental crust Inner core: center of the Earth, solid, most dense of the layer Outer core: between the mantle and the inner core, molten/liquid Mantle: between the core and the crust, largest layer, has 3 sublayers (lithosphere, asthenosphere, and lower mantle) Asthenosphere: “JellO”, rocks loose shape and become like tar Lithosphere: combination of the crust and upper rigid mantle, forms plate tectonics Oceanic crust: thinner and lower Continental crust: less dense than oceanic crust 4. What are the different types of tectonic boundaries, and what are the characteristics associated of each Divergent: plates moving apart, prone to volcanoes, “constructive” Midocean Ridges: divergence on the sea floor, creates new crust Continental rift valley: divergence within a continent (Red Sea) Convergent: collide, mountain ranges, “destructive” OceanicContinental: subduction of the oceanic plate, under the continental plate OceanicOceanic: older plate subducts under the other, volcanic islands ContinentalOceanic: no subduction, mountain ranges Transform: slip and strike, earthquakes, California 5. How are island arcs formed When two oceanic plates collide one subducts under the other, causing volcanic activity that forms these islands over time. (Japan) 6. How are oceanic trenches formed When oceanic plates collide one subducts under the other, creating a trench. 7. What are latitude and longitude Descriptions of location expressed as an angle; lat= N or S of equator long= W or E of equator 8. What are parallels and meridians Parallels: “line” of latitude (great circles) Meridians: “line” connecting pole to pole (not parallel) 9. What is an isoline Line that joins points of equal value 10. What is a contour interval The vertical distance in elevation between contour lines. 11. How do we determine elevation of a location on a topographic map The number on the isoline/contour line 12. What is slope The angular relationship between a surface and the surrounding landscape 13. What kinds of deformation may result from tension, compression, or shear Tension: produces a very steep incline where the upper block slides down the fault plane Compression: the upper block slides up the incline of the fault plane Shear: displaced laterally relative to each other 14. What are the basic types of faults Normal, reverse, thrust, strikeslip 15. What are anticlines and synclines Anticlines: an upfold slope Syncline: a downfold slope 16. hat are Anticlinal valleys and Synclinal ridges Over time, upfolds can be eroded away faster than the down folds, producing anticline valley’s and syncline ridges, 17. What does volcanicity (volcanism) mean Phenomena connected to the origin and movement of magma from inside earth to the surface 18. What are the types of volcanoes Shield volcanoes: broad and low lying, never steep sides, relatively little pyroclastic material Composite volcanoes: symmetrical and steep sided Lava Domes: or plug domes, develop when vicious lava is “squeezed” up into a volcanic vent Cinder Cones: smallest peaks, cone shaped Calderas: uncommon, basin shaped depression caused by the eruption and destruction of a volcano 19. What are the three types of rocks and how are these classified Igneous: formed by cooling and solidification of molten rock, plutonic (inside the Earth) vs. volcanic (outside the Earth) Sedimentary: compaction and cementation transforms sediment into rock, detrital (preexisting rocks) vs. chemical (chemicals) and organic (dead material) Metamorphic: physically altered by heat, foliated (alignment) vs. nonfoliated (marbled) 20. What are the permanent and variable gasses in the atmosphere Permanent: nitrogen, oxygen, and argon Variable: water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone 21. Which atmospheric gases are most common and which have the greatest influence on Earth’s weather and climate Nitrogen and oxygen; water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone 22. How do temperature and pressure very vertically in the atmosphere Temperature fluxuates between the thermal layers, but pressure decreases with altitude 23. What are the Troposphere, Tropopause, Stratosphere, and Stratopause Troposphere: lowest thermal layer in the atmosphere, temp decreases with height Tropopause: transition zone between the troposphere and stratosphere where temperature change ceases Stratosphere: thermal layer directly above the troposphere, temp increases with height, 90% of ozone Stratopause: transition zone between the stratosphere and the mesosphere 24. How does the relationship between the Earth and Sun vary throughout the year Earth rotates in an ecliptic pattern around the sun, on July 4 the Earth reaches the Aphelion (the furthest point to the sun) and on January 3 it reaches the perihelion (closest point from the sun) 25.What and when are the solstices and equinoxes Spring Equinox (March 21), Summer Solstice (June 21), Autumnal Equinox (September 22), Winter Solstice (December 21) 26. How does the sun angle and day length vary with the seasons Summer: the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun, the direct rays are on the Tropic of Cancer, longest day in the NH Fall: both hemispheres receive equal amounts of daylight Winter: the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the sun, the direct rays are on the Tropic of Capricorn, shortest day in the NH Spring: both receive equal amount of daylight 27. hat factors determine the seasons seen on earth The tilt of the Earth, which changes the direct rays of the sun 28. What are aphelion and perihelion Aphelion is the furthest from the sun, perihelion is the closest 29. What is the difference between latitudes of energy receipt The difference is caused by the different angles of the Sun’s energy rays; the more direct rays receive higher intensity 30.What is radiation Both the emission and flow of electromagnetic energy 31. What are the laws relating to the temperature of the emitting body Hotter objects emit more radiation, hotter objects emit shorter wavelengths of energy 32. What are the different types and amount of radiation from solar and terrestrial sources Solar radiation is almost completely in the form of visible light, ultraviolet, and shortwave radiation; terrestrial radiation is entirely longwave radiation 33. What happens to solar radiation once it reaches our atmosphere The energy heats the Earth unevenly so the energy must be distributed through conduction, convection, and radiation 34. What are conduction, convection, and latent heat transfer Conduction: transfer of heat across a medium, contact Convection: heat transfer by vertical circulation, convection cells Latent heat: the energy needed for a substance to change phases 35. hat are greenhouse gases, and the greenhouse effect The greenhouse gases transmit the incoming solar shortwave radiation, which are absorbed by Earth’s surface. They do not transmit the outgoing longwave terrestrial radiation, but absorb it, then reradiate the terrestrial radiation back toward the surface. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone 36. What is radiative forcing “The radiative forcing of the surfacetroposphere system due to the perturbation in or the introduction of an agent (say, a change in greenhouse gas concentrations) is the change in net (down minus up) irradiance (solar plus longwave) at the tropopause AFTER allowing for stratospheric temperatures to readjust to radiative equilibrium, but with surface and tropospheric temperatures and state held fixed at the unperturbed values”. 37. What is albedo The ability of a surface to reflect insolationthe reflective quality or intrinsic brightness of a surface 38. Why do we see the sky as blue There is a greater prevalence of blue wavelengths in solar radiation and our eyes are more sensitive to blue, so we see the sky as blue when solar radiation is scattered. 39.What is an isobar Lines of equal pressure on a weather map 40. What is pressure gradient force This act drives higher pressure air in one area to an area of lower air pressure 41. What is the Coriolis effect, and how is its direction determined and affected by latitude Caused by Earth’s rotation, any freely moving object in the northern hemisphere will be deflected to the right and to the left in the southern hemisphere; the deflection is strongest at the poles and decreases towards the equator 42. What are gradient and geostrophic wind Wind moves parallel to the isobars because the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis Effect are in balance 43. Why is the impact of the Coriolis force on wind direction different near Earth’s surface than aloft Friction is added by the drag of Earth’s surface, reducing the Coriolis Effect 44. What are cyclonic and anticyclonic and how do they look in each hemisphere Anticyclonic: high pressure, counterclockwise in the NH and clockwise in the SH Cyclonic: low pressure center, counterclockwise in the NH and clockwise in the SH 45. ow do we “name” winds The direction from which the particular wind blows 46. What and where are the Hadley Cells, ITCZ, Subtropical Highs, easterly winds, westerlies and polar easterlies, and why do they occur where they do Hadley Cells: lowlatitude circulation cell that is vertical at the equator and extends to the tropics; warm air rises in the tropics because of low pressure and descends at the tropics as the air cools ITCZ: the area where air from the NH and the SH meet; little horizontal air movement, heavy rainfall Subtropical Highs: high pressure cells at the tropics, caused by the descending air of the Hadley Cells Easterly Winds: aka trade winds, caused by the Hadley Cells, travels east to west Westerlies: originate from the subtropical highs, travel west to east Polar Easterlies: high pressure system from the poles to the tropics, travels east to west 47. hat and where are the doldrums and horse latitudes Doldrums: the area along the equator where there is no horizontal air movement because of the Hadley Cell Horse Latitudes: area between the Hadley cells and subtropical highs where there is no horizontal movement 48. What and where are the jet streams High speed winds; polar and subtropical 49. Why do land and water surfaces tend to have different temperatures Water has a higher specific heat than land; it takes more energy for the change the temperature of water than is does the temperature of land 50. What are land and sea breezes and why do they occur when they do Sea breezes occur during the day because the air over land heats up and rises and the cool air over the water moves in to take its place. Land breeze takes place at night when the land cools down and the warmer water over the air rises and the cooler air over land moves in to replace it 51. ow are ocean currents and gyres caused, and where Driven by the latitudinal imbalance of heat, air blowing over the ocean is the principal driving force; found in the ocean basins and create a continuous loop that is the ocean gyres 52. What’s El Nino (ENSO) and La Nina Unusual weather in the Pacific Ocean, reverses pressure systems on the coast of south America and Australia causing the trade winds to reverse. La Nina everything becomes more intense than usual in the Pacific Ocean 53. What is the hydrologic cycle The circulation of Earth’s water supply (the water cycle) 54. What are phase changes, and how do they affect latent heat Evaporation, freezing, condensation, sublimation; requires a gain or loss of latent heat, ice to liquid 80, liquid to gas 540, gas to ice 680 55. hat are actual, saturation, and relative humidity Actual: the mass of water vapor in a given volume of air Saturation: contains the max amount of water vapor at a specific temperature Relative: the ratio that compares the actual amount of water vapor in the air to the water capacity of the air (short answer) 56. What is dew point temperature, and how does it relate to humidity concepts The temperature at which saturation is reached; actual humidity= saturation humidity (RH= 100%) 57.What is saturation The amount of water vapor that would be found in an air parcel when it is holding all of the water vapor that it can at a specific temperature 58.What are Diabatic and Adiabatic cooling Diabatic cooling removes energy from the air, warm wind over cold surface air loses energy to the ground; adiabatic cooling no energy is removed, air expands as it rises 59. How are the various types of fog formed and how do they differ from clouds Fog is clouds on the ground; it is formed when air at Earth’s surface cools to below its dew point temperature or when enough water vapor is added to the air to saturate it 60.What are the four major mechanisms of uplift Convective lifting, orographic lifting, frontal lifting, and convergent lifting 61. What are the dry and saturated adiabatic lapse rates (conceptually, and the average rates) Dry= 10C per 1000 meters; Saturated= 6C per 1000 meters 62. What is the difference between adiabatic lapse rates and environmental lapse rate ELR rate at which temp drops as altitude increases ALR rate at which air cools when it rises, changes between dry and saturated 63. What is atmospheric stability When air is reaches a level at which the surrounding air is of equal density; resists vertical movement 64. What are the various types of clouds Cirrus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus, altocumulus, altostratus, stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus, cumulus, cumulonimbus 65. What environmental conditions (consider the ELR) promote the occurrence of different precipitation types: rain, snow, sleet, freezing rain, and hail Rain: produced by the collision of water droplets, can form in 2 ways. Most of the cloud is above freezing and produces rain, then when have of the cloud is below freezing and produces ice that melts to create rain Snow: Bergeron process; the whole cloud is below freezing Sleet: caused by a temp inversion where the cloud starts in freezing temperatures, melts, then refreezes in the air Freezing rain: also caused by a temp inversion; cloud starts below freezing, ice melts, then refreezes at the surface Hail: the whole cloud starts below freezing but must have a lower part that is warmer than freezing, needs strong vertical updrafts to cycle the hail back up through the cloud 66. ow does hail differ from other precipitation types Hail is cycled back through the cloud by strong updrafts until it becomes too heavy to be supported 67. What are air masses and source areas Large parcels of air that are distinct from oneanother; form over regions that are extensive, physically uniform, and associated with air that is stationary or anticyclonic 68. What are cP, cT, mP, and mT air masses like and where do they come from c= continental (dry air) m= maritime (moist air) E= equatorial (010 degrees) T= tropical (1035 degrees) P= polar (5570 degrees) A= arctic/ antiarctic (7090 degrees) cP= cold, dry, very stable cT= hot, very dry, unstable mP= cold, moist, relatively unstable mT= warm, moist, of variable stability 69. What are fronts, what are the differences between warm fronts, cold fronts, occluded fronts and stationary fronts A boundary zone of discontinuity between unlike air masses; cold fronts for when an advancing air mass meets warm air, a warm front forms when an advancing warm air meets colder air; stationary fronts occur when neither air ass displaces the other; an occluded front is when a cold front overtakes a warm front 70. What is a midlatitude cyclone Large migratory low pressure systems that occur within the midlatitudes and move generally with the Westerlies 71. hat is dynamic uplift Associated with midlatitude cyclones, deviation creates high pressure cell and low pressure cell 72. What are high, middle, and low clouds High: above 6km, thin and composed of ice crystals Middle: 2 6km, composed of liquid water Low: below 2km, general overcast ESSAYS With the aid of diagrams, explain what arquinoxes and solsticand elate these to the seasonsobserved on Earth. Equinoxes: 12 hours of daylight/night spring and fall; Solstices: Longest/shortest day of the year summer and winter, tilt of the Earth, angle of Sun’s rays, dates of equinoxes and solstices With the aid of diagrams, and usingnvironmental lapse raandground temperatureas a guide, differentiate between precipitation sain, snow, sleet, hail, and freez In ain. describing hail, explain how it differs from the other types of precipitation. Global Environment Final Review I’ll be looking at the following when I write the Big Quiz for final exam. What do the Koppen codes A,B, C,D, E and H mean Describe climate: A= tropical humid climates (tropical), B= dry climates (dry), C= mild midlatitude climates (mesothermal), D= severe mid latitude climates (microthermal), E= polar climates (polar), H= highland climates (highland) What are the characteristics and locations of the climate types, including: ● Tropical wet= wet all year 010 degrees lat. ● Tropical wet and dry 1015 degrees lat ● Subtropical desert 1530 degrees lat ● Midlatitude desert east to west coast ● Mediterranean ● Humid subtropical ● Marine west coast ● Subarctic ● Polar Why do we find these climates where we do Latitude, ocean gyres and global wind patterns, and continentality (proximity to the ocean) How do we interpret what is shown on a climograph – in terms of knowing what climate type is represented, and which hemisphere it must be located in ● Climograph Simple graphical representation of monthly temperature and precipitation for a specific weather station ● Interpret by country (spatial location) in background, temperature and precipitation stats What is vegetation structure Vegetation structure is made of mostly by: roots, stems, branches and leaves. It is divided into two main components. What are the possible leaf characteristics of woody plants ● Leaf Characteristics of Woody Plants 1. Broadleaf: a. Tree that has flat and expansive leaves. 2. Needleleaf: a. Trees adorned with thin sliver of tough, leathery, waxy needless rather than typical leaves. 3. Evergreen: a. There is always some leaves on the plant. What environmental factors influence vegetation, and how does each do so 1. Climate energy from the sun (temperature and daylength), water (precipitation) *most important 2. Topography 3. Soil 4. Biological factors 5. Disturbances We looked at three transects in class, what vegetation types did we find on each, and what factors influenced the kinds of vegetation we saw (latitude or precipitation) 1. Equator to 30 lat evergreen, broadleaf scattered shrubs, herbaceous annuals Precipitation 2. Gulf Coast to Arctic Broadleaf deciduous forests Evergreen Herbaceous perennials, low plants Latitude 3. East to West coast Grassland Evergreen shrubland Needleleaf forest Precipitation Where on a world map, would you expect to find ● Tropical broadleaf evergreen forest ● Tropical savanna ● Subtropical desert Shrubland ● Temperate broadleaf deciduous forest ● Needleleaf evergreen forest (boreal forest/taiga) ● Tundra ● Midlatitude grassland ● Midlatitude desert Shrubland ● Sclerophyllous Shrubland What are the reasons why a plant might be deciduous ● Trees shutdown to avoid physiological drought ● Broadleaf can collect snow and injure the plant. What is physiological drought Lose their leaves in stressful winter season. What is allelopathy It's a plant versus plant chemical warfare. Plants release chemicals into the soil that prevent the seed of competitors from growing. Reducing competition. What is soil texture, and what are the relative sizes of sand, clay and silt The texture of the soil is the size of the particles, sand is the biggestsilt is in the middleclay is the smallest What is a soil profile and a soil horizon oil profile: vertical cross section of the soil Soil horizon: distinct layers whose characteristics help determine what kind of soil it is Idealized soil profile. A true soil, or solum, consists of the O,A, E and B horizons. What are the O,A, E,B, and C horizons ● O ( organic litter; not typical for soils to have) ● A ( topsoil, mineral and organic) ● E ( eluvial layer; sand and silt) ● B ( subsoil; mineral layer that contains materials removed) ● C ( unconsolidated regolith; no organic matter) ● R ( bedrock) What are the five soil forming factors (CLORPT) and how do they work ● Climate: most influential, temperature and moisture are most significant, more water, more movement of minerals, high temperature and abundant moisture accelerates chemical and biological processes in soil, climate also influences vegetation ● Organisms: organic matter only small fraction of soil volume, but of utmost importance; give life to soil from living and dead plants and animals ○ Earthworms are most important to soil formation and development ○ ¾ of soils metabolic activity is generated by microorganisms ○ humus : decomposed organic matter of utmost importance ● Relief: slope and drainage, water moves downslope, at the bottom there is more leaching, environment that soil is developing in ● Parent Materials: rock fragments, chemical composition, texture, structure, influence diminishes with time ● Time: generally very slow taking many centuries to develop, depends largely on nature of the exposed parent material and the nature of the environment What is biocycling: the recycling of nutrients in a system from soil to plant What are the characteristics of the soil orders from the Arctic to the Gulf coast and the tropics: Transect Through Eastern North America: From High Latitude (Arctic) to the Gulf Coast: 1. Gelisol: ● tundra vegetation; permanent ice in the first 1m of the profile ● young soil with minimal profile development, developing only slowly because ● of cold temperatures and frozen conditions. 2.Spodosol: ● Needleleaf Evergreen forest (subarctic) commonly found in cool, moist environments under coniferous forest vegetation. ● Surface litter composed of pine needles breaks down in the presence of water to form a weak organic acid. Acidic soil water removes base ions in solution to create an acidic soil. ● Easily dissolved materials are leached from surface layers leaving behind the most resistant material like quartz, creating an ashygray nearsurface layer. Spodo (Greek) for ash or pale. ● Strong O horizon, little or no A horizon – not very much biocycling (organisms to break organic materials down have limited time to work), E horizon is bleached, B horizon red. ● Notoriously infertile. 3. Alfisol ● distinguished by a subsurface clay horizon and a mediumtogenerous supply of plant nutrients and water. ● Plant leaves are broken down faster, so the O horizon is minimal. There is some mixing with the A horizon below, giving rise to a moderate A horizon. ● Since these are in reasonably wet areas, the E horizon loses a lot of clay, and the B horizon accumulates clay. ● There is no red horizon (bleached) ● Most wide ranging of the mature soils. ● Rank only second to Mollisols in agricultural productivity. TROPICAL SOILS : 1. Ultisols (clay accumulation with low bases) – we discussed this earlier 2. Oxisols: ● Found in warm, rainy climates under broadleaf, evergreen vegetation like that found in the rain forest. ● Chemical weathering (especially oxidation) in the presence of warm temperatures combined with heavy rainfall creates a soil rich in iron and aluminum oxides called "sesquioxides". ● A rich diversity of decomposers, rapid uptake by vegetation, and heavy precipitation quickly removes nutrients from the soil. ● Biocycling is key to maintaining plant life on these soils ● Plants found here have evolved with their roots very close to the surface to ● maximize nutrient uptake. Buttress roots give plants stability in these relatively ● wet soils. ● Deep, nutrient poor soil, not wellsuited for agriculture. ● Cleared of vegetation, the exposed surface is easily eroded and become ● impoverished What is the hydrologic cycle The unending supply of Earth’s water; liquid water (primarily over the ocean) evaporates into the air, condenses to liquid, and returns to earth as a form of precipitation What is stream discharge (Q), and what units are used in measuring it ● Volume of water flow ● Cubic feet per second (CFS) What can happen to precipitation once it reaches the ground 1. Evaporation from the ground back to the atmosphere 2. Transpiration: Drawn up by plant roots and eventually loss through the leaves (evapotranspiration) 3. Overland flow: could run downhill and end up in the stream channel after running over the land surface 4. Infiltration: – Find its way downhill and into the stream channel by Through flow – Can infiltrate through the ground, through cracks etc by Ground Water Movement. Ends up in the stream channel as Ground Water – Infiltrating water is stored temporarily in a region called the soilwater belt where it is available to plants – Percolation is the process by which water gets into the soil water belt – Percolating water fully saturates the pore spaces of bedrock, regolith, or soil, at which point it is called groundwater. – The water table is the upper limit of the saturated zone What roles do soil, topography, vegetation, climate and land use play in influencing the relative importance of overland flow and infiltration. 1. Soil: ● Texture of soil is MOST critical. Coarse texture soil – large particles ● There are larger spaces in sandy soils compared to clay soils. Water infiltrates faster in a sandy soil than a clay soil ● Think of the spaces created when basketballs are grouped versus ping pong balls. There are larger spaces between basketballs. Sand and clay compares similarly. ● Coarse texture = Infiltration ● Fine texture = overland flow 2. Soil depth: deep soil favours infiltration, shallow soils favors overland flow 3. Topography: Steep favors overland flow, Gentle favors infiltration 4. Vegetation ● Obstruct overland flow – if there are a lot of stems on the surface these would create some resistance to water movement ● Protects from raindrop splash – ● raindrops come down at fast rates which could send particles flying into the air. These particles tend to fall into the lowest parts of the soil where the “clog” pores for infiltration. ● Vegetation protects the soils from raindrop splash ● Denser vegetation favor infiltration; sparse vegetation favors overland flow. 5. Climate ● affects vegetation ● Frozen ground – water cannot infiltrate. Snow on surface can prevent infiltration ● Characteristics of precipitation: intensity. If it’s coming down so fast that infiltration cannot keep up with the rate at which the water reaches land. ● High intensity = overland flow ● Low intensity = infiltration 6. Land Use ● Logging: removing vegetation cover would tend to favor overland flow ● Livestock: the movement of cattle over the soil results in compaction, pushing particles closer together, creating less room for water to go through, thus favoring overland flow. ● Urbanization: the growth of cities and suburbs can affect stream patterns ● Built up areas and buildings says NO infiltration, favoring (dramatically) overland flow • Agriculture ● If we plow (plough) up and down hill, forming furrows and ridges, this makes it easier for water to run downhill. ● Plowing (straight row) results in the water picking up soil and causing erosion of the A horizon, removing plant nutrients, making soils less productive ● Therefore, contour plowing has been encouraged over the years by USDA (for example). ● Straight row plowing = overland flow ● Contour plowing = infiltration (less destruction of soils) What is the drainage basin (watershed) of a stream A drainage basin, or watershed, consist of a branched network of stream channels and adjacent slopes that feed the channels. What are the parts of a generalized hydrograph ● Surface to air ● Air to surface ● Movement beneath the surface How might the look of a shortterm hydrograph change if the environmental conditions change, say for instance change in land cover due to urbanization and agriculture 1. Impacts of Urbanization •Rural versus Urban •As the population increases and the land gets built up, especially with people moving closer to the stream, we increase the chances of flooding. •Urbanization changes the shape of the hydrograph 2. Impacts of Agriculture •Agriculture changes the watershed characteristics •Contour plowing brings it back close to the pre settlement pattern. How does the annual hydrograph reflect both drainage basin characteristics and climate The annual hydrograph reflects climate by showing the times of year that have the highest and lowest amounts of rainfall; it also represent the characteristics of a drainage basin by showing whether the flow is overland or infiltration. What is the recurrence interval of a flood: The probability of a givensize flood occurring in a year; also called the return period. What is meant by terms such as twenty year flood, and fifty year flood: Twenty and Fifty year recurrence intervals How/where does a river transport dissolved, suspended and bedload sediment ● Dissolved Load: the minerals, largely salts that are dissolved in water and carried invisibly in solution. These are difficult to and hardly studied, little impact on shaping landforms ● Suspended Load: the very fine particles of clay and silt that are in suspension and move along with the flow of water without ever touching the streambed, most material is transported in the suspended load ● Bed Load: sand, gravel, and larger rock fragments moving in a stream by saltation and traction ○ Saltation: process in which small particles are moved along by streamflow or wind in a series of jumps or bounces ○ Traction: process in which coarse particles are rolled or slid along the streambed ■ The energy and turbulences of the flowing water can carry and roll these particulates down stream What are aggradation, degradation, and equilibrium, and what is their relationship to workload and energy. ● Aggradation= the process in which a stream bed is raised as a result of the deposition of sediment ● Degradation= process in which streams erode the landscape as they transport sediment, and remove materials below it, the stream bed will get lower and lower, basically cutting a wedge into the stream bed; it is through this process that the vast majority of valleys are created ● Equilibrium = when the stream has just enough energy to transport the sediment supplied to it without eroding the stream bed or depositing sediments; the landscape surrounding the stream doesn’t change much ● Workload and Energy = ○ If the workload remains the same and you add sediment, the stream will not be able to carry the sediments and as such you will have deposition ○ If the slope is steeper than the a stream needs to climb, the velocity of water will increase, giving the stream more energy ○ If the workload of a stream is increased, the stream responds by increasing its energy, to get back to equilibrium ○ In the period of the stream trying to get back it's everything, the landscape was changed ○ If we reduce the sediment supply to a stream, the stream would have extra energy ○ It will use this extra energy to pick up materials from below it, degrading the valley floor or stream bed What might cause a stream to aggrade or degrade Degradation: As streams transport sediment, and removes materials blow it, the stream bed will get lower and lower, basically cutting a wedge into the stream bed Aggradation: When it adds materials to the stream structure. What is an alluvial fan: A fanshaped depositional feature of alluvium laid down by a stream issuing from a mountain canyon. What are physical and chemical weathering ● Physical/Mechanical Weathering: the physical disintegration of rock material without any change in chemical composition; Freeze:thaw action of water is probably most important single agent of mechanical weathering; Physical characteristics of rocks are important determinants in rate and magnitude of mechanical weathering (along with temperature and moisture variations) ○ Freeze, Frost wedging/frost shattering, salt wedging, temperature changes (thermal action), exfoliating or unloading ● Chemical Weathering: the decomposition of rocks by the alteration of rockforming minerals. Almost all minerals are susceptible to chemical change (when exposed to atmospheric and biotic agents), but some, such as quartz, are more resistant than others, moisture is required for almost all chemical weathering. Principal reacting agents are oxygen, water and carbon dioxide. ○ Most significant processes are ○ Oxidation: chemical union of oxygen atoms with atoms from various metallic elements to form new products, which are usually more voluminous, softer and more easily eroded the the original compounds ○ Hydrolysis: a chemical union of water with another substance to produce a new compound that is nearly always softer and weaker than the original; increases volume of mineral, and this increase contributes to mechanical disintegration ○ Carbonation: (Acid Action) a process in which carbon dioxide in water reacts with carbonate rocks to produce a very soluble product (calcium bicarbonate), which can readily be removed by runoff or percolation, and which can also be deposited in crystalline form if the water is evaporated What is frost shattering fragmentation of rock due to expansion of water that freezes in rock openings. – Produces large boulders when occurs in large opening, while in small openings can granulate the rock into sand and dust. – Produces gravel or coarse sand in a process called granular disintegration. ● Physical characteristics of rocks are important determinants in rate and magnitude of mechanical weathering (along with temperature and moisture variations). What are weathering, mass wasting and erosion ● Weathering: the physical and chemical disintegration of rock that is exposed to the atmosphere ● Mass Wasting: the shortdistance downslope movement of weathered rock under the direct influence of gravity; also called mass movement ● Erosion: Detachment, removal and transportation of fragmented rock material What is a glacier ● A river or sheet of ice that slowly flows across the land surface and lasts all year long What determines whether a glacier advances or retreats, and what are its zones of accumulation and ablation: flow of ice either laterally downward or downhill. The ice in a glacier always moves forward, but the outer margin of the glacier may or may not be advancing What are the various forms of glacial erosion (plucking, abrasion), and how do they work ● Glacial plucking: action in which rock fragments beneath the ice are loosened and grasped by the freezing of a meltwater in joints and fractures, and then pried out and dragged along in the general flow of a glacier (glacier quarrying) ● Glacial abrasion: the process by which clasts embedded in the base of a glacier grind away at the substrate as the glacier flows ● Subglacial meltwater: meltwater streams flowing below the glacier transport rock and erode smooth grooves and channels into the bedrock ● Ablation: wastage of glacial ice through melting and sublimation What are the following glacial landforms (how and where they are created) and what do they look like: ● Drumlin: a low elongated hill formed by icesheet deposition and erosion. The long axis is aligned parallel with the direction of ice movements, with the blunt, steeper end facing the direction from which the ice came ● Kettle: an irregular depression in a morainal surface created when blocks of stagnant ice eventually melt ● Cirque: a broad amphitheater hollowed out at the head of a glacial valley by glacial erosion and frost wedging ● Arête: a narrow, jagged, serrated spine of rock; remainder of a ridge crest after several glacial cirques have been cut back into an interfluve from opposite sides of a divide What are various types of glaciers ● Mountain glaciers: ○ Highland icefields: largely unconfined ice sheet in high mountain area ○ Valley glaciers: a long narrow feature resembling a river of ice, which spills out of its originating basins and flows downvalley ○ Alpine glaciers: Individual glacier that develops near a mountain crest line and normally moves downvalley for some distance ○ Cirque glacier: a small glacier confined to its cirque and not moving downvalley Continental Ice Sheet: large ice sheet covering a portion of a continental area Remember the map locations from the syllabus that you need to know. The exam format will be the same as the last one: 1. 5 short answer questions 2. 5 matching questions 3. 5 location questions 4. 20 multiple choice questions 5. 1 essay (maybe I’ll give you two or three options to choose 1) Essays, you will be given two to choose one. a. You and a group of friends decided to take a road trip from the equator to around 30 degrees latitude, describe the vegetation, climate and soil types you are likely to encounter on your trip. Be sure to indicate the changes as you cross the various latitudes. b. Provide a clear, concise and comprehensive review of group projects presented in this class (on April 19 and 21). For at least three projects, describe what aspects were particularly impactful on your life and thinking of the global environment. Be sure to clarify your discussion with diagrams and examples where appropriate. c. What is denudation? Using terms such as physical weathering, chemical weathering, mass wasting, fluvial processes and glacial process, describe the three steps involved in denudation. Have a look at the questions listed here and if you have questions we can talk about them tomorrow.
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