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Exam 2 study guide

by: Annie Notetaker

Exam 2 study guide PSYCH 1101

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All materials on exam 2
Introduction to Psychology
Pizarro, D
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annie Notetaker on Thursday July 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Cornell University taught by Pizarro, D in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 07/07/16
Psychology Prelim 2 10/2/15 The Problem Of Perception - The color changing card trick o Everything in the video changed not just the cards - How do we acquire knowledge about the world? - Sensation o We acquire basic sensory information (we detected “distal” objects in the world) through the senses  Taste  Touch  Smell  Hearing  Vision o Brain transduces incoming information (e.g., light waves, sound waves, particles) - Are my sensations the same as yours? o Do we see the same colors or taste the same taste - Perception o Putting sensory information together to represent the external world is what we mean by perception  Identification (what am I seeing?)  Categorization (what kind of thing is it?) o How does basic sensory information turn into mental representations - Difficult problem o The mind uses a number of tricks in order to make sense of all of the incoming sensory information o Visual perception  Our mind makes certain assumptions about the environment to help us see accurately despite having limited data to work with  Color  Object  Depth - A simple assumption o Shadows make surfaces darker  When we see a surface in a shadow, we automatically assume it is lighter than it looks o So we see it as lighters - Objects (how to view) o Proximity o Similarity o Closure o Good continuation o Common movement o Good form - Depth Perception o One of our more important perceptual abilities involves seeing in 3D o Depth perception is difficult because we only have access to 2D images o How to we see a 3D world only using 2D retinal images? o Muller-Lyer illusion o Ponzo illusion 10/5/15 Can we Trust Perception? - Natural selection put pressure on the brains of developing mammals to develop a reliable visual system - Shepard’s Table Illusion  two tables that look like they’re not the same shape actually are - Sensation and perception give us an internal representation of the world - How accurate and objective is it? - Perception is not perfect o We are susceptible to a variety of visual illusions o What we can see can vary depending on other visual cues present  Visual context: shadows, surrounding lines, etc. - What kinds of information can actually make perception distorted o We know that we are susceptible to illusions and that what we see can vary depending on other visual cues present o Also shaped by broader context: expectation abut what you’re perceiving  Interpretation of ambiguous figures - The “Mcgurk Effect”: an auditory illusion o A man is saying “bah” but when you change the picture to him looking like he’s saying “fah” but he is actually saying “bah” the whole time - Are there “top down” effects on perception? o “Low level” cognition: sensation, perception (basic identification and categorization) o “Higher level” cognition: beliefs, thoughts, desires, motivations o Most processing of information is obviously of the “bottom up” variety  Sensations  perceptions  judgments/ beliefs/ emotions o Can our beliefs, thoughts, desires, emotional states actually change the way that we perceive the world? - Possibility 1: Basic perception is “protected” against influence o Basic perception (esp. visual) is “modular”  “Cognitively impenetrable” or “informationally encapsulated” o Sensory information is process by low level computations that give rise to perception o This output feeds into our higher level cognitive systems o This actually why many visual illusions continue to work despite our knowledge that they are giving us incorrect information - Possibility 2: No! Even basic perception is “infused” with our desires, beliefs, thoughts o There is no such thing as “pure” perception o People actually perceive the exact stimulus in a completely different manner, depending on their values, motivations, beliefs, cultural backgrounds, etc. o These don’t just shape our interpretation of what we see, but what we actually see - What is at stake? Universality and reliability o “I hate relativism. I have relativism more than I hate anything else, except, maybe, fiberglass powerboats… surely, no one but a relativist would drive a fiberglass powerboat.” – Jerry Fodor - What is the answer? Which possibility is the right one? - Language and the perception of color o The Sapir-Worf hypothesis (linguistic relativity) is that the language we speak constrains our perception and cognition o Specific prediction  Our basic perception of color depends on the categories we have for carving up the visible spectrum  E.G., not all languages have a blue/ green linguistic distinction - What do we know? o Linguistic color categories shape a great deal of “color cognition”  Memory, learning, and discrimination o But there appear to be clear basic universals in perception  Infants and individuals from cultures with only terms for “light” and “dark” are able to tell the difference between “focal” colors (i.e., basic red, green, blue, yellow. Etc.) Dichotic listening task: -attention is important in getting things into memory -primary job = provide you w/ relevant info so you can connect -memories that enable you to do the right thing the attention in the real world -miss changes when focusing attention other places -people completely ignore things that are relevant to their survivals -miss stimuli coming into senses b/c never makes it to central attention sensory memory  short term memory -info that we attend to in sensory memory passes into short-term memory -long term memory seems to have no limit, but short-term memory has a limited storage capacity the magic number (7 +/- 2) -short term memory is constrained -chunks of info -dramamine -dra ma mine -drama mine stages of memory sensory memory -short-term memory (like ram) -long-term memory (kind of permanent storage) -episodic -semantic -procedural memory (motor movements how to do things) -chunking keeps in short term memory how to get into long term -rehearsal -serial position effect -better memory for the first things on list, more likely to rehearse those -recency – better memory for first terms on list -mnemonic strategies -rhymes -acronyms -method of loci (associated items w/ physical locations ) -depth of processing -deep (semantic) processing leads to better memory than shallow processing context depended memory -scuba divers learned list of words -underwater -on land -given memory tests -underwater -on land -memorize better in place in which they learned it -location, smell…triggers state dependent memory -whatever state you happen to be in, you will have better memory for words that have good associated with them if your in a good mood and Vice versa Deese-Roediger-Mcdermot paradigm -which of these words were on list? Doze sound sleep truck -easy to get people to misremember things that they never saw -shows you in the real world, that kind of error would be ok how does memory work -encode store retrieve info -rough stages: sensory short term working, long term -mechanism that moves info from sensory to long term: attention, rehearsal, semantic processing etc. -all aid process of trying not to forget something -“remembering thing that never happened” -thorough strategies can have fully formed memories that are false Loftus and Palmer (1974) -showed participants a video of a car accident and asked people how fast the cars were going when they hit each other or how fast were they going when they smashed into each other -when asked smashed question they said the cars were going faster -more likely to saw they saw broken glass when there was none -when you feed people misinformation you can contaminate/change their memory -get misinfo if questioned in a leading way leading questions with the verb: smashed = 40.8 mph collided =39.3 mph bumped = 38.1 mph hit = 34.0 mph contacted = 31.8 mph misremembering the severity of a crime -participants read about a man named frank who ate a meal at an expensive restaurant. The details included total price of the meal, as well as the price of some individual items -all participants were told that he walked out on his bill without paying -one group (BAD FRANK) told that this is because he was a jerk and liked to get away with it -another group (GOOD FRANK) told he received a phone call in the middle of dinner that his daughter had been in an accident -did recall one week later to see if they remembered prices -‘bad frank’ group = remembered more actual numbers implanting false childhood memories -memory is dynamic, fill holes of things w/ things that didn’t happening sidebar about attention: weapon focus -sometimes you just never shift your attention towards the right thing -takes a lot of training for people to take attention away from things such as gun and move it towards there face aren’t there special indelible memories “an impression may be so exciting emotionally as to leave a scar upon cerebral tissue” flash-bulb memories -asked individuals to report highly emotional events -people reported having vivid detailed memories of surprising and important events -they typically remember: -where they were -what was going on at the time -who told them the news -how other felt -how they felt problem: -the flashbulb memory study assumed that these memories were ACCURATE -but the original brown and kulik study did not have a way to access accuracy space shuttle challenger (1986 ) – memory method: -106 students recall shuttle disaster the morning after it occurred and again 2 ½ years later results: -high confidence for memories -but low accuracy -self-reported emotions did NOT correlate with accuracy false confessions -about 25% of exonerated criminals actually confessed to their crimes -saul kassin: false confession studies -accuse subjects of pressing a computer key they were instructed to avoid or accuse them of cheating on task 10/21/15 Why are things Funny and why do We Laugh? - The world’s funniest jokes o Dr. Richard Wiseman from the University of Herfordshire, got people to submit jokes on the web o Hunters in the woods – one collapses – call someone to help and say “make sure he’s dead” – hunter shoots his friend and says “okay now what” - The psychology of real people o The things we study most are not necessarily the most prevalent/ important/ frequent things o E.g., social psychologists spend a lot fo time and journals pace covering things like prejudice/ stereotyping, cognitive dissonance, and helping behavior o But what are the things that we do every day? Across culture, time, location? - Forgotten topics? o Sex, religion, superstition, sports, laughter and humor - We love us some funny o Borat grossed $68 million in the first 10 days o We watch very, very stupid shows and pay to see bad standup comedians, all in a hope to make us laugh - So then why… o Hardly any mention of humor in your textbook o Perhaps it’s so prevalent that it is easily ignored? o Likely because human laughter/ humor also poses a real mystery - What is funny? o One strategy: find out what makes us laugh - The ubiquity of laughter o Good estimate: we laugh about 17 times a day o Its pleasurable – we have industries explicitly built around making us laugh o Laughing makes us feel good - What is laughter? o A human universal  Starts at about 3.5/4 months of age o Rhythmic, vocalized, expiratory and involuntary actions o Automatic physiological reaction to amusing stimuli (or tickling, or nitrous oxide) o A series of staccato segments about 1/15 of a second each, separated by about 1/5 of a second o Vowel-like utterances (haha, hoho) - What is laughter?: physiology o 15 facial muscles contract and stimulation of zygomatic major muscle (the main lifting mechanism of your upper lip) occurs o in the respiratory system: the epiglottis half closes the larynx, so that air intake occurs irregularly, making you gasp - Laughing at a joke: EEG analysis o The left side of the cortex analyzed the words and structure of the joke o The frontal lobe then becomes very active o The right hemisphere of the cortex showed activity, presumably the intellectual analysis required to “get” the joke - The Brain’s “Funny Bone” o Electrical stimulation was applied to 85 sites on the brain of a 16 year old girl who had serious seizures o A small area meaning about 2 cm 2cm was identified on the left superior frontal gyrus where stimulation consistently produced laughter o Laughter was accompanied by a sensation of merriment or mirth o Patient confabulated – gave reasons why she was laughing - Laughter is rewarding o Laughter also appears to be regulated by the same reward circuit that makes us feel good when we perform activities o Endorphins are released during laugher, just like after sex and eating - The best medicine? o Laugher has many physiological features that make it healthy for us  Reduces the presence of stress hormones  Decreases muscle tension  Increases the presence of positive immune markers  In diabetics, less increase in blood sugar after a meal  Laughter is incongruent with many chronic negative emotional states (anger and depression) that are bad for health - Why do we laugh? o Laughter is social and communicative o We rarely laugh alone o People are 30 times more likely ot laugh in social setting o May help social bonding o Contagious o Provine suggest that humans have a “detector” that responds to laughers by triggering other neural circuits in the brain, which, in turn, generates more laughter - So what makes us laugh? o 1. Incongruity theories  We laugh when there is incongruity between what we expect and what actually happens, unless the outcome is frightening  Punch line forces you to reconsider/reframe something  Police were called to a daycare, where a 4 year old was resisting a rest o But:  Doesn’t explain why incongruity causes laughter  Most incongruity doesn’t cause laughter  God F when you thought you’d get an A? Ha!  A lot of laughter isn’t caused by incongruity at all o 2. Superiority  Our mirth is explained by the sudden realization that we are better than the butt of the joke  Often used is ridicule  If the Queen of England passes gas, it’s a lot funnier than if the homeless guy down the street does the same thing o 3. Benign violation theory  Thomas Veatch  A violation (often moral)  But one thing is not threatening Provine’s Naturalistic Studies -Provine and RAS went to local malls and city sidewalks and recorded what happened just before people laughed -over 10 year period they studied over 2,000 cases of naturally occurring laughter -women laughed more than men -unless men are listening to woman -talker laughs 50% more than listener -most laughter doesn’t follow jokes, or any real attempt at humor Typical pre-laugh comments (=90%) -ill see you guys later -look, it’s Andre! -are you sure? -I know! -how are you? “Humorous” Pre-laugh comments (=10%) -poor boy looks just like his father -you smell like you’ve had a good workout -did you find that in your nose? -he has a job holding back skin in the operating room why are things funny? -benign situations aren’t funny tickling yourself -just violation = not funny  stranger tickling you 4. tension-release -philosopher john morreall: -human laughter may have its biological origins as a kind of shared expression of relief at the passing of danger -we laugh when something builds up tension then relieves it theories of humor 1) incongruity 2) superiority 3) benign violation 4) tension release 5) play/mock aggression theories -but while these theories capture a description of humor, they are not good explanations scientific explanation “satisfying explanation invokes principles that are fewer in number, more general, earlier in the causal chain, and closer to irreducible physical and mathematical laws than ones that immediately fit the data in question” -good answer to why comes from more basic understanding of what is going on evolutionary roots of laughter? “man is the only animal who laughs” Panksepp’s Rats -rats chirp while they play, again in a way that resembles our giggles -when rats are playfully tickled, they chirp and bond socially with their human tickler -rats seem to like it, seeking to be tickled more -chirpy rats also prefer to hangout with other chirpers more likely to find an answer in other primates -humans seem to share laughter w/ other non-human primates -when chimps play and chase each other they produce a sound similar to human laughter -laughter-like sounds in monkeys when they attack a common enemy -laughter-like sounds in chimpanzees when they tickle each other -chimps laugh w/ play and w/ aggression -prepare for tasks they’ll have to encounter -something deeply connects laughter w/ play or aggression -ex: bullying , in executions people engaged in laughter (nervous or enjoy?) -laughter is appeasement response when someone is tickling you -vulnerable bits of body for ticklishness are also most vulnerable bit for injury -parts of brain that fire during laughter are parts that fire when your anticipating pain -laughter = submission to ‘attacker’ combining play + debugging -offers explanation -covers much of the descriptive work -incongruity -superiority/ridicule concluding though -what would count as good evidence -could you design experiment to test this idea -is there a novel prediction that emerges from these theories that can show us where to look for support? We are Moral Creatures -we not only care about our own beliefs and actions – we care about what strangers believe and how they act -we treat these moral views as serious and as right/objective -think about: disagreement about best flavor of ice cream V. disagreement about rape How desirable is diversity (in descending order; university, seminar, roommate) -socio-economic status -ethnicity -religion -taste in music -recreational interest ***things that are harder to have diverse opinions on -diversity on abortion/gun control/environment/affirmative action/physical attractiveness/alcohol use/marijuana use/sexual promiscuity… big question: where does this sense of right and wrong come from? -What people believe and why they believe it what can science tell us about morality? -it cannot tell us WHAT to believe -naturalistic fallacy: is does not = ought -example: evolution and rape -it can shed light on WHY we believe what we do -what are the causes of morality Rough Outline 1) evolutionary roots of morality 2) developmental origins of morality 3) the role of reason and emotion in moral judgment selfish genes lead to altruistic animals -the extent that evolution operates at the level of the genes, there is no hard and fast distinction b/w oneself and another -kin selection -reciprocal altruism -gene that didn’t look after its own interest would not survive -altruistic gene can spread throughout population so long as other organisms have the same gene haldane’s math -“would you lay down your life for your brother” -“no but I would for 3 brothers” choose: you die or your three brother die gene A: makes animal choose to die gene B: makes an animal choose for its brother to die -gene A wins overview: -morality = fundamental part of psych -norms, rules, feelings that are concerned w/ how we should treat others -but why are we concerned at all -levels of analysis -evolutionary mechanisms -kin selection -reciprocal altruisim -tit for tat, why cooperative strategies get off the ground, overtime being selfish is not a good strategy, sometimes its ok -development -emotion V. reasons =it benefits animals to cooperate -warning cries, grooming, food exchange -prisoners dillemmas -strategy in which both people remain silent and get fairly small jail tail -trick other person into thinking you’ll be silent, talk and get 0 years other gets 20 -desire to cooperate = engrained in us social emotions and the prisoners dilemma -we feel gratitude and liking for people who cooperate with us. This motivates us to be nice to them I the future -we feel anger and distrust toward those who betray us. This motivates us to betray or avoid them in the future -we feel guild when we betray someone who cooperates with us. This motivates us to behave better in the future. Moral universals? Infants distinguish b/w good guys and bad guys -upwards of 80% of babies pick helpful over unhelpful character -pick friendly puppet


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