Practice Exam 1
Practice Exam 1 BIO 205LEC
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Hawthorne on Thursday July 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 205LEC at Northern Arizona University taught by Alison Adams in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at Northern Arizona University.
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Date Created: 07/07/16
205 Practice Exam 1. Name: These are all true/false. Write T or F next to each answer. 1. most microbes are pathogens 2. prokaryotes were first present on this planet about 3.5 million years ago 3. Cryptococcus neoformans causes meningitis, particularly in AIDS patiends 4. LPS in Neisseria meningitides causes the sore throat often seen early in an infection. 5. Hemophilus influenzae is a common cause of influenza. 6. Gram-negative cells have a thin cell wall, an outer membrane, and are able to form pili for conjugation, whereas Gram-positive bacteria have a thick cell wall, no outer membrane and are unable to form pili for conjugation. 7. DNA, mRNA, and ribosomes are all found in the cytoplasm of bacteria 8. Porin is a protein found in the inner membrane of bacteria 9. The plasma membrane of bacteria contains phospholipids and various proteins. 10. Flagella are found in Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria 11. fimbriae are used by bacteria for phototaxis and also for chemotaxis 12. the flagella of bacteria are made up of microtubules, which allow the flagella to beat 13. in bacteria, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol, whereas in eukaryotic cells, glycolysis occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria 14. Both mitochondria and bacteria have circular chromosomes. 15. According to the theory of endosymbiosis, the outer membrane of mitochondria originally came from the outer membrane of a Gram- negative bacterium. 16. NADH is produced during glycolysis, and also during the conversion of pyruvate to Acetly CoA and during the Kreb’s cycle 17. FADH i2 produced during glycolysis, but not during pyruvate conversion or the Kreb’s cycle 18. In bacteria, the Kreb’s cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. 19. The electron transport chain that is used during cellular respiration is located in the inner membrane of both the mitochondrion and bacterial cells. 20. During aerobic respiration, electrons are passed down the electron transport chain, and are finally used to split water into oxygen and protons. 21. ATP synthase is found in the outer membrane of both bacteria and mitochondria 22. Using energy lost from electrons moving down the electron transport chain of bacteria, protons are pumped into the cytosol. 23. When NAD+ is converted to NADH, this is ‘reduction’ 24. When an electron is received by a member of the electron transport chain, that member of the ETC is oxidized. 25. Fermentation occurs in the absence of oxygen and is used as a way of generating more NADH. 26. In the absence of oxygen, Fe2+ could be used by a microbe as a terminal electron acceptor, if Fe2+ undergoes oxidation. 27. During fermentation, Acetly CoA is converted to pyruvate, as a way of generating more NAD+. 28. When glucose breaks down to carbon dioxide, it is being ‘reduced’. 29. Oxidation is associated with loss of electrons, loss of energy, and gain of protons. 30. The cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria has the outer membrane on one side and the glycocalyx on the other side. 31. A microbe that is 50 nm in diameter is .02 microns in diameter 32. A bacterial cell that is 2 microns in diameter can be seen by light microscopy. 33. Symptoms of meningitis include headache, fever, stiff neck, rash, and sore throat. 34. Vaccines exist for all forms of meningitis caused by Neisseria menigitidis 35. Cryptococcus is a genus of bacteria 36. Penicillin can be used to treat bacterial and viral meningitis 37. Inclusion bodies are always used to store nutrients in bacteria 38. If a bacterial cell needs to make an amino acid, it would be expected to switch on the genes required for synthesis of that amino acid when the amino acid is absent. 39. In the lactose operon, the operator codes for repressor protein 40. In the lactose operon, the repressor protein is expressed constitutively 41. In the lactose operon, the lacZ gene codes for beta-galactosidase, which breaks down galactose into glucose and lactose 42. In the presence of lactose, the repressor is unable to bind to the operator 43. In the absence of lactose, RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, leading to expression of the lacZ, Y and A genes 44. A repressor protein that cannot bind to lactose (due to a mutation in the lac i gene) would be unable to bind the operator in the presence of lactose. 45. A large deletion of the operator in the lactose operon would be expected to make it difficult for RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter. 46. In the trp operon, repressor binds to the operator when tryptophan is absent 47. the repressor of the trp operon is synthesized constitutively 48. in both the trp and lactose operons, RNA polymerase can bind to the promoter when the repressor is not bound to the operator 49. in the trp operon, a repressor mutation that makes it impossible for the repressor to bind to the operator would result in the structural genes being switched on in the presence of trp. 50. transformation can only occur if a plasmid is present 51. transformation can occur when DNA of one species is taken up by cells of another species 52. conjugation can occur when DNA from dead cells is present in the medium surrounding a bacterial cell 53. In gram-negative bacteria, conjugation occurs when single- stranded DNA moves from a donor cell to a recipient cell through a pilus 54. More genes can be transferred by Hfr than by F’ transfer. 55. The difference between F and F’ plasmids is that F’ plasmids contain some chromosomal DNA whereas F plasmids do not. 56. A cell that receives DNA from an Hfr strain will itself become an Hfr donor 57. A cell that receives DNA from an F’ strain will itself become an F’ donor strain. 58. An operon is a group of genes and regulatory sequences, whereas an operator is a segment of DNA, within an operon, to which repressor binds. 59. Transduction involves all of the following: horizontal transfer of DNA, a virus, and the use of a pilus 60. In the Ames test, a chemical that causes a lot of mutations in bacteria is likely to cause a lot of cancer in humans.
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