History 1312 Exam 1 Study Guide
History 1312 Exam 1 Study Guide History 1312
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samer Hijjazi on Sunday July 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Jonathan M Steplyk in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see in US History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 07/10/16
Reconstruction - The post war civil era - Rebuilding the reunion - The way it worked: those 11 southern states were on probation. The reconstruction is trying to bring those states back in the union. - In 1860, just before the civil war, there were more than 4 million slaves - Abraham Lincoln saw through the civil war, died in 1865 - President: Andrew Johnson (democrat, southerner, from Tennessee) - He was a us senator just before the civil war - Only southerner senator to not leave his seat for confederacy (he did not support confederacy) - He was a loyal southerner, and a hardworking person - Why the reconstruction was complicated with Johnson as president - 1. Resents southern planter class, the ones who own many slaves (he holds them responsible for the civil war) - 2. Johnson didn’t care much about the fate of black people (one of the most racist presidents of the United States) - Conflict between Johnson and congress - He keeps vetoing congressional bills, which is why the congress hates him - An example is The Freedmen’s Bureau: organization set up after the civil war, and was designed for newly freed African Americans - It tried to get land for African Americans - Share cropper system started (white owns the land but needs labor. So they freed African Americans work on the land) - Johnson vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau - Johnson’s Impeachment (1868) - Senate votes on whether the president is innocent or guilty - First president to be impeached - Senate found him NOT guilty - The Ku Klux Klan: policing and terrorizing African Americans, prevent them from exercising their rights, they were against anyone who decided to help the African Americans - The group went down under the presidency of Euless Grant - Grant fought the clan (he won) - Ku Klux Act: Able to send troops to the south to attack the Ku Klux Klan - The Reconstruction Amendments (three) - 13 14 and 15 Amendment - 13 Amendment: abolishing slavery in the United States th - 14 Amendment: To recognize the rights of African Americans (newly freed slaves) - The African Americans are also citizens, and they have rights as well - 15 Amendment: To recognize the right for African Americans to vote - Women couldn’t vote - Reconstruction came to an end at the election of 1876 - Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) vs Samuel J. Tilden (Democratic) - Hayes wins most of the North and west states - Tilden wins most of the South states - Hayes became president, ended reconstruction - States were back to normal. The Jim Crow Era - Post reconstruction - About race - It refers to a systemized form of oppression against African Americans and prevent them from practicing their rights as citizens - It also refers to the specific laws (Jim Crow Laws) put in place (segregated restrooms, buses, railroads, housing, libraries, restaurants, etc.) - Blacks and trouble with bearing arms - Example: Tennessee’s “Army and Navy” law (1879) - This law stated that there was only a specific revolver men of color could use - Men of color could not own other smaller/less expensive guns - Jim Crow Era refers to social etiquette (black male can’t offer his hand to shake with a white male, blacks and whites couldn’t eat together, no public affection between blacks and whites) - Race riots - White people sparked the incident by attacking black people - The majority of the riots happened during the hot summer - Rumor played an important role in causing many of the riots - A case that came out of this era: Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) “separate but equal” - Separate but equal facilities were okay - Homer Plessy (one-eighth black) - This case deals with cars and railroads - Plessy wanted to test the law - Moves up to supreme court - Justices decided that separate but equal facilities are constitutional - Justice Henry B. Brow (majority opinion) – for segregation - Justice John M. Harlan (dissenting opinion) – against segregation - Overcoming Jim Crow - Booker T. Washington (established Tuskegee Institute) - Wants to prove that blacks can also enjoy the privileges that white citizens already have - His opponent is W.E.B. Du Bois - Both came from very different backgrounds - Washington born as a slave in the South - Du Bois born rich in the north - Washington preaches Thrift, Patience, and Industrial training. History of the American West - U.S. Indian Policy and the Plains Indian Wars - Battle of little Bighorn (June 25, 1876) - “Custer’s Last Stand” - Aside from the Indian Wars - Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 - Integrate Indians as individuals - Own land individually - The Homestead Act (1862) th th - Shaped Western History in the late 19 century and early 20 century - Was designed to make it much easier and cheaper to get land - The way it worked: adults could file for 160 acres - Live on the land for five years and improving it (building on it) - At the end of the 5 years, you become the owner - The First Transcontinental Railroad - Railroads were a big deal in the 19 centuryh - Important part of the transportation revolution - Two railroads - Interested in speed over quality - Best materials and methods weren’t being used by both companies - The Last Spike “Gilded Age” Political Issues - The two big issues that America argued over - 1. Civil Service Reform - 2. Monetary policy (Gold standard vs. gold and silver (bimetallism) - Value of money tied to value of gold - Some tried to create inflation - Rutherford B. Hayes - He didn’t want to monetize silver - Bland-Allison Act - Rival Republican Factions - 1 group: Stalwarts: opposed civil service reform, favored old “spoils system” - 2nd group: Half-Breeds: Favored merit-based civil service reform - 1880 Republican Presidential ticket (James A. Garfield and Chester Arthur) - Assassination of Garfield - He was fatally injured by Charles J. Guiteau - Shoots Garfield in the back - Guiteau wants Arthur to be president - He said “I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts! I did it and I want to be arrested! Arthur is president now!” - Chester A. Arthur became president - 1883: signed Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act - Election of 1884: Grover Cleveland (Democratic) vs James G. Blaine (Republican) - Cleveland won the presidency - Mrs. Cleveland “Take care of the place. We’ll be back.” - Benjamin Harrison (1890) - Sherman Antitrust Act (designed to break up monopolies) - Mckinley Tariff - “Billion Dollar Congress” first time the congress spent a billion dollars in a year - Election of 1892: Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, and James B. Weaver - Cleveland won (He was both the 22 ndand 24 president) The Populists (The People’s Party) - Populism emphasizes the people at large/majority - Populism tends to be economically liberal but socially conservative - The populists are economic liberals (want more govt. laws, want a stronger govt., want to pass laws to protect industries and people) - Populist platform: - 1. Bimetallism (want inflation, want the value of the dollar to go down) - 2. Income tax - 3. Election reform - 4. Government control of railroads, telegraphs, and telephones - Pro-gold cartoons (drawn by people who believe that the Populists aren’t right) - William Jennings Bryan (democrat) - He gave a famous speech at the 1896 Democratic National Convention (Cross of Gold) - Attacking the republicans because they support the gold standard - He believes that gold standard hurts the little guy (the working man) - He ran as a democratic candidate in the 1896 and 1900 elections - Bryan is associated with populists - The populists like him very much - William Jennings Bryan vs. William McKinley (for gold standard, got elected twice) - Not every farmer is a populist - Election of 1900 - McKinley Teddy Roosevelt - Mckinley Assassinated (September 14, 1901, Buffalo, NY) - Teddy Roosevelt becomes president The Progressive Era (1890-1920) - Major characteristics of the Era - 1. Reform-minded (all about improving things) - 2. Active government intervention (govt. solutions to problems) - 3. Emphasis on expertise, professionalization, scientific knowledge (best ideas to come up with) - 4. Elitism (best and brightest, leading from the front) - 5. Pragmatism (if it works, go with it. All about if it works or it doesn’t, not entirely focused on ethics) - 6. Historicism - 7. Evolution (Charles Darwin’s theory about evolution of species. Not only biological evolution, but the evolution of society and systems) - 8. The “common good” or “public welfare” trumps individual and property rights - The Progressive Era is a counter reaction to the issues of the Gilded Age - Populism is prelude to Progressivism - The Wisconsin Idea - Robert “Fighting Bob” La Follette - He wants regulation of railroads (he believes they are too powerful) - He’s interested in corporate and property taxes - He’s interested in Municipal ownership of utilities (govt. should own and control those facilities) - He’s interested in Electoral reforms - Primaries - Initiative (enough votes to bring a little bit of legislation) - Referndum (where you put a policy up for vote for the people) - Recall (if you get enough votes, you can get someone kicked out of office) - Social Reform - Looking at things like working conditions - Muckrakers (tend to be socialists) - Most famous Muckraker: Upton Sinclair (wrote a book called ‘The Jungle’ in 1906) - It was about the meat industry, and how disgusting it is - It caused change however - How Progressives interpret the law: Sociological Jurisprudence - Regulating work hours and right of contract - Lochner v. New York (1905) - 3 years later, another case came in - Muller v. Oregon (1908) - Involves women workers - Brandeis Brief: 15 pages of legal precedent. 102 pages of sociological evidence - The Social Gospel (Progressivism in American Religion) - One of the leaders was Walter Rauschenbusch - Settlement House Movement (meant to help immigrants to adapt to the American society) - Jane Addams - The Women’s Club Movement (Women represented a large portion of the Progressive Era, they took a political role) - Causes include: libraries, schools, hospitals, public parks, settlement houses, child labor (they are against it), Temperance, Women’s Suffrage (want women to get the right to vote), Workers’ rights. - “Civic Racialism” African-Americans and the Progressive Era - Washington’s plan: Instead of being political agitators, leave us alone and let us prove to you that we (African Americans) are worth it - DuBois is an activist. He says that we need change, and that all people are equal - Eugenics Movement (Eugenics means: good birth) - What can we do to improve the species - It encourages people to pass on good genes. Doesn’t want people with bad traits to pass them along - Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution - Presidential Progressivism: Theodore Roosevelt - One of the notable elements of his presidency is his intervention in United Mine Workers Strike (1902) - He didn’t take one side over the other - Hepburn Act allowed for regulation of railroads (1906) - He supported the meat inspection Act and Food And Drug Act (1906) - 44 trust busting cases, including the Northern Securities Company and the Standard Oil Company - The Progressive “Bull Moose” Party - In 1912, Roosevelt “threw his in the rain’ - Taft Vs Roosevelt - Roosevelt broke out, became head of the Progressive Party - He got shot, refused immediate treatment to give his speech - “It takes more than a bullet to kill a bull moose” - Platform Planks of the Bull Moose Party: - 1. Popular election of Senators - 2. Ease the constitutional amendment process - 3. Campaign finance reform - 4. Women’s suffrage - 5. National health and safety standards for labor - 6. Prohibit child labor - 7. 8 hour workday for women - Another Progressivism person is: Woodrow Wilson (very elite, he and Roosevelt HATED each other) - During his period, the 16 Amendment was ratified - Federal Reserve Act of 1913 - Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 - What Constitutionalism looks like under Progressivism - The Constitution “must be interpreted not as a straitjacket, not as laying the hand of death upon our development, but as an instrument designed for the life and healthy growth of the Nation” - Wilson was critical of the Founding Fathers. Roosevelt isn’t - Waging Progressive War: - 1. Selective Service Act of 1917 (drafting people) - 2. War Industries Board (WIB) (took a role in managing the economy) - Committee on Public Information (CPI) - 4. Espionage and Sedition Acts (regulating the kind of speech and actions. Example: you cant tell people to not draft) - Progressive Constitutional Amendments: - 16 Amendment: Federal income tax - 17 Amendment: Direct election of United States Senators by popular vote - 18 Amendment: Prohibition, outlawing the sale and manufacturing of alcohol - 19 Amendment: Women’s suffrage - Fast forward to 1920, end of the Progressive Era? - James Cox (Democrat) Vs Warren Harding (Republican) - Harding won, end to Progressive Era America and World War 1 - Assassination of duke in Serbia pulled the trigger - Russians sided with Serbia - Germany had to fight a two-front war - The United States were dragged into World War I - German Submarine Warfare - Sinking of RMS Lusitania (May 7 1915) - 1195 passengers and crew lost and 128 American citizens lost - Outraged the American public - The Zimmerman Telegram - This is what essentially pushed the United States into the first World War - Germany worked against the United States - A declaration of war was received against Germany - America is going to war - American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), under the command of General John J. Pershing - He was a model as a commander - First major time that the Germans faced the Americans: Battles of Chateau- Thierry and Belleau Wood - The first time Americans design their own offensive was the St. Mihiel Offensive - The offensive went off very successfully - A new offensive started called the Meuse-Argonne Offensive - American hero emerged Sgt. Alvin C. York - He was a farmer from the mountains of Tennessee - He had a sharp-shooting skill - October 8 1918: Killed 28 Germans and captured 132. Silenced 32 machine guns. Awarded Medal of Honor - Another key person: Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker - One of the developments of World War I were airplanes - He became the top American ace of WWI - 26 confirmed aerial victories - Also awarded Medal of Honor - Treaty of Versailles - Controversial aspect of WWI - Blames Germany for starting the War - Wilson’s dream was to establish a League of Nations - Where nations get together to solve global conflicts - Divided into two groups - Reservionists (for joing the league) vs irreconciables (against joining the league of nations) - US Senate voted AGAINST joining the League of Nations - USA did not join the League. Left the League powerless. COuldn’t prevent the rise of Hitler - Britain and France were part of it. Acted as the German’s probation officers
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