PSYCH 1101; Ch. 4,5,6,8
PSYCH 1101; Ch. 4,5,6,8 PSYC 1101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kemjika Echebelem on Sunday July 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Sorenson in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 07/10/16
CH 8 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Human Development – the pattern of continuity & change in your abilities that occurs over the course of a lifetime 3 Domains of Development Cognitive Socio- Physical emotional (Piaget) Change in one's Change in one's behavior around Visible change in thoughts, way of others; e.g. one's appearance; thinking; e.g. Relationship issues, Growth; e.g. Puberty Learning of "object because of insecure permanence" attachment in the past Drugs that can cause birth Physical: defects to the fetus are called teratogens; e.g. 1. Prenatal (“Before Birth”): nicotine (fetal alcohol spectrum disorder); STD’s, Fetus (9 weeks rubella Zygote (1 - 2 Embryo (3 - 8 to birth) - Limbs weeks) weeks) & senses are developed 2. Newborn Capacities (Infancy & Childhood): a. Babies have innate reflexes (used for survival) and they exercise sensory skills b. These reflexes and sensory skills help to develop their motor skills and perceptual abilities c. Preferential Looking technique – a technique used to develop those motor & perceptual skills by determining which stimuli the baby prefers; based on the fact that babies prefer to see faces d. Dendritic Spreading (Synapse Formation): Over the course of 24 months, infants’ brains increase in dendrite density, in which neurons become more and more interconnected 3. Adolescence: Early & Later Development (Focused on what’s happening in the nervous system) a. Early: the amygdala (controls fear, anger, & other emotions) is developed early in a child’s life b. Later: the prefrontal cortex (controls decision-making & reasoning) is developed later Cognitive: 1. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development: 4 Stages a. Overall Ideas: Humans use schema (preexisting mental concepts) to make sense of the world i. Assimilation: New info. put in existing schema; schema is unchanged ii. Accommodation: Schema is altered to account for new info. b. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth 2 years) - Characterized by the coordination of sensory and motor skills i. Object permanence (the ability to know that an object still exists even though you can’t see it) is developed in this stage and marks the beginning of the Preoperational Stage – “Out-of-Sight, Out-of-Mind” c. Preoperational Stage (2 – 7 years) - Characterized by symbolic thinking and egocentrism (“everyone is looking at me”); object permanence is learned i. Conservation (the ability to know that amount of something is constant even though appearance is different) is developed in this stage and marks the beginning of the Concrete Operational Stage d. Concrete Operational Stage (7 – 11 years) – Characterized by the transition from the concrete to abstract; conservation is learned i. Ability to think logically about abstract things is developed in this stage and marks the beginning of the last stage ii. Kids in this stage can’t do mental math; it’s not concrete e. Formal Operational Stage (11 years – adulthood) – Characterized by the ability to problem-solve; “Ok. So I need a phone. Let me go to the store and buy a new one,” (Abstract) instead of “asking a stranger for a phone” (Concrete) i. Hypothetical (Abstract) thinking is learned f. Criticisms of this theory: i. Disregards culture’s effect on human development ii. Babies are capable of more than Piaget thought; the ages are mere guidelines, not a standard rule Socioemotional: 1. Temperament: Behavior to responses; for babies, this is observed as crying and looking away 2. Attachment: 2 Types (Secure & Insecure) a. Harlow’s “contact comfort” experiment w/monkeys -monkey spends more time with cloth mother than with non-cloth mother b. Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test i. Secure attachment: caregiver meets all of the baby’s needs; baby gets upset when caregiver leaves and relieved when caregiver returns (occurred in 60% of subjects) ii. Insecure attachment: caregiver doesn’t meet the baby’s needs; baby is “super-super-clingy” or “indifferent” towards mother c. Four Parenting Styles: i. Authoritarian – the parents are strict and have a lot of rules that must be followed ii. Neglectful – the parents are indifferent to the child; they don’t care what child does iii. Permissive – the parents encourage child to exercise their own independence and creativity while enforcing little to no rules iv. Authoritative – the best style! The parents put rules in place, but allow the child to learn how to be independent 3. Subset of socioemotional: Moral Development – Kohlberg’s 3 Levels of Moral Thinking a. Why/When do you stop at a red light? i. Preconventional morality: Based on the punishment/rewards that can occur; “because I don’t want to be punished by being caught by police officer for running a red light and have to be given a ticket or sent to jail” ii. Conventional morality: Based on the desire to follow parental or societal standards; “obviously, because I don’t want to get hit by an incoming car” (Status quo/Common sense) iii. Postconventional morality: Based on your desire to follow a personal moral code; “because you can stop when you’re in Atlanta, but I wouldn’t stop when I’m near an empty cornfield” Introduction to Psychology Study onlinquizlet.com/_2dqk0h 1. All ofthe LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) 17.What are the two metacognition (awareness) and arousal psychoactive drugs partsof are associated with consciousness? dopamine, except 18. What are top 2 Alcohol (1) and Caffeine (2) what? most used 2. Are you completely No psychoactive unaware ofanything drugs? when you're asleep? 19.What controls Reticular Activating System 3. Compare and They are both depressants, but our arousal? Contrast barbiturates barbiturates are much more 20.What do They decrease nervous system activity and tranquilizers. dangerous. depressantsdo to 4. Give 2 examplesof Nembutal and Seconal the body? barbiturates. 21.What doesthe The fact that our thought/consciousness 5. Give 2 examplesof marijuana and LSD term "stream of is constantly changing and is continuous hallucinogens. consciousness" 6. Give an example of2 caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, refer to? stimulants. methamphetamine, ecstasy 22.What isone ofthe pain killer 7. Give two examplesof opiates (narcotics), alcohol, key functionsof opiates? depressants. barbiturates, and tranquilizers 23.What isthe the desire totake more of a drug than 8. How do psychoactive They alter consciousness, modify definition of originally in order toget the same effect; drugsaffect aperson? perceptions, and change moods tolerance and Physical and Psychological 9. In psychology, what anything that comes from outside of what are the 2 isthe definition ofa your body types? drug? 24.What isthe Morphine is natural from the opium 10.Isaddiction and No difference plant while heroin is synthetic from escapism the same between humans thing? morphine and heroin? 11.The lowest level of Freud awarenessis 25.What dopamine associated with what neurotransmitter psychologist? isinvolved with 12.Review ofCh. 1: What functionalism the reward school ofthought did pathway? William Jamesfound? 26.What serotonin 13.What 2 functionsare self-control and decision-making neurotransmitter associated with isLSD involved metacognition with? (awareness)? 27.What'sthe If you're physically dependent on a 14.What are producing hallucinations difference drug, not having it will cause you pain; hallucinogensknown between physical but if you're psychologically dependent, for? and not having it will cause you psychological emotional/mental problems 15.What are the 3 types stimulants, hallucinogens, and dependence? ofpsychoactive depressants drugs? 28.What two nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral structuresin the tegmental area (VTA) 16.What are the 5 levels higher-level consciousness, lower- brain are ofawareness? level consciousness, altered states of associated with consciousness, subconscious the reward awareness, noawareness pathway? 29.When isthe reward pathway activated? When we have sex, when we are horny, and when we are hungry 30.Where isnicotine found? tobaccoplants 31.where isthe nucleusaccumbens(NAc) location in prefrontal cortex 32.where isthe ventral tegmental area(VTA) midbrain located? 33.Which psychoactive drug ismost damaging to alcohol your body? 34. Who coined the term "stream of William James consciousness? 35. Why isalcohol referred to asadisinhibitor? It lowers your inhibitions, allowing you todowhat you usually wouldn't (occurs by affecting frontal lobe)
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