PSYC 100 Chapter 5-9
PSYC 100 Chapter 5-9 100
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Tuesday July 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at Ball State University taught by Truelove in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 07/12/16
Study Guide PSYC 100:02 Examination 2: Chapter 59 Chapter 5: Learning 1. Classic vs. operant conditioning: which is which? o Classical conditioning. Learning by association. o Operant conditioning. Learning by the consequence of a behavior. 2. Difference between conditioned and unconditioned reflex? o Conditioned reflex. Neutral stimulus that now triggers a conditioned response. o Unconditioned reflex. Stimulus that triggers a response without conditioning. 3. Reinforcer application in operant conditioning? o Any event that increases the probability that a response will occur. 4. Review principles learned from “Little Albert” case. o Emotional responses could be conditioned in humans. o Stimulus generalization had occurred. 5. Know Pavlov dogs study. o Pavlonian Conditioning. o Used dogs to study salivation when dogs were presented with meat powder. 6. How does stress impact memory? o Stress can cause chronic changes in certain brain areas which can cause long-term damage. o The hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and the amygdala are affected. 7. What is systematic desensitization? o Exposing phobic people gradually to feared stimuli while they stay calm and relaxed. 8. What is shaping? o Molding responses gradually in a step-by-step fashion to a desired pattern. 9. What factor increases memory 4X? o Talking out loud to yourself during study sessions will increase comprehension. 10.Know the various schedules of reinforcement: which ones do what better? o Continuous reinforcement. A reinforce follows every correct response. Success will eventually decrease. o Partial reinforcement. Reinforce doesn’t follow every response. Resistant to extinction. Fixed ratio. o A set number of correct responses must be made to obtain a reinforcer. Variable ratio. o A varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. Fixed interval. o The first correct response made after a certain amount of time has elapsed is reinforced. Variable interval. o Reinforcement is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time. 11.What is an antecedent? o Event that precedes a response. 12.What is a consequence? o Effect that follows a response. 13.What is “reparative therapy” (from lecture only)? o Changing a person’s homosexuality and based on the view that homosexuality is a mental disorder. 14.What is an emotional conditional response (ECR)? o Seen in classical conditioning after a conditioned stimulus has been paired with an emotion-producing unconditioned stimulus. 15.How do you treat phobias? o Systematic desensitization. o Exposing phobic people gradually to feared stimuli while they stay calm and relaxed. o Construct a fear hierarchy. 16.How does extinction work in operant conditioning? o Weakening of a conditioned response through removal of a reinforcement. 17.What are types of learning: o Rote. Book learning. Takes place through repetition and memorization. By learning from a set of rules. o Observational. Modeling. By watching or imitating actions of another person. By noting consequences. o Latent. Occurs without obvious reinforcement and is not demonstrated until reinforcement is proved. Hidden learning. o Discovery. Hands-on learning based on intuition and trial & error. 18.Difference between: o Positive Reinforcement. Adding something that makes the previous behavior more likely to be repeated in the future. An allowance. o Negative Reinforcement. Taking something away that makes the previous behavior more likely to be repeated in the future. A speeding ticket. 19.Difference between: o Positive Punishment. Adding something that makes it less likely that the previous behavior will be repeated in the future. A spanking. o Negative Punishment. Take something away that makes it less likely that the previous behavior will be repeated in the future. Grounding your child; not giving them enough attention. 20.Negative outcomes of punishment? o Aversive stimulus. Stimulus that is painful or uncomfortable. 21.What is discrimination and generalization? o Discrimination. The ability to respond differently to various stimuli. o Generalization. When a conditioned response occurs to a stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus. 22.What is aversive therapy? o Patient of psychological treatment is exposed to a stimulus while simultaneously being subjected to some form of discomfort. o Intended to cause the patient to associate the stimulus with unpleasant sensation in order to stop the specific behavior. 23.What is vicarious learning? o Learning of behavior from watching videos of the behavior, it is used to refer to an instructional ethos that occurs when learners see and/or hear a learning situation. 24.What are the two factors that must happen for conditioning to work? o Effective use of reinforcement and punishment is vital to helping children learn what is and what is not appropriate behavior. Chapter 6: Memory 1. Definitions of types of memory: o Sensory. Type of memory that is very brief but lasts long enough to connect one impression to the next. o Short term. A stage of memory in which information normally lasts less than 20 seconds. A component of working memory. o Long term. The stage of memory that researchers believe that has an unlimited capacity to store new information. o Working. Memory that allows us to mentally work with, or manipulate, information being held in short- term memory. 2. What type of memory does what when trying to study more effectively? o Elaborative rehearsal. 3. What are memory improvement strategies? o Levels-of-processing model of memory. Memory depends on the degree or depth to which we mentally process information. Maintenance rehearsal. Elaborative rehearsal. o Transfer-appropriate processing. Memory depends on how the encoding process matches up with what is later retrieved. o Parallel distributed processing. New experiences are seen as changing one’s overall knowledge base. o Information-processing model. Information must pass through sensory memory, short-term memory, and log-term memory in order to become firmly embedded in memory. 4. Iconic vs Echoic memory? o Iconic Memory. A fleeting mental image or visual representation. o Echoic Memory. A sound is heard, a brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system. 5. What is flashbulb memory: how does it work in the long run? o Memories created during times of personal tragedy, accident, or other emotionally significant event. o Include both positive and negative events. o Typically not accurate. 6. What is the most prevalent myth regarding memory? What does it mean? o The computer analogy. o The mind is like a camcorder. 7. The misinformation effect. o Impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. 8. What is congruent mean? o When there are a good fit between all three components. Real self. Perceived self. Ideal self. o Healthy state of being and helps people continue to progress toward self-actualization. 9. What are the different types of forgetting? o Decay theory. Description of forgetting as the gradual disappearance of information from memory. o Interference. The process though which storage or retrieval of information is impaired by the presence of other information. o Retroactive inhibition. A cause of forgetting whereby new information placed in memory interferes with the ability to recall information already in memory. o Proactive inhibition. A cause of forgetting whereby previous learned information interferes with the ability to remember new information. 10.Factors related to chunking? o Organizing individual stimuli so that they will be perceived as larger units of meaningful information. o Although the capacity of short-term memory is more or less constant, the size of those chunks can vary tremendously. 11.Be able to identify each from an example provided. o Episodic Memory. Memories for events in one’s own past. “What you had for dinner last night”. o Procedural Memory. Type of memory containing information about how to do things. “Riding a bike”. o Semantic Memory. Contains generalized knowledge of the world. “Knowing that twelve items make a dozen”. o Explicit Memory. Information retrieved through a conscious effort to remember something. “Where you went on your last vacation”. o Implicit Memory. The unintentional recollection ad influence of prior experiences. “If you read a chapter of a book twice in a row”. 12.What is elaborate rehearsal? o A memorization method that relates new information to information already stored in memory. 13.What factors impact encoding negatively? o If little or no encoding took place, you might not remember little details about acoustic, visual, or semantic objects. 14.Retroactive interference vs. proactive interference? o Retroactive Interference. Occurs when newly learned information interferes with and impacts the recall of previously learned information. o Proactive Interference. When you try to remember stuff at the end but stuff rrom the beginning keeps interfering. 15.Primacy effect. o A characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the first two or three times in a list. 16.Recenc effect. o A characteristic of a memory in which recall is particularly goof for the last few items in a list. 17.Serial activation. o In semantic networking theories of memory, a principle that explains how information is retrieved. Chapter 7: Thoughts, Language, & Intelligence 1. What is Mnemonic? o Aiding or designed to aid the memory. 2. What is Schema? o Generalization of objects, places, events, and people. o Help us understand the world. 3. What is Cognitive maps? o A mental model of familiar parts of your world. 4. What are Mental Sets? o The tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist. 5. What is an Algorithm? o Systematic procedures that cannot fail to produce a correct solution to a problem. 6. Formula for calculating IQ? o Dividing the mental age by chronological age and multiplied the result by 100. o Reflect your relative standing within a population of your age. 7. What is Convergent Thinking? o The ability to apply the rules of logic and what one knows about the world and to narrow down the possible solutions to a problem. 8. What is Divergent Thinking? o The ability to generate many different solutions to a problem. 9. What is a Confirmation Bias? o The tendency to pay more attention to evidence in support of one’s hypothesis about a problem than to evidence that refutes that hypothesis. 10.Representative heuristic vs. Availability heuristic? o Representative. Used when making judgement about the probability of an event under uncertainty. o Availability. It is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person’s mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, decision, or method. 11.Understand the facts surrounding the Gambler’s Fallacy. o The odds are against them. o The decision to gamble has a negative expected value, but because people overestimate the probability of winning, they associate a positive expected value with gambling. o People believe that the probability of future events in a random process will change depending on past events. 12.What is an anchoring bias (heuristic)? o A shortcut in the thought process that involves adding new information to existing information to reach a judgement. 13.What are the different kinds of intelligence? o Analytic intelligence. That kind that is measures by traditional intelligence tests. o Creative intelligence. It is what you would use to compose music. o Practical intelligence. Figure out what to do if you were stranded on a lonely road during a blizzard. 14.How much of ability is inherited and how much is due to the environment? o Our genes define only the framework of our intelligence, which means that our genes are not responsible on how intelligent we become as they only define the maximum of intelligence we could achieve. 60% of our intelligence depends on genetic factors. 40% of our intelligence depends on environmental factors. 15.What are the main ethnic differences in intelligence (IQ)? o The average sores of Asian Americans are typically the highest among various ethnic groups followed by European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and African Americans. o The average IQs of people from high-income areas in the U.S. and elsewhere are consistently higher than those of people from low-income communities with the same ethnic makeup. 16.What did the original measure of IQ try to measure? o To find a method to differentiate between children who were intellectually normal and those who were inferior. 17.What is the differences between the Wechsler's test and the Stanford-Binet IQ test? o Wechsler’s Test. Combine the results of the subtests in various ways to calculate n overall IQ, as well as “index” scores that reflect a person’s mental processing speed, memory ability, perceptual skills, and the understanding of verbal information. o Stanford-Binet IQ Test. A test for determining a person’s intelligence quotient, or IQ. Could pinpoint who did and who did not have a suitable “amount” of intelligence. 18.What is functional fixedness? o The tendency to think about familiar objects in familiar ways. 19.Know what performance scales are on a typical IQ test today and what they measure. o Involve the measure of three primary components. Verbal IQ. Performance IQ. Full scale IQ. 20.The method of Loci: how does it work? o Memory palace/ mind techniques. o Mnemonic device. o Method of memory enhancement which uses visualization to organize and recall information. Chapter 8: Motivation and Emotion 1. Drive Reduction Theory vs. Opponent Processing Theory? o Drive Reduction Theory. A theory that motion arises from imbalances in homeostasis. o Opponent Processing Theory. 2. What is the theory of attachment? o The idea that children form a close attachment to their earliest caregivers and that this attachment pattern can affect aspects of the children’s later lives. 3. Nervous system responses to emotion? o Together with the hypothalamus, regulates pulse, blood pressure, breathing, and arousal in response to emotional cues. 4. Genetics and homosexual orientation? o Human sexuality is shaped not by hormones but also by a lifetime of learning and thinking- gender roles. o Bisexuality. Sexual desire or behavior that is focused on members of both sexes. o Heterosexuality. Sexual desire or behavior that is focused on members of the opposite sex. o Homosexuality Sexual desire or behavior that is focused on members of one’s own sex. 5. Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic motivation? o Extrinsic Motivation. Motivated by external factors. Drives a person to do things tangible rewards or pressures rather than for the fun of it. o Intrinsic Motivation. Motivated by internal factors. Drives a person to do things just for the fun of it, because they believe it is a good/ right thing to do. 6. Subjective factors of happiness? o Also known as “Well-being”. o Combination of cognitive judgement and satisfaction with life, the frequent experiencing of positive moods and emotions, and the relatively infrequent experiencing of unpleasant moods and emotions. 7. KNOW Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. o Suggested that human behavior is influenced by a hierarchy/ ranking of five classes of needs/ motives. Physiological. Safety. Belongingness and love. Esteem. Self-actualization. 8. Theories of emotion: o James-Lange. Also known as peripheral theory of emotion. Emphasizes activity in the Peripheral Nervous System. Not in the Central Nervous System, as the main cause of emotional experience. o Cannon-Bard. Information about emotional situations goes first to the thalamus; then sends signals to the Automatic Nervous System and- @the same time- to the cerebral cortex, where the emotion becomes conscious. There is a direct experience of emotion in the Central Nervous System, whether or not the brain receives feedback about responses in other parts of the body. o Schachter-Singer. Suggests that emotions we experience every day are shaped partly by how we interpret the arousal we feel. Emotions result from a combination of feedback from the body’s responses and our interpretation of what caused those responses. How we label arousal depends on attribution. 9. The facial expression theory of emotion? o The theory that psychological arousal stemming from one situation is carried over to and enhances emotional experience in an independent situation. Chapter 9: Developmental Psychology 1. What is…and when do they operate? o Accommodation. The process of modifying schemas when they do not work on new objects. o Object permanence. The knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in view. o Conservation. The ability to recognize that the important properties of substances/ objects remain constant despite changes in shape, length, or position. Quantity. Volume. Weight. 2. What is terminal drop and when it is likely to happen? o A sharp decline in mental functioning that tends to occur in late adulthood, a few months or years before death. 3. What are the various types of operational concepts in childhood development? o Sensorimotor. o Preoperational. o Concrete Operational. o Formal Operational. 4. Know the steps of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. o Sensorimotor. Birth- 2 years old. When the infant’s mental activity is confined to sensory perception and motor skills. Object permanence. o Preoperational. 2-4 years old. 4-7 years old. Children begin to understand, create, and use symbols that represent things that are not present. Egocentric. They assume that their own view of the world is shared by everyone else. o Concrete operational. 7-11 years old. Children can learn to count, measure, add, and subtract. o Formal operational. Over 11 years old. Ability to engage om hypothetical thinking. 5. Be familiar with Harlow’s study as it applies to the attachment theory. o Separated newborn monkeys from their mothers and raised them in cages containing two artificial others. Concluded that the monkeys were motivated by their need for comfort. o Investigated what happened what happens when attachments do not form. 6. Be able to define temperament. o An individual’s basic, natural disposition that is evident from infancy.
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