New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 2 Review

by: Donielle Rhone

Exam 2 Review 50690

Donielle Rhone
GPA 2.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what's going to be on Exam 2 (minus the textbook).
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cyrille L. Magne
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Behavioral Neuroscience

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Donielle Rhone on Wednesday July 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 50690 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Cyrille L. Magne in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Psychology (PSYC) at Middle Tennessee State University.


Reviews for Exam 2 Review


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 07/13/16
Exam 2 - summer session Friday, July 8, 2016 12:52 PM *Exam 2 - 7/15/16 *Ch. 3 - The Action Potential **All living cells possess an electrical charge. -They are more negative on the inside than the outside. -This negative charge is a heritage from their evolutionary origin. **Long ago, neurons began to exploit this property to communicate with each other. **the neuron at rest -Just as you can measure the voltage of a battery, it is possible to measure the voltage of a neuron. *A microelectrode inserted into a neuron at rest shows a difference of voltage around -70 millivolts (mV) between the inside and the outside of the cell. *This difference of voltage is called the membrane potential. -The membrane potential arises from: *the properties of the cell membrane that maintains different ion concentrations between the inside and the outside of the cell *the balance of electrochemical forces that influences the movement of ions across the cell membrane -The largest component of the body is water. *For instance, skin, muscle and visceral organs are made up of 70% of water, while approximately 85% of the brain is water. *Several important free ions are present in the body water, either inside or outside the cells. *Two opposing forces drive ion movement: -Diffusion causes ions to flow from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration, along their concentration gradient -Electrostatic pressure causes ions with opposite charge to attract each other and ions with the same charge to repel each other. *The cell membrane is made up of a lipid bilayer within which different specialized protein structures can be found. -Ion channels are proteins that span the cell membrane and allow ions to pass through. *The cell membrane contains many open ion channels allowing only potassium ions (K+) to cross the membrane. -Selective permeability to potassium. *At rest, K+ ions move into the negative interior of the cell because of electrostatic pressure. -Remember, the inside of the cell is negative and potassium is positive. *As K+ ions build up inside the cell, they also diffuse out along the concentration gradient. -Because there is more potassium inside than outside the cell. *K+ reaches equilibrium when the movement out is balanced by the movement in. *The membrane is also slightly permeable to sodium ions (Na+). -Na+ ions leak in the cell. -However, because both electrostatic pressure and diffusion move Na+ in the cell, no equilibrium is reached. *To prevent the accumulation of sodium in the cell, sodium- potassium pumps are present in the cell membrane. -They pumps 3 Na+ out of the neuron and 2 K+ in to maintain the resting potential. **action potential -Neurons receive inputs that arrive on the neuron’s dendrites or cell body from other neurons. *Some inputs cause an hyperpolarization so that the membrane potential in a small area of the neuron becomes more negative. -Neurons receive inputs that arrive on the neuron’s dendrites or cell body from other neurons. *Others cause a depolarization, so that the membrane potential in a small area of the neuron shifts toward zero. -Neurons receive inputs that arrive on the neuron’s dendrites or cell body from other neurons. *If a strong depolarization brings the membrane potential to the threshold value, an action potential is produced. -An action potential corresponds to a brief and local reversal of the membrane potential. *The inside of the cell becomes locally positive. *This brief inversion of polarity is due to movement of ions through voltage-dependent Na+ channels. -The channels are said voltage-dependent because they are closed at rest and open only when the membrane potential is modified and reached the threshold. *The membrane potential returns quickly to its resting value because voltage dependent potassium channels open -This allows potassium ions to leave the cell. -Because positive ions leave the cell, the inside becomes negative again. *The membrane potential overshoots its resting value as more potassium ions than necessary leave the cells. -The sodium-potassium pumps allow the Na+/K+ ion distribution to return to its resting state. *Right after the action potential occurs, the refractory period follows. -During the Absolute refractory phase no action potential can be produced. -The absolute phase is followed by the Relative refractory phase during which only a strong stimulation can produce a new action potential. *Action potentials travel in only one direction: -From axon hillock to axon terminal. *Action potentials follows the all-or-none law: -An Action potential either occurs at full amplitude or it does not, -Its amplitude does not decrease as it travels down the axon. *The speed of conduction of action potentials varies from 3 to 400 feet per second. *Different strategies have evolved to increase the speed of conduction -Increase in axon diameter, -Myelination of axons. *Channelopathy -Form and function of ion channels altered as a result of genetic mutations. -Associated with various disorder - Migraines, Epilepsy, Neuromuscular disorders. *Some animal toxins selectively block certain channels: -Tetrodotoxin (TTX) block voltage-gated Na+ channels, -Batrachotoxin forces Na+ channels to stay open. -Gross Electrical Activity of the Brain *An encephalogram (EEG) is a recording of brain potentials, or brain waves. -Correspond the simultaneous electrical activity of thousands of neurons. *Brain potentials indicate sleep states and provide data in seizure disorders. *In the normal brain, activity tends to be desynchronized across regions. -A symptom of epilepsy is seizure: *a synchronization of electrical activity in the brain. *The EEG is characterized by abnormal “spike- and-wave” patterns of brain activity. -categories of seizures *Grand mal is characterized by abnormal activity throughout the brain. -Loss of consciousness and characteristic movements. -Seizure is followed by confusion and sleep. *Petit mal seizure brain waves show patterns of seizure activity for 5 to 15 seconds and can be several times a day. -No unusual muscle activity, except for stopping and staring. -Events during seizure are not remembered.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.