ENGLISH COMPOSITION FOR
ENGLISH COMPOSITION FOR LING 421 001
CSU - Dominguez hills
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LING 421 001
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This 82 page Study Guide was uploaded by Akwasi johon on Thursday July 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LING 421 001 at California State University - Dominguez Hills taught by Malcolm Williams in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.
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Date Created: 07/14/16
ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION Course Description E f f e cti v e F a l l 2 0 1 4 (apcentral.collegeboard.com) to determine whether a more recent Course Description PDF is available. ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION Course Description Course Description Effective Fall 2014 E f f e cti v e F a l l 2 0 1 4 The College Board (apcentral.collegeboard.com) to determine whether a more recent Course Description PDF is available. AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 About the College Board The College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board was created to expand access to higher education. Today, the membership association is made up of over 6,000 of the world’s leading educational institutions and is dedicated to promoting excellence and equity in education. Each y▯ear, the College Board helps more than seven million students prepare for a succe▯ssful transition to college through programs and services in college readiness▯ and college success — including the SAT and the Advanced Placement Program . The ® organization also serves the education community through research and ad▯vocacy on behalf of students, educators, and schools. For further information, visitwww.collegeboard.org. ® AP Equity and Access Policy The College Board strongly encourages educators to make equitable access▯ a guiding principle for their AP programs by giving all willing and academically prepared students the opportunity to participate in AP. We encourage the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP for students from eth▯nic, racial and socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underserved. Schools s▯hould make every effort to ensure their AP classes reflect the diversity of their student population. The College Board also believes that all students should hav▯e access to academically challenging course work before they enroll in AP classes▯, which can prepare them for AP success. It is only through a commitment to equi▯table preparation and access that true equity and excellence can be achieved. AP Course Descriptions ™ AP course descriptions are updated regularly. Please visit AP Central (apcentral.collegeboard.org) to determine whether a more recent course description PDF is available. © 2014 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement ▯ P, AP Central and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. All other p▯ rvices may be trademarks of their respective owners. Visit the College Board o: ww.collegeboard.org. 2 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Content2 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 Contents 5 About AP ® 6 Offering AP Courses and Enrolling Students 6 How AP Courses and Exams Are Developed 6 How AP Exams Are Scored 7 Using and Interpreting AP Scores 7 Additional Resources 8 AP English Program 9 Introduction toAP English Language and Composition 9 Prerequisites 10 Reading Level of Course Texts and Volume of Reading 10 Expectations for Writing Ability 11 AP English Language and Composition Course Overview 11 Course Goals 13 AP CourseAudit and Curricular Requirements 15 Course Curriculum 15 General Learning Objectives 17 Instruction 17 Ways to Organize Instruction 17 Key Principles for Course Organization 19 Instructional Strategies 21 Reading 21 Use of Rhetorical Terminology 21 Rhetorical Reading 22 The Rhetorical Triangle 23 Aristotelian Rhetorical Analysis 24 Selecting Readings for the AP English Language and Composition Course 27 Images as Texts 29 The Role ofTechnology andTextbooks 29 Technology 29 Textbooks © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Cont3nts AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 31 Writing 31 Writing from Source Materials 31 Organization of Writing 31 Writing Process 32 Argumentation 34 Teaching Language, Grammar, and Style in AP English Language and Composition 36 Synthesis 37 Step 1: Authentic Inquiry 37 Step 2: Linking the Sources 37 Step 3: The Source-Informed Argument 39 Classroom Assessments 39 Formative and Summative Assessment 40 Portfolios 41 Feedback 43 College Board Resources 44 Connections BetweenAP English Language and Composition andAP Capstone 45 TheAP English Language and Composition Exam 46 Summary of Scoring Rubrics 47 SampleAP English Language and Composition Exam Questions 47 Sample Multiple-Choice Questions 64 Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions 65 Sample Free-Response Questions 78 References 79 AP English Language and Composition Course at a Glance 4 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conte4ts AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 ® About AP AP enables students to pursue college-level studies while still in high ▯school. Through more than 30 courses, each culminating in a rigorous exam, AP pr▯ovides willing and academically prepared students with the opportunity to earn college credit and/or advanced placement. Taking AP courses also demonstrates to college admission officers that students have sought out the most rigorous cou▯rse work available to them. Each AP course is modeled upon a comparable college course, and college ▯ and university faculty play a vital role in ensuring that AP courses ali▯gn with college-level standards. Talented and dedicated AP teachers help AP students in classrooms around the world develop and apply the content knowledge and ▯skills they will need later in college. Each AP course concludes with a college-level assessment developed and s▯cored by college and university faculty and experienced AP teachers. AP Exams ▯are an essential part of the AP experience, enabling students to demonstrate their mastery of college-level course work. Most four-year colleges and universities in the United States and universities in more than 60 countries recognize AP in the ad▯mission process and grant students credit, placement, or both on the basis of su▯ccessful AP Exam scores. Visit www.collegeboard.org/apcreditpolicy to view AP credit and placement policies at more than 1,000 colleges and universities. Performing well on an AP Exam means more than just the successful complet ▯ ion of a course; it is a gateway to success in college. Research consistently▯ shows that students who receive a score of 3 or higher on AP Exams typically experie ▯ nce greater academic success in college and have higher graduation rates than their n ▯ on-AP peers. Additional AP studies are available atwww.collegeboard.org/research. 1 See the following research studies for more details: Linda Hargrove, Donn Godin, and Barbara , ollege Outcomes Comparisons by AP and Non-AP High School Experiences. New York: The College Board, 2008. Chrys Dougherty, Lynn Mellor, and Shulin, he Relationship Between Advanced Placement and College Graduation. Austin, Texas: National Center for Educational Accountability, 2006. © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Content55 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 Offering AP Courses and Enrolling Students This AP Course Description details the essential information required to understand the objectives and expectations of an AP course. The AP Program unequivo▯cally supports the principle that each school implements its own curriculum that wil▯l enable students to develop the content knowledge and skills described he▯re. Schools wishing to offer AP courses must participate in the AP Course Audit, a process through which AP teachers’ syllabi are reviewed by college fa▯culty. The AP Course Audit was created at the request of College Board members who sou▯ght a means for the College Board to provide teachers and administrators wit▯h clear guidelines on curricular and resource requirements for AP courses and to▯ help colleges and universities validate courses marked “AP” on students▯’ transcripts. This process ensures that AP teachers’ syllabi meet or exceed the cur▯ricular and resource expectations that college and secondary school faculty have est▯ablished for college-level courses. For more information on the AP Course Audit, ▯visit www.collegeboard.org/apcourseaudit. How AP Courses and Exams Are Developed Committees of college faculty and expert AP teachers design AP courses and exams to ensure that each AP subject reflects and assesses college-level exp▯ectations. AP Development Committees define the scope and expectations of the cou▯rse, articulating what students should know and be able to do upon completion o▯f the AP course. The AP Development Committees are also responsible for drawing clear and▯ well-articulated connections between the AP course and AP Exam. The AP Exam development process is a multiyear endeavor; all AP Exams undergo extens▯ive review, revision, piloting, and analysis to ensure that the questions are fair,▯ of high quality, and reflect an appropriate range of difficulty. How AP Exams Are Scored The exam scoring process, like the course and exam development process, ▯relies on the expertise of both AP teachers and college faculty. While multiple-choice questions are scored by machine, the free-response questions are scored ▯by thousands of college faculty and expert AP teachers at the annual AP Reading. AP Exam Readers are thoroughly trained, and their work is monitored through▯out the Reading for fairness and consistency. In each subject, a highly respected college faculty member serves as Chief Reader, who, with the help of Readers in leadership positions, maintains the accuracy of the scoring standards. Scores on th▯e free- response questions are weighted and combined with the results of the com▯puter- scored multiple-choice questions, and this raw score is converted into a composite AP score of 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1. 6 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conten6s AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 The score-setting process is both precise and labor intensive, involving▯ numerous psychometric analyses of the results of a specific AP Exam in a specifi▯c year and of the particular group of students who took that exam. Additionally, to ensure alignment with college-level standards, part of the score-setting process involves comparing the performance of AP students with the performance of student▯s enrolled in comparable courses in colleges throughout the United States.▯ In general, the AP composite score points are set so that the lowest raw score neede▯d to earn an AP score of 5 is equivalent to the average score among college studen▯ts earning grades of A in the college course. Similarly, AP Exam scores of 4 are equivalent to college grades of A-, B+, and B. AP Exam scores of 3 are equivalent to c▯ollege grades of B-, C+, and C. Using and Interpreting AP Scores College faculty are involved in every aspect of AP, from course and exam development to scoring and standards alignment. These faculty members en▯sure that the courses and exams meet colleges’ expectations for content ta▯ught in comparable college courses. Based upon outcomes research and program ▯ evaluation, the American Council on Education (ACE) and the Advanced P▯lacement Program recommend that colleges grant credit and/or placement to students with AP Exam scores of 3 and higher. The AP score of 3 is equivalent to grades of B-, C+, and C in the equivalent college course. However, colleges and universities set their own AP credit, advanced standing, and course placement policies based on▯ their unique needs and objectives. AP Score Recommendation 5 Extremely well qualified 4 Well qualified 3 Qualified 2 Possibly qualified 1 No recommendation Additional Resources Visit apcentral.collegeboard.org for more information about the AP Program. © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Content77 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 AP English Program The AP Program offers two courses in English studies, each designed to p▯rovide high school students the opportunity to engage in a typical introductory-level college English curriculum. The AP English Language and Composition cour▯se focuses on rhetorical analysis of nonfiction texts and the development▯ and revision of well-reasoned, evidence-centered analytic and argumentative writing. ▯The AP English Literature and Composition course focuses on reading, analyzing,▯ and writing about imaginative literature (fiction, poetry, drama) from various periods. In English, the tasks of describing the representative introductory cour▯se or courses and assessing students’ achievements in comparable high schoo▯l courses are complex, for curricula and instruction vary widely across the discip▯line in U.S. colleges and universities. While the AP English Development Committees v▯alue and want to maintain such diversity, they also recognize the need to emphasize the common skills in reading and writing that will benefit students’▯ broader studies as well as prepare them for successful engagement in sequent Eng▯lish courses. The greatest challenge to the committees, then, is finding an▯ appropriate balance between describing and prescribing curriculum format and content▯ and instructional approaches. Many American colleges begin with a course in expository writing for a y▯ear, a semester, or a shorter period, followed by a course in introductory readings in literature. Subsequently, students may take advanced courses in language, rhetoric and expository writing, or literature. Students who elect courses in rhe▯toric and composition typically focus their reading on discursive prose that range▯s across disciplines. Those who elect advanced courses in literature generally st▯udy major authors, periods, genres, or themes; their reading typically conce▯ntrates on imaginative literature (poetry, fiction, and drama and “creative nonfiction”). There is no prescribed sequence of study for the two AP English courses,▯ and a high school may offer one or both courses. In helping students choose an AP E▯nglish course, teachers will want to consider the following factors: ▶ the English programs offered by the colleges that their AP students are ▯interested in attending ▶ the AP policies of these colleges, particularly the policies of their English programs ▶ students’ own abilities and interests: › Students choosing AP English Language and Composition should be interest▯ed in studying and writing various kinds of analytic or persuasive essays. › Students choosing AP English Literature and Composition should be intere▯sted in studying literature of various periods and genres and using this wide▯ reading knowledge in discussions of literary topics. 8 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Content8 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 Introduction toAP English Language and Composition This publication is intended to give AP English Language and Composition▯ teachers a detailed summary of the curricular requirements for the course, as wel▯l as a summary of the performance expectations for students in the course. Addi▯tionally, this document provides a detailed explanation of the skills addressed by▯ the AP English Language and Composition Exam. It also provides guidance abou▯t strategies for effective instruction and formative assessment, both cruc▯ial elements in engaging high school learners in a college-level curriculum. An AP English Language and Composition course requires students to becom▯e skilled readers of prose written in a variety of rhetorical contexts and▯ skilled writers who compose for a variety of purposes. Both their reading and th▯eir writing should make students aware of interactions among a writer’s purposes, reader expectations, and an author’s propositional content, as well as the genre conventions and the resources of language that contribute to effectivene▯ss in writing. At the heart of an AP English Language and Composition course is the reading of various texts. Reading facilitates informed citizenship and thus increas▯es students’ capacity to enter into consequential conversations with others about mea▯ningful issues. Also contributing to students’ informed citizenship is their ▯ability to gather source materials representing particular conversations and then make their own reasonable and informed contributions to those conversations. Students’▯ ability to engage with outside sources in their reading, writing, and research is a▯n important measure of their intellectual growth. While writing represents a significant component of this course, the c▯ore skill required is the ability to read well. In reading another writer’s work, students must be able to address four fundamental questions about composition: ▶ What is being said? ▶ To whom is it being said? ▶ How is it being said? ▶ Why is it being said? The answers to these questions inform students’ own composition proce▯sses as they learn to read like writers and write like readers. Prerequisites While there are no prerequisites for an AP English Language and Composit▯ion course, students who have had experience in rhetorical analysis, argumen▯t, and synthesis may more easily address the objectives of the course. Such ski▯lls may be introduced as early as the middle school level. © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conte9ts AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 Reading Level of Course Texts and Volume of Reading The College Board does not prescribe specific texts for an AP English ▯Language and Composition course. That said, several guidelines are useful in dete▯rmining the appropriateness of texts used in this course. These guidelines include t▯he following: ▶ texts that represent a clear rhetorical situation (e.g., topical nonfi▯ction) ▶ texts that speak to one another through a variety of genres ▶ texts that could be read in an introductory composition class in college▯ ▶ texts that require teacher direction for students to discern meaning ▶ texts that rate as upper high school level on a Lexile chart Neither does the College Board prescribe an amount of reading for an AP ▯English Language and Composition course. Several questions, however, are useful in assessing the volume of reading students should be assigned in this cour▯se: ▶ Are students reading challenging texts every day? ▶ Do students employ rereading as an interpretive strategy? ▶ Do students gain sufficient practice to develop skills in reading purp▯osefully and rhetorically? ▶ Do students write on a regular basis about what others have written? ▶ Do the selected readings provoke responses from multiple perspectives an▯d thus generate public discussion? ▶ Are students given the opportunity to immerse themselves in substantive texts — ones that require several days or weeks to read — as well as texts th▯at can be read and reread within a single class period? ▶ Are students spending at least 8 hours per week (both inside and outsid▯e of class) engaged in their reading and writing? Is there a clear connection betwee▯n their reading and writing? ▶ Are students reading texts that require teacher involvement or scaffoldi▯ng, or can the texts be read independently? Expectations for Writing Ability Students entering an AP English Language and Composition course should possess fundamental skills in inquiry (research), analysis, and inform▯ed argument. Experiences with nonfiction are integral in understanding that writing▯ has a purposeful, interactive value and transcends the skills that are assesse▯d on the AP English Language and Composition Exam. Composing responses to exam prompts is not the primary writing skill students are expected to develo▯p in the course. Instead, they should gain considerable practice in reading a wid▯e variety of nonfiction texts — from newspaper editorials to critical essays ▯and political treatises — in order to find out what others are thinking, saying, ▯and doing in the world. Familiarity with these conversations will help students become in▯formed and rhetorically competent writers who not only consider the views of others▯ but use writing as a way to formulate and convey their own responses. 2 For more information on Lexile scores for upper hight ww.lexile.com. 10 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conte10s AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 AP English Language and Composition Course Overview An AP English Language and Composition course cultivates the reading and▯ writing skills that students need for college success and for intellectually res▯ponsible civic engagement. The course guides students in becoming curious, critic▯al, and responsive readers of diverse texts, and becoming flexible, reflecti▯ve writers of texts addressed to diverse audiences for diverse purposes. The reading a▯nd writing students do in the course should deepen and expand their understanding o▯f how written language functions rhetorically: to communicate writers’ intentions and elicit readers’ responses in particular situations. The course cultivates the rhetorical understanding and use of written language by directing students’ atte▯ntion to writer/reader interactions in their reading and writing of various fo▯rmal and informal genres (e.g., memos, letters, advertisements, political satires, personal narratives, scientific arguments, cultural critiques, research reports). Reading and writing activities in the course also deepen students’ kn▯owledge and control of formal conventions of written language (e.g., vocabulary, diction, syntax, spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, genre). The course helps students ▯understand that formal conventions of the English language in its many written and ▯spoken dialects are historically, culturally, and socially produced; that the use of these conventions may intentionally or unintentionally contribute to the effec▯tiveness or ineffectiveness of a piece of writing in a particular rhetorical context; and that a particular set of language conventions defines Standard Written English, the preferred dialect for academic discourse. Course Goals The goals of an AP English Language and Composition course are diverse b▯ecause the rhetoric and composition course in college serves a variety of funct▯ions in the undergraduate curriculum. The following, however, are the primary goals of the course: ▶ Developing critical literacy: In most colleges and universities, the course is intended to strengthen the basic academic skills students need to perfor▯m confidently and effectively in courses across the curriculum. The cour▯se introduces students to the literacy expectations of higher education by cultivating▯ essential academic skills such as critical inquiry, deliberation, argument, reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Few colleges and universities regard completion▯ of this entry-level course as the endpoint of students’ English language educ▯ation; subsequent courses in general and specialized curricula should continue ▯building and refining the skills students practice in their rhetoric and compos▯ition courses. ▶ Facilitating informed citizenship: While most college rhetoric and composition courses perform the academic service of preparing students to meet the l▯iteracy challenges of college-level study, they also serve the larger goal of cultivating the critical literacy skills students need for lifelong learning. Beyond the▯ir academic lives, students should be able to use the literacy skills practiced in t▯he course for personal satisfaction and responsible engagement in civic life. © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conte11s1 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 To support these goals, rhetoric and composition courses emphasize the reading and writing of analytic and argumentative texts instead of, or in combin▯ation with, texts representing English-language literary traditions. Like the colleg▯e rhetoric and composition course, the AP English Language and Composition course f▯ocuses students’ attention on the functions of written language in and out o▯f the academy, asking students to practice the reading as well as the writing of texts ▯designed to inquire, to explain, to criticize, and to persuade in a variety of rheto▯rical situations. In this approach to the study and practice of written language, a writer▯’s style is important because of its rhetorical, rather than its aesthetic, function. 12 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Contents12 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 AP CourseAudit and Curricular Requirements Schools that intend to offer AP courses and label them as such on high s▯chool transcripts must provide evidence that the teachers of those courses are▯ (a) aware of the curricular requirements as stipulated by the College Board and (▯b) have a plan to address those requirements. Schools provide such evidence by sub▯mitting a syllabus or course description for each proposed AP course. Those syllab▯i are then reviewed by college professors who teach the equivalent introductory-lev▯el college courses. Courses for which sufficient evidence is provided are then au▯thorized by the College Board and are added to a list of such authorized courses; th▯at list is made available to colleges and universities so that they can verify AP c▯ourses that may be listed on student applicants’ high school transcripts. The curricular requirements for the AP English Language and Composition ▯course are as follows: ▶ The school ensures that each student has a copy of all required readings▯ for individual use inside and outside the classroom. ▶ The teacher has read the most recentAP English Language and Composition Course Description. ▶ The course teaches and requires students to write in several forms (e.g▯., narrative, expository, analytical, and argumentative essays) about a variety of subjects (e▯.g., public policies, popular culture, personal experiences). ▶ The course requires students to write essays that proceed through severa▯l stages or drafts, with revision aided by teacher and peers. ▶ The course requires students to write in informal contexts (e.g., imita▯tion exercises, journal keeping, collaborative writing, in-class responses) designed to▯ help them become increasingly aware of themselves as writers and of the techn▯iques employed by the writers they read. ▶ The course requires expository, analytical, and argumentative writing assignments based on readings representing a wide variety of prose styles and genres▯. ▶ The course requires nonfiction readings (e.g., essays, journalism, po▯litical writing, science writing, nature writing, autobiographies/biographies, diaries, h▯istory, criticism) that give students opportunities to identify and explain an author’s use of rhetorical strategies and techniques. If fiction and poetry are als▯o assigned, their main purpose should be to help students understand how various eff▯ects are achieved by writers’ rhetorical choices. (Note: The College Board do▯es not mandate any particular authors or reading list.) ▶ The course teaches students to analyze how graphics and visual images bo▯th relate to written texts and serve as alternative forms of text themselves. ▶ The course teaches research skills and, in particular, the ability to evaluate, use, and cite primary and secondary sources. The course assigns projects such▯ as the researched argument paper, which asks students to present an argument of their own that includes the analysis and synthesis of ideas from an array of s▯ources. © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conte13s3 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 ▶ The course teaches students how to cite sources using a recognized edito▯rial style guide (e.g., MLA Style Manual, The Chicago Manual of Style). ▶ The AP teacher provides instruction and feedback on students’ writing▯ assignments, both before and after students revise their work, to help s▯tudents develop the following skills: › Control of a wide-ranging vocabulary used appropriately and effectively › Mastery of a variety of sentence structures, including appropriate use o▯f subordination and coordination › Logical organization, enhanced by specific techniques to increase cohe▯rence, such as repetition, transitions, and emphasis › A balance of generalization and specific, illustrative detail › Effective use of rhetoric, including controlling tone, establishing and ▯ maintaining voice, and achieving appropriate emphasis through diction an▯d sentence structure 14 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Contents 14 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 Course Curriculum Because the AP English Language and Composition course depends on the development of interpretive skills as students learn to read and write w▯ith increasing complexity and sophistication, it is intended to be a full-ye▯ar course. Reading and writing tasks over the school year should be sequenced so th▯at students can experience a progression of skill development. Therefore, t▯he challenge for teachers in designing this course is to clearly articulate for students how they are developing a skill set that grows over the duration of the ▯course. General Learning Objectives Upon completing the AP English Language and Composition course, students▯ should be able to: ▶ Analyze and interpret samples of purposeful writing, identifying and explaining an author’s use of rhetorical strategies.This process includes students’ understanding of what an author is saying,how an author is saying it, and why an author is saying it. Additionally, this process looks at how an author’s rhetorical choices develop meaning or achieve a particular purpose or effect with a given audience. ▶ Analyze images and other multimodal texts for rhetorical features.This goal acknowledges the multiple modes of learning that help students acquire l▯iteracy, with attention to the power of visual literacy in understanding an autho▯r’s purpose. ▶ Use effective rhetorical strategies and techniques when composing.Students apply their analytical skills to their own writing so that they are read▯ing like writers and writing like readers. ▶ Write for a variety of purposes.Students’ writing experiences in the course must exceed the timed writings that are assessed on the AP English Language a▯nd Composition Exam. For instance, students might undertake a lengthy and intensive inquiry into a problem or controversy, consulting and evaluating arguments and viewpoints presented in a variety of sources, and using those sources to▯ provoke, complicate, and/or support their own responses to the problem or controversy. Students’ writing in the course should also go through a process that▯ includes feedback from other readers, revision, and proofreading. Finally, forms other than the essays featured in the exam have a place in the course, such as pers▯onal narrative, letters, advertisements, reviews, etc. ▶ Respond to different writing tasks according to their unique rhetorical ▯and composition demands, and translate that rhetorical assessment into a pla▯n for writing. Different contexts require different choices in creating and delivering▯ texts. This goal addresses the importance of prewriting and planning in the writing process. ▶ Create and sustain original arguments based on information synthesized f▯rom readings, research, and/or personal observation and experience.Students learn to see argument as addressing a wide range of purposes in a variety of f▯ormats. They should be able to recognize general features of arguments, such as ▯claims, © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conte15s5 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 evidence, qualifiers, warrants, and conclusions. Students’ ability ▯to create informed arguments depends largely upon their reading of primary and secondary so▯urces. The more that students discern argument as entering into a conversation ▯with others, the more credible and cogent their own arguments become. ▶ Evaluate and incorporate sources into researched arguments.When entering into a conversation with others, students must comprehend and evaluate (▯not just summarize or quote) others’ positions. Such a process involves purpo▯seful reading, a wide range of reading, and the ability to credibly support an evaluation of a writer’s position. ▶ Demonstrate understanding of the conventions of citing primary and secon▯dary sources. Students must learn to use the conventions recommended by professional ▯ organizations such as the Modern Language Association (MLA), the Unive▯rsity of Chicago Press (The Chicago Manual of Style), or the American Psychological Association (APA). Students need to understand that for academic writing, the selection of documentation style depends upon the discipline the writing▯ is intended for; students therefore need to learn how to find and follow ▯style guides in various disciplines. ▶ Gain control over various reading and writing processes, with careful at▯tention to inquiry (research), rhetorical analysis and synthesis of sources, d▯rafting, revising/rereading, editing, and review. This goal emphasizes the importance of the entire process of writing, including teacher intervention in prov▯iding useful feedback, along with peer review and publication. ▶ Converse and write reflectively about personal processes of compositio▯n. Metacognition, or reflection, is a key component of this course; the p▯ractice of describing their own processes helps students internalize standards —▯ articulated by local, state, or national rubrics — of effective composition. ▶ Demonstrate understanding and control of Standard Written English as well as stylistic maturity in their own writing.This process clearly relates to the goals of reading rhetorically — the better that students understand how other ▯writers create a particular effect or produce meaning, the more fully their own prose accomp▯lishes such goals. ▶ Revise a work to make it suitable for a different audience.In addition to revision, this goal acknowledges the importance of recognizing a variety of audiences for a piece of writing. 16 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conten16 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 Instruction Ways to Organize Instruction Instruction in an AP English Language and Composition course may be orga▯nized in a variety of ways. For instance, it might be organized as a successio▯n of smaller conceptual units, using several connected yet diverse works to explore d▯ifferent perspectives on a single theme, such as education, government, gender an▯d culture, and ethics. A section of the course focusing on the individual, for exam▯ple, might use works by writers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emile Durkheim, W. E. B. Du Bois, Ruth Benedict, and Erich Fromm to examine the connection betwee▯n the individual and society as well as to recognize the rhetorical strategies▯ used by each writer. This option also allows teachers to bring in current events and contem▯porary readings to make connections with writers’ perspectives from earlier ▯time periods. Another possibility is to organize instruction around the different mode▯s of discourse (descriptive-narrative, expository, argumentative), developing a variety of writing opportunities whereby students first examine and identify writers’ rhetorical choices in several examples of a particular mode of writing, and then practice those strategies in crafting original personal narratives, expo▯sitory writing, and argumentative essays. Students learning to write an argument of defi▯nition might read Susan Sontag’s “Beauty” or Lynn Peril’s “Pink Think” to examine the structure and protocols of writing definitional arguments. They co▯uld then compose an original piece that might require research and synthesis of i▯nformation from source materials, or that could be based solely on the student’s personal experiences and observations. The study of language itself — differences between oral and written d▯iscourse, formal and informal language, historical changes in speech and writing —▯ is often a productive organizing strategy for teachers and can serve as the single ▯focus of an entire semester of work. Still another alternative is to use genre as an▯ organizing principle for instruction; for example, one could study the evolution of▯ the essay as its own genre or examine the more contemporary use of graphic and vis▯ual texts as argument. The use of genre as an organizing principle offers st▯udents the opportunity to explore ways that form dictates function or vice versa. Key Principles for Course Organization Students should leave the AP English Language and Composition course wit▯h an advanced understanding of what it means to engage in an ongoing, publ▯ic conversation through reading and writing. By emphasizing keypractices (rhetorical analysis, synthesis, and argument) for advanced literacy a▯nd intellectual engagement, the course builds students’ resources for co▯mprehending, interpreting, and producing public texts and connecting with readers in ▯and out of academic communities. Since the goals for an advanced writing course ▯must be broad enough to encompass the outcomes listed later in this document, te▯achers should frame their own AP English Language and Composition courses with ▯the following principles: © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conten1717 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 ▶ Build complex reading and writing practices rather than discrete skills.▯When designing their own AP English Language and Composition courses, teacher▯s will benefit from framing the outcomes of the course in terms of practices ▯that students will continue to develop over time, rather than as particular types of knowledge. The concept of practices highlights reading and writing as complex, situ▯ated activities that require students to negotiate multiple goals, intersecti▯ng skill sets, and processes. Students should develop reading and writing strateg▯ies that enable them to anticipate audience expectations and imagine shifting con▯textual constraints. These flexible ways of understanding reading and writing ▯processes might — and probably should — disrupt previously learned structure▯s that students have internalized as templates or rules; examples include the five-par▯agraph essay, which limits the writer to deductive logic, or the avoidance of first-▯person pronouns, which restricts the writer to a detached perspective. By the end of the ▯course, students should be able to assess the situated nature of a reading or of▯ a writing task, rather than apply a set of formulaic responses. ▶ Create learning opportunities that reinforce desired reading and writing▯ practices. Because the desired outcomes of the course are reading and writing practices, the AP English Language and Composition teacher should design▯ lessons that address and support those practices. The course should provide learning experiences that encourage students to develop flexible and s▯trategic ways to read and write a wide array of texts. For example, teachers can ▯expose students to a range of texts that demonstrate how different contexts, au▯diences, and purposes produce different textual forms. Teachers might also design writing tasks that challenge students to accommodate competing expectations from▯ multiple audiences. A helpful resource is “Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing.” The 3 document, developed by the Council for Writing Program Administrators (CWPA), the National Council for Teachers in English (NCTE), and the National Writing Project (NWP), highlights the importance of cultivating in students particular lifelong habits of mind necessary for success in learning. According to the “Framework for Success,” these habits include curiosity, openness, engagement, creativity, persistence, responsibility, flexibility, and metacognition. The document explains how teachers can design experiences in reading, writing, and an▯alysis to support these lifelong habits of mind. ▶ Facilitate understanding of rhetorical reading and writing.The aim of this course is to help students develop the ability to read critically and evaluate ▯sources so that they can write from and in response to those sources. Students shou▯ld learn to interrogate a text, not only to discernwhat it is saying but also to understandhow and why it proposes what it does. The following core tasks within the curriculu▯m should help students develop critical reading and writing skills, moving▯ them beyond merely summarizing a text and toward analyzing how and why a text▯ has a particular effect on a reader: › Rhetorical Analysis, which requires students to attend to the pragmatic ▯ and stylistic choices writers make to achieve their purposes with particular 3 http://wpacouncil.org/files/framework-for-success-postsecondary-writing.pd.f 18 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Content18 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 audiences, or the effects these choices might have on multiple, even unintended, audiences. › Argument, which requires students to articulate clear claims and to provide appropriate evidence and convincing justification, with the goal of co▯nvincing a reader to agree or to take a course of action. › Synthesis, which requires students to read for multiple perspectives in ▯response to a common question and to discern patterns of agreement and disagreeme▯nt among these sources. Reading synthetically attunes students to ongoing conversations and is an essential step in the composition of their own o▯riginal, informed, authoritative, and convincing responses to the question. Synth▯esis tasks require students to read for intertextual connections among sources and frame the activity of research as focused inquiry. In AP English Language and Composition courses, as in most college compo▯sition courses, most classroom instruction is focused on reading and composing ▯script or print texts to develop students’ skills as readers and writers. Bu▯t the familiar appearance of other media in contemporary composition courses (e.g., sp▯eeches, songs, documentary films, television ad campaigns) and on the AP Engl▯ish Language and Composition Exam (e.g., pictures, graphs, charts) acknowledges the much broader reach of rhetoric into nonverbal media. Because many high s▯chool and college students perform more rhetorical action in aural and visual ▯media than in writing, college and AP English Language and Composition teachers mus▯t help students recognize ways in which written texts can and do perform social▯ action, just as those other (perhaps more familiar) media texts. Instructional Strategies AP English Language and Composition focuses on essential reading, writin▯g, and thinking skills that prepare students to analyze print and visual texts ▯in any context and to write in a variety of modes, using a variety of methods. As such,▯ the primary role of the AP English Language and Composition instructor is to facilit▯ate learning through strategic instruction, a model that emphasizes a risk-free envir▯onment where student talk, rather than teacher talk, remains central. Teachers assist students in learning how to test their own ideas as well as consider the▯ ideas of others during the reading and writing processes. Students also learn to ▯initiate their own inquiries rather than simply respond to teacher-directed questions. Of course, such an environment carries the expectation that respect for oth▯ers is taught and valued. In such an environment, AP English Language and Composition teachers are▯ able to use a variety of learner-centered discussion methods such as the following: © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Content1919 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 Strategy Purpose Definition Socratic To ask clarifying questions that help students Students ask questions of one Seminar arrive at a new understanding; challenge another in a discussion focused assumptions; probe perspective and point of on a topic, essential question, or view; question facts, reasons, and evidence; selected text.The questions initiate or examine implications and outcomes. a conversation that continues with a series of responses and additional questions. Debate To facilitate student collection and oral Students present an informal or presentation of evidence supporting formal argument that defends a the affirmative and negative arguments claim with reasons, while others of a proposition or issue. defend different claims about the same topic or issue.The goal is to debate ideas without attacking the people who defend those ideas. Jigsaw To facilitate student summarization and Each student in a group reads a presentation of information to others different text or different passage in a way that promotes understanding from a single text, taking on the of an issue or text (or multiple texts) role of “expert” on what was read. without having each student read Students share the information the text in its entirety; by teaching from that reading with students others, students become experts. from other groups, then return to their original groups to share their new knowledge. Fishbowl To engage students in a formal discussion A group of students forms an inner that allows them to experience the roles circle and models appropriate of both participant and active listener; discussion techniques while an students also have the responsibility outer circle of students listens, of supporting their opinions and responds, and evaluates. responses using specific evidence. Shared To lead students in a deep discussion Students read a provocative Inquiry of a text and encourage a diversity text and are asked interpretive of ideas to emerge as students think questions (for which there deeply and share interpretations. are no predetermined “right” answers). Students offer different responses and debate one another, supporting their positions with specific evidence from the text. Discussion To help students gain a new understanding Students engage in an interactive, Group of or insight into a text or issue by small-group discussion, often listening to multiple perspectives. with an assigned role (e.g., questioner, summarizer, facilitator, evidence keeper) to consider a topic, text, question, etc. Debriefing To affirm and deepen student understanding. Students participate in a teacher- facilitated discussion that leads to consensus understanding or helps students identify key conclusions. 20 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Contents 20 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 Reading The AP English Language and Composition curriculum focuses on effective ▯reading and writing practices, emphasizing depth of knowledge over breadth. This▯ is not a content-driven course, so the curriculum need not cover every work on ▯a long reading list; rather, students should come away from the course with intensive practice of literacy skills that they can apply to further reading. Furthermore, although the course should provide students some practice in sustained r▯eading of complex arguments, the inclusion of many lengthy texts throughout the co▯urse may be antithetical to achieving the goals of the course, as students may fo▯cus on the content of a text while overlooking its rhetorical structure or techniqu▯es. A focus on flexibility in applying language skills in multiple contexts to acc▯omplish multiple purposes, along with an emphasis on depth of rhetorical understanding, p▯ermits the inclusion of multiple shorter works that students can read and respond to in a narrow timeframe. Use of Rhetorical Terminology Growth in skills cannot be measured or assessed as students’ mastery ▯of a vocabulary of rhetorical terms. While older versions of this course (in▯cluding questions on the AP English Language and Composition Exam itself) relie▯d on knowledge of terminology as a way of assessing student work, the AP Engl▯ish Language and Composition Exam has evolved to emphasize the appropriate application of such terminology in students’ analyses of texts. Any r▯hetorical terms that appear in this course are best situated as part of the teacher’s vernacular, not the students’. A rule of thumb for students’ vocabulary may be▯ to reinforce language often heard in public discourse, or what we may call terms forf▯unctional rhetoric. These terms may include, but are not limited tocontext, appeals, purpose, audience, attitude, diction, and syntax. Rhetorical Reading The AP English Language and Composition course features a wide variety o▯f texts as reading material in order to help students become flexible re▯aders who understand that not all reading is the same. Students in the course shou▯ld develop as critical readers who ask questions about the rhetorical situation med▯iated by a text. In short, rhetorical reading encompasses both comprehension and interpretation, and the course draws students’ attention to both proc▯esses. As readers, students should gain awareness and control of multiple strategi▯es for comprehending the message contained in a text, the purpose or intent beh▯ind the message, and the effect of the message on audiences. Skill in rhetorical reading is a fundamental requirement of both academi▯c and civic life; ideally, it equips students to conduct academically sound inquiry and argumentation and prepares citizens to participate in intellectually responsible, democratic decision-making. It is a reading skill that recognizes langua▯ge of all kinds as media for social action. Rhetorical reading pays attention to w▯hat language does as well as what itsays. © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conte21s1 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 Rhetorical reading assumes that both written and spoken language perform▯ social actions. When we read written texts rhetorically, we are always asking, “What are these words on the pagedoing?” along with, “What do these wordssay?” Rhetorical reading compels us to look beyond the words on the page to th▯e “writing acts” they perform. Reading texts rhetorically means trying to unders▯tand the social interactions texts can or do perform between writers and their audiences▯. Reading instruction in the course should increase students’ appreciat▯ion ofaudience as a complex and varied concept. Students should learn to distinguish be▯tween primary or intended audiences targeted by a writer and unintended audien▯ces that are differently situated (e.g., culturally, socially, historically, geographically). As readers, students should develop the capacity to anticipate and consi▯der interpretive responses different from their own. The Rhetorical Triangle A visual depiction of rhetorical action that teachers and students may fi▯nd helpful comes from James Kinneavy’sA Theory of Discourse. Kinneavy’s rhetorical triangle offers a starting point for rhetorical analysis by describing rhetorical action in terms of the “rhetorical situations” in which rhetorical action oc▯curs. The points of the triangle represent the rhetor (writer or speaker), the audience▯ (reader or listener), and the message. The message is motivated by informative, pe▯rsuasive, expressive, or literary purposes, and its interpretation, or “uptake,▯” depends on audience knowledge, feelings, values, and beliefs. The sides of the t▯riangle represent relationships among these component parts of the rhetorical act, and the space contained within the triangle represents language (and/or other m▯edia of message exchange). All rhetorical action takes place within historical and cultural context▯s that help to shape the social intentions and interpretations of human communicators. ▯Religious and other cultural traditions, such as conventions of identity formation▯ by gender, age, socioeconomic status, geographic location, education, and so forth, affect the ways we use language to accomplish social purposes. Kinneavy has described four purposes of discourse as emphases on the fou▯r component parts of the triangle: 22 © 2014 The College Board Return to the Table of Conten22 AP English Language and Composition Course Description, Effective Fall 2014 ▶ Informative purpose casts primary emphasis on the message (e.g., textbooks, owner’s manuals). ▶ Persuasive purpose emphasizes the audience, because the desired end of persuasion is the effect of the text on the audience (e.g., sermons, advertisements, campaign speeches). ▶ Expressive purpose emphasizes the speaker’s or writer’s own thoughts and feelings (e.g., diaries, rants, laments). ▶ Literary purposes call for special attention to language as an aesthetic medium (e.g., imaginative fiction, poems, humor). Of course, these purposes rarely exist in isolation from one another; in▯evitably, the same text serves multiple purposes. For example, a newspaper headline ma▯y be primarily informative, but if it is crafted as a form of wordplay it als▯o serves a literary purpose. A lyric poem generally serves expressive as well as literary pu▯rposes, and it may also entail persuasive and informative purposes. Long and complex▯ texts, such as lectures, political addresses, investigative reports, textbooks, sermons, novels, trade books, and academic articles, are invariably intended to accomplish a variety of purposes. Students, as members of the academic community an▯d as informed and responsible citizens, should learn to discern not only the ▯propositional content but also the rhetorical forces of these texts. Rhetorical reading, then, is an analytic process that begins as a search▯ for rhetorical purpose along with verbal meaning. We conduct this search by asking questions of the text: not justwhat does the writer or speaker mean to say in this text or how does the author convey this meaning, butwho is the writer or speaker, and why and to whom has he or she chosen to write or speak these particular words on this particular occasion? In short, rhetorical reading means analyzing verbal texts in social contexts, in terms of how texts signal the writers’ i▯ntent through such strategies as word choice, arrangement of content, representations ▯of self and audience, appeals to reason, and appeals to audience values and emotions▯. Aristotelian Rhetorical Analysis While practice in literary reading points students toward rhetorical rea▯ding through the analysis of stylistic features of texts, style (literary or otherwi▯se) is only a part of rhetoric. Aristotle, writing from a culture where oral language predo▯minated, described style as skill in expressing an argument cogently and eloquently and included this skill as one of the five canons, or principles, of rheto▯ric. The others, which must also figure in rhetorical analysis, includeinvention (finding available means of persuasion), arrangement (selection and assembly of argument for rhetorical effect), memory (ability to access stored propositional knowledge and linguistic resources on demand), anddelivery (effective use of gesture, expression, and analogous textual features in writing to convey the intended message▯). When students practice rhetorical analyses in the AP English Language and Com▯position course, they are learning to recognize (and, in turn, to use) strategi▯es f
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