Study Guide Day 9
Study Guide Day 9 PNUR 1438-010
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Takira Boyd on Thursday July 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PNUR 1438-010 at Kankakee Community College taught by Jackie Billings in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see in Nursing and Health Sciences at Kankakee Community College.
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Date Created: 07/14/16
Day 9 Study Guide 1. Define GI GI GarroIntestinal 2. Define GERD GERDGastroesophageal reflux disease 3. Define Emesis/vomiting Emesis/vomiting food/fluids released from the stomach to the mouth 4. Define Hepatitis Hepatitis inflammation of the liver 5. Define Diabetes hyper/hypoglycemia Diabetes a chronic disease in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in the blood Hypoglycemia low sugar in the blood Signs/Symptoms Hunger Fatigue Headache Dizziness Tingling around the mouth Hyperglycemia high sugar in the blood Signs/Symptoms Weakness Drowsiness Thirst Hunger Frequent Urination Dry Skin Blurred vision 6. Define nutrition Nutrition the processes involved in the ingestion, digestion, absorption, and use of foods/fluids by the body. 7. Define HTN HTN hypertension 8. Define CAD CAD Coronary Artery Disease 9. Define MI MI Myocardial Infraction 10. Define COPD COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 11. Define asthma Asthma the airway becomes inflamed and narrow= difficulty to breathe 12. Define emphysema Emphysema alveoli enlarge = Barrel chest 13. Define bronchitis Bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi 14. Define Influenza Influenza a respiratory infection caused by viruses 15. Define pneumonia Pneumonia inflammation/infection of lung tissue 16. Define TB TB Tuberculosis 17. What are the terms for the different nutrients? Grains Vegetables Fruits Dairy Protein Foods 18. Name different Special Diets and give examples? Sodium Controlled Diet Sodium control decreases the amount of sodium in the body For persons with heart, liver, and pancreas diseases, or digestion of fat Omitting/limiting highsodium foods Diet Planning Foods (Fruits, vegetables, unsalted butter, etc.) Diabetes Meal Plan Diet Consistency (Eating meals and snacks at regular times) For persons with Diabetes Report changes and what the person did/didn’t eat Foods (Determined by nutrition/energy requirements) Dysphagia Diet Follow care plan/aspiration Food has to be thickened Report what the person did/didn’t eat and change in how the person eats Foods (Anything with ThickIt in it) ClearLiquid Diet Foods that are liquid at body temp. Foods (Water, tea, JellO, fruit juice, broth, popsicles) Full Liquid Diet Liquid at room temp./ melt at body temp. For persons with stomach issues, (nausea, vomiting), fever, unable to chew, swallow, or digest solids Foods (Strained soup, yogurt, plain icecream, milk//shakes, cooked cereal, etc.) Mechanical Soft Diet Semisolid foods (easy to digest) For persons with chewing issues, GI disorders, and infections All liquids, foods are shredded or pureed Fiber and Residue Restricted Diet Foods that leave a small residue in the colon For persons with disease of the colon and diarrhea Foods (Coffee, tea, milk, crackers, JellO, strained cooked vegetables, plain pasta, potatoes (not fried), fruits (no skin/seeds) High Fiber Diet Foods that increase fiber/residue= peristalsis For persons with GI Disorders and constipation Foods (All fruits/vegetables, whole grains, and meats) Bland Diet Food that are nonirritating (No spices, condiments, served at moderate temp) For persons with ulcers, abdominal surgery, intestinal and gallbladder disorders) Foods (Lean meats, vegetables/fruits (no skin or seeds), creamed soups, no fried or spicy foods) High Calorie Diet 3,0004,000 calories daily in three meals/ snacks For persons who need to gain weight or a thyroid imbalance Food (Increase in foods, large portions) Calorie Controlled Diet Controlled calories to promote weight loss/ reduce body fat For persons in need of weight loss Foods low in fats/ carbohydrates (No junk food, butter, oil, noodles, etc.) High Iron Diet Increases tissue healing For persons with anemia, blood loss, women with heavy periods Foods (Fish, egg yolks, beans, green leafy vegetables, enriched breads/ cereals) Fat Controlled Diet Low in fat/ without adding fat For persons with heart disease, fat digestion, liver and pancreas diseases Foods (Skim milk, baked meats (fish, chicken), fat free pasta, rice, cereal, etc.) High Protein Diet Promotes tissue healing For people with burns, high fevers, and infections Foods (Meat, milk, eggs, cheese, and green leafy vegetables) 19. Safety measures for a resident with an IV? Check diet (May be on a specific diet) Don’t move the needle/ catheter Protect the IV bag, tubing, and catheter when walking/ repositioning. If bleeding occurs= contact the nurse 20. Safety measures for a resident with enteral feedings? Report any observations such as: nausea, coughing, vomiting, complaints of gas, increased pulse rate, and etc. Need to be in a Fowler’s or SemiFowler’s Position before the feeding Also need to sit up for at least an hour after feeding Get the nurse if the tube has fallen out Every 2 hours oral hygiene is needed and adjust the tubing 21. Difference between NPO, FF, and restrict fluids? NPO Nothing by Mouth Usually happens before/after surgery, before some lab tests, and diagnostic procedures FF Forced Fluids Restrict Fluids Fluids are limited to a certain amount Small amounts/ small containers 22. Difference between a full/clear liquid diet? Full Liquid Diet foods are liquid at room temperature Clear Liquid Diet foods are liquid at body temperature 23. What is I & O and how do you measure it? Pour amount into a container that measures in ML Amount should be installed by the end of the night 24. What is fluid balance? The amount of fluid taken in (Intake) and the amount of liquid released (output) should be equal. 25. How do you prepare a resident for a meal? Comfort Oral Hygiene Glasses Hearing Aids Handwashing 26. How do you serve a resident a meal? Perform hand hygiene Do not put on gloves Correct temperature Lids are covering the items Be prompt (15 min) 27. How/when do you provide fresh drinking water to a patient? Each shift Place in an empty container Ice if that is their preference 28. What is aspiration and how can you prevent it? Aspiration breathing fluid, food, vomit, or an object into the lungs Assist with snacks Support the upper back Check the person’s mouth after eating Provide oral care after eating 29. How do you put on/take off a gown if the person has an IV? Put On Put gown on the weak side first Take Off Take the gown off on strong side first 30. Difference between Edema and Dehydration? Edema swelling of body tissues with water Dehydration excessive loss of fluids from tissues 31. Dysphagia Diet? Thickener is added foods= make it easier to swallow Consistency is based on the person, ranges from (puree to thickened liquid) 32. Aspiration Precautions? Same as #28 33. What are thickened liquids? No lumps. Pureed with milk, gravy, or broth (baby food consistency) 34. Tube feeding and precaution measures? Same as #28, Read in more depth if there are specifics 35. Vital Signs? Temperature Pulse Respirations Blood Pressure Pain (in some agencies) 36. Different ways to take a temperature? Mouth Rectum Underarm Ear Forehead 37. Pulse sights? Temporal, apical, etc. 38. Which pulse is done for 1 minute? Apical (below nipple) 39. How do you count respirations? One inhale and one exhale= 1 respiration 40. Define Apnea? Apnea stop/lack of breathing 41. Define CheyneStrokes? CheyneStrokes 42. Define Tachypnea? Tachypnea more than 20 43. Define Bradypnea? Bradypnea less than 12 44. What is systole? The heart is pumping 45. What is diastole? The heart is resting 46. How do you measure blood pressure? ML and mmHg 47. What is hypertension? Systolic is140 mm Hg of higher Diastolic is 90 mm Hg or higher 48. What is hypotension? Systolic is below 90 mm Hg Diastolic is below 60 mm Hg 49. How do you use a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer? To measure blood pressure, you would use a cuff that goes around the arm A stethoscope is used to hear the heart, longs, and pulse. Clean and place ear pieces in the ears and put the other part on the site you need. 50. What is pain? Pain warning sign from the body Can signify tissue damage Assume all pain is real 51. Define Comfort? Comfort state of wellbeing 52. Define Rest? Rest No physical/ mental pain 53. Types of pain? Phantom Pain Radiating Pain Sudden Pain Disease Pain Chronic Pain Persistent Pain, and etc. 54. Factors that affect pain? Anxiety Past experiences Rest/ Sleep Attention Personal Status Family Status
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