Exam 1 notes
Exam 1 notes Psych 1101
Popular in Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kadijah Hamki on Saturday July 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr.Russell in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 07/16/16
PSYCHOLOGY 1101 LECTURE ONE – 1/15 Marshmallow Experiment - Children who were able to wait to delay the gratification had higher GEA scores and more academically successful and more well-adjusted. What is Psychology? - Scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. - Scientific: answer questions objectively based on observable facts and data and established methods. - Behavior: anything an organism does. Observable behaviors. Behaviors need to be operationally defined (measured). - Mental Processes: Internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior. Consists of thoughts, feelings, perceptions, motivation, dreams and subjective experiences. History of Psychology- Prior to 300 BCE - Plato - Aristotle: Knowledge is gained through experiences. Theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception, and personality. - Nativism: There are certain kinds of knowledge that we are born with. Influence of Physiology and Anatomy - Physiology: studies functions and structures of living organisms. - 1600s: Physiologists study how the brain works and its relation to behaviors. - 1700s: Specific bodily function can be traced to specific brain areas. - Phrenology – proposed by Franz Joseph Gall: we can determine a person’s personality and motivation by feeling the bumps on their skull- not true. The Birth of Psychology: Foundations as a Scientific Discipline - 1879: Wilhelm Wundt: founded the first laboratory of Psychology at the University of Leipzig - Utilizes scientific methods to study the psychological processes. - Edward Titchener: developed idea of Structuralism - Structuralism: we can discover the structure of an individual’s mind by asking the person about their experience. Not reliable- only tell what they want to know/ people are not always sure of what their feeling. - William James: developed idea of Functionalism - Strongly influenced by Darwin Evolution Theory - Function of behaviors, how specific behaviors/emotions help people and animals adapt to their environment. - Interested in WHY we have thoughts, feelings, etc. What evolutionary function do these serve? Early 1900s - John B. Watson: “Little Albert Experiment”: Looking at impact of environmental of learning/memory/emotion. Wanted to demonstrate that we are not born with fear, fear develops from something in the environment. - B.F. Skinner - Behaviorism: need to know what environmental influences are causing behaviors. Studies behaviors without reference to mental processes. - Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalytic Theory - Our behaviors are the result of unconscious conflicts that we have that develop during the first 6 years of our lives. These conflicts are based in two things: sexual impulses and aggressive impulses. - Humanistic Psychology: Carl Rogers: - Don’t agree with Freud. We all have potential for growth and change, personality and functioning can improve. We are motivated by love and acceptance. - Cognitive Psychology: 19 60s: Emphasis on mental processes and how they influence behavior and scientific study on perception, thought memory, and reasoning. LECTURE TWO - 1/17 Levels of Analysis: Biological approaches 1. Biological – natural selection of adaptive traits 2. Psychological – learned fears and other learned expectations 3. Social-cultural – presence of others Two types of research: 1. Basic research: goal is to add knowledge in the field, to contribute the base of knowledge in the field. NOT to solve a specific problem. 2. Applied research: research with a goal of solving a specific or practical problem. Counseling Psychology: assists individuals with problems in their everyday living, helping them develop better adjust skills. Clinical Psychology: evaluate, diagnose, and treat individuals experiencing psychological disorders. Psychiatry: involves medical treatments and at times psychotherapy Positive Psychology: developed by Martin Seligman, focuses on human strengths and resiliency. Community Psychology: work toward creating healthier social environment. CHAPTER ONE Hindsight bias: I knew it all along phenomenon. Tendency to overestimate or exaggerate what reasonably could be anticipated or predicted, only after having learned the outcome. Overconfidence: our everyday thinking is also limited by our tendency to think we know more than we actually do. Inhibits our ability to learn something/ creativity Scientific Method: 1. Theory: tentative explanations for observed findings. 2. Hypothesis: tentative statement about the relationship between variables 3. Operational definitions: describes exactly what the variables are and how they are measured. Clear definitions of concepts/variables and procedures allows for replication. Scientific Research: The Process 1. Formulate testable questions: - Develop hypothesis 2. Design study to collect data: - Descriptive - Correlational - Experimental 3. Analyze data to arrive at conclusions: - Statistics 4. Report results - Publication - Replication LECTURE THREE - 1/22 Descriptive Methods are used to systematically observe and describe behavior => Case study: when you study a particular individual or case in great depth. – May be too narrow to be of general use. Survey: Asking people to respond to a series of questions or to report on their behavior; looks at many cases in depth. – People are not always honest, wording can affect responses. Naturalistic Observation: Observing and recording behavior as it occurs in its natural setting. – maybe other factors are contributing that we do not observe. Correlational Designs - Correlation=relationship - Looking at the relationship between factors/variables - When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say that the two correlate -Ex. Relationship between number of hours studying and GPA. Positive Correlation - When two factors are moving in the same direction. (Ex. As number of study goes up, GPA goes up) - Scatterplot is used to depict correlation Negative Correlation - Indicates an inverse relationship: as one variable increases, the other decreases. - Ex. The more drinks you consume each weeks, the lower your GPA. Correlational Studies - Correlation does not prove causation - Correlations reveal how closely two things vary together and thus how well one predicts the other. Psychological Experiment - The Experiment: - Tests a hypothesis: cause-effect relationship between factors - Factors: variables- factors that can vary in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified (independent vs. dependent) Experimental Design - Independent variable: the factor whose effect is being studied, researcher has control of it. - Dependent variable: the variable that is being measured. - Confounding variable: anything that may affect the dependent variable other than the independent. - Population: group of interest. Findings are generalized to this group - Sample: selected segment of the population. - Experimental group: those participants who are exposed to the treatment (receive the drug). - Control group: those participants who are not exposed to the treatment (receive a placebo). Descriptive Statistics - Descriptive statistics: describing the data set; Measures of central tendency: Mean: arithmetic average; median: the middle score: mode: most frequently occurring score; range: the difference from the lowest to highest; standard deviation: how far away from the mean all of the scores are. Inferential Statistics - Analyze data using various statistical procedures. - Find a difference between 2 or more conditions. - Inferential statistics: determines whether the difference is “meaningful” or due to chance. Ethics in conducting psychological research - Informed consent - Cost-benefit ratio - Use of deception - Confidentially - Debriefing LECTURE FOUR 1/24 CHAPTER TWO Chapter Overview: Specialized nerve cells Communication between cells and other body systems Electrical signals and chemical messengers that make the communication possible Nervous system- CNS and PNS Endocrine system The brain: structure and function Neuron consists of cell body and two main branching fibers: - Dendrite: receive information from sensory receptors or other neurons - Axon: transmit that information along to other neurons. o Some axons are encased by a myelin sheath (fatty, insulating substance) o Myelin sheath helps to speed neural impulses down the axon Neural Communication: Resting Potential - During the resting potential, the fluid interior of the axon carries mostly negatively charged ions. - While fluid outside has mostly positively charged ions - The neuron is “at rest” Neural Communication: Action Potential - Neural impulse that “fires” when the neuron is stimulated by signals from the senses or when triggered by chemical signals from adjacent neurons. - Increasing the level of stimulation does not increase the neural impulse’s intensity: all-or-nothing response. It either fires or it doesn’t. Neural Communication - When electrical impulses reach the axon terminal (end of axon), they stimulate the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. - Neurotransmitters are able to cross the junction between adjacent neurons called the synapse. - After the neurotransmitters cross this synaptic cleft between neurons, they bind to receptor sites on adjacent neurons, passing on their excitatory or inhibitory messages to neighboring neurons. - Excess serotonin: more animated, presynaptic neuron reuptake and stored, - Shortage of serotonin: depression Types of Neurotransmitters - Excitatory: Neurotransmitters that induce action potentials (glutamate) – most signals are excitatory (e.g. pushing the gas) - Inhibitory: Neurotransmitters that inhibit action potentials (GABA) (e.g. Pressing the brake) - Acetylcholine: muscle movement, memory, learning (Alzheimer’s- ach producing neurons deteriorate) - Dopamine: involved in movement, attention, emotion (oversupply: linked to schizophrenia; undersupply: linked to tremors) - Serotonin: involved in mood, sleep, hunger (undersupply: linked to depression) - Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA): Primary inhibitory neurotransmitters (undersupply: lined to seizures, tremors, insomnia) - Norepinephrine: Alertness, arousal (Undersupply: linked to depression) LECTURE FIVE: 1/27 The Nervous System: - Central Nervous System (CNS): The brain and spinal cord form the CNS. - The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): links the central nervous system with the body’s sense receptors, muscles, and glands. The axons carrying this PNS information are bundled into the electrical cables. The Peripheral Nervous System: - Somatic Nervous system: enables our voluntary control over our skeletal muscles. - Autonomic nervous system: a dual-self-regulating system that influences the glands and muscles of our internal organs. o Sympathetic Nervous System- Arouses o Parasympathetic Nervous System- Calms - Sensory Neurons: send information from the bodies tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord, which process the information. - Motor Neurons: carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the body’s tissues. - Interneurons: communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs in the motor outputs. Endocrine System: - Glands: o Pituitary gland- most influential gland of the endocrine system, and is under the control the brains hypothalamus; influence growth and the release of hormones. o Adrenal glands- release the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar, providing us with increased energy when faced with a dangerous situation. The Brain: Brainstem - The brain stem (the oldest and innermost region) is responsible for automatic survival functions. It includes: o Medulla: Controls heartbeat and breathing. o Reticular Formation: plays an important role in controlling arousal. o Pons: located just above the medulla, the pons helped coordinate movements. o Thalamus: receives information from all the senses (except smell) and sends it to the higher brain regions for processing. o Cerebellum: coordinates the movement output and balance and helps process sensory information, it is involved in nonverbal learning and memory. The Limbic System: - Has been linked primarily to memory, emotions, and drives. o Hippocampus: involved in memory storing and processing, transferring information from short term to long term. o Amygdala: emotional center of the brain, influences aggression and fear, fight or flight o Hypothalamus: basic bodily functions, eating, drinking, sleeping or sexual arousement. Cerebral Cortex: - Frontal Lobes: body movements; motor cortex; decision making; planning; speech production. - Temporal Lobes: hearing; language comprehension. - Occipital Lobes: vision. - Parietal Lobes: received sensory input for touch and body position. Lateralization of Hemispheres - Cerebral Hemisphere - Corpus Callosum: allows communication between the two hemispheres. Studying the brain - Electroencephalogram (EEG): device used to record electrical activity on the brains surface. - Neural imaging: o Position Emission Tomography (PET): Uses radiation to produce 3d images of functional processes. o Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Using magnetic field to form images of organs. o Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): measures brains activity by detecting changes in blood flow. LECTURE SIX - 1/31 CHAPTER THREE The study of consciousness: History - Consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and our environment. Brain States and Consciousness - Cognitive Neuroscience: the interdisciplinary study of connection between brain activity and mental processes. Investigates the conscious functions of the cortex based on our cortical activation patterns. - Duel Processing: Simultaneous processing at both… o Conscious: information processing – enables us to exert voluntary control and to communicate our mental states to others. o Unconscious: processing- Faster; occur simultaneously on many parallel tracks- much of our everyday thinking feeling, and acting occurs outside our conscious awareness. Attention - Selective Attention: focus our awareness on only a limited aspect of all that we experience. o The cocktail party effect: refers to our ability to attend to only one voice among many and filtering out other stimuli. o This limits our perception. As many stimuli will pass by unnoticed (inattentional blindness). Neural Basis of Sleep - Our sleep pattern responds to light, which activates parts of our retinas which signals the suprachiascmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus to cause the brain’s pineal gland to decrease its productivity of the hormone melatonin in the morning and to increase it in the evening. - Cycle lasts about 24 hours, but it can be disrupted by bright light, time changes, and alterations in our sleep schedule. - Circadian Rhythm- refers to our schedule of waking and sleeping. Arousal and Sleep States - 4 stages: repeats every 90 minutes o Stage 1: high amplitude theta waves (very slow brain waves), lasts about 10 minutes, characterized by hallucinations (hypnagogic sensations), sense of falling? o Stage 2: approximately 20 minutes; brain begins to produce bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain wave activity known as sleep spindles. o Stage 3: approximately 30 minutes; characterized by deep, slow brain waves known as delta waves; transitional period between light sleep and a very deep sleep; may see sleepwalking. o Stage 4: REM: 60-90 minutes; rapid brain waves, breathing and heart rate rapid, rapid eye movement, essentially paralyzed during this stage, cannot easily be awakened. Functions of Sleep - Restorative theory: may help us recuperate, restoring and repairing brain tissue; and increase growth in general (release of growth hormone). - Adaptive theory: sleep may have played a protective role in human evolution by keeping people safe during potentially dangerous times. - Consolidation/cognition theory: restores and rebuilds our fading memories of the day’s experiences; improves higher order cognitive functions (example: problem solving). Functions of Dreams: Theories - Wish fulfillment (Freud): a dreams manifest content is a censored version of its latent content, which gratifies our unconscious wishes. - Organize daily experiences (Information-Processing); study – sleep – study – exam - Organize random neural activity (Activation-Synthesis Model) – Hobson. Effects of Sleep Deprivation - Depression, compromised immune system, impaired concentration, irritability, more accident prone. - Insomnia: problems in falling or staying asleep – one in 10 adults and one in 4 older adults, complaining of insomnia. Common causes: depression, anxiety, meds, subs, stress, eating habits, “learned insomnia”. - Other sleep problems: narcolepsy, sleep apnea, night terrors. LECTURE SEVEN- 2/3 Hypnosis - Interaction between two people, the hypnotist and the subject, the hypnotist suggests that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. - Best characterized as state of focused attention and heightened suggestibility. - Myths: hypnosis does not enhance recall of forgotten events and may even foster false memories; amnesia; hypnotist has complete. - Posthypnotic suggestions: have helped people with problems like headaches, asthma, stress-related skin disorders, and obesity. Drugs and Consciousness - Psychoactive drugs: are chemicals that change perceptions and moods; work primarily to the limbic reward system. Often pleasure inducing. - Tolerance: brain adapts to the drug (neuroadaptation) - Withdrawal: unpleasant side effects following cessation of drug. - Addiction: pathological compulsive craving for a substance despite adverse consequences. Psychopharmacology: Depressants - Act by reducing neural activity and slowing body functions. - Alcohol: a disinhibitor increases the likelihood that we will act on impulses; impairs judgment, reduces self-awareness and self-control, and disrupts memory processes by suppressing REM sleep. - Barbiturates: tranquilizers, depress nervous system activity; induce sleep or reduce anxiety, in larger doses they can impair memory and judgment. - Opiates: depress neural functioning and can cause the brain to stop producing its own opiates, the endorphins. Psychopharmacology: Stimulants - Can excite neural activity and speed up body functions - Methamphetamine, Nicotine, Cocaine, Ecstasy (MDMA) Psychopharmacology: Hallucinogens - Distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. - LSD, Marijuana Theories of Addiction - Biological vulnerability: studies have identified genes that are more common among people and animals predisposed to alcohol dependence. - These genes may produce deficiencies in the brains natural dopamine reward system. - Psychological factors: the feeling that one’s life is meaningless and directionless; significant stress or failure; depression. CHAPTER FOUR Behavior Genetics - The study of our differences: seeks to determine the relative importance of heredity and environment on behavior. o Environment includes every non-genetic influence. (prenatal nutrition, family environment) - Cellular Structure: o 46 chromosomes, 23 by each parent, each chromosome is composed of DNA o Genes are DNA segments that, when active or expressed, provide the code for the production of protein molecules. o Genome: provides the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in the organism’s chromosomes. - Variations at particular gene sites in the DNA define each person’s uniqueness. - Human traits are influenced by many genes interacting with the environment. Cellular Structure - Chromosomes containing DNA are located in the cell’s nucleus - Segments with DNA consist of genes that make proteins to determining our development. LECTURE EIGHT-2/5 Twin and Adoption Studies - Twin studies are frequently used because the individuals are genetic clones of each other, if they are raised in different environments it allows us to tease apart the effects of heredity and environment. - Adoption studies: enable comparisons with both genetic and environmental relatives. - Separate fraternal twins do not exhibit similarities comparable to those of separated identical twins. - Adoptees’ traits bear more similarities to their biological parents than to their caregiving adoptive parents. Temperament and Heritability - Temperament refers to an infant’s inherent/characteristic emotional excitability and intensity. o Some babies are more relaxed and cheerful, while other are difficult. - These differences in temperament tend to endure. o For example, the most emotional intense preschoolers tend to be relatively intense young adults. - Heritability describes the extent to which variation among members of a group can be attributed to genes. Molecular Genetics - Study of the structure of molecules and the functions of genes. Identify specific genes influence behavior and development. o Through parental screening, we can identify gene that put people at risk for genetically influenced disorders. Evolutionary Psychology - Focuses on our similarities, what makes us alike as humans, with an emphasis on how natural selection has shaped our universal behavior tendencies. - Natural Selection: refers to the principle that those inherited traits that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on succeeding generations. How Does Experiences Influence Development? - Early experiences can modify the brain. - In the womb, embryos receive different nutrition and varying levels of exposure to toxic agents. - Normal stimulation during the early years is critical for optimal brain development. - Experience preserves our activated connection sand unused connections degenerate (pruning) - Throughout life, our actions strengthen some neural pathways, while others weaken from disuse. Development: Parent and Peer Influences - Parental influences: parents are more influential when it comes to education, discipline, responsibility, orderliness, charitableness, and ways of interacting with authority figures. - Peers are more important for learning cooperation, discovering interests, and learning styles of interaction among people of the same age. - Parental and peer influences are complementary. Development: Cultural Influences - Culture: refers to behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. - All cultural groups evolve their own norms- rules for what is accepted and expected behavior; govern their member’s behaviors. Cultural Differences - Individualistic cultures: personal goals, identity defined by personal attributes, personal control, individual achievement, costs: loneliness, higher divorce rates, higher homicide rates, and more stress-related disease. - Collectivistic cultures: value group goals and solidarity, relationships tend to be close and enduring, social harmony is important, duty to family before personal preferences/choices, identity derived from belonging, and goal is to maintain social connections, perform one’s role. Gender Development - Biological sex is determined by the twenty-third pair of chromosomes (ex. Sex chromosomes) - The member of the pair inherited from the mother is the X chromosome, The X (female) or Y (male) chromosome that comes from the father that determines the child’s sex. - Men and women are similar in intelligence, vocabulary, and happiness. - Men and women differ in body fat, muscle, height, life expectancy. - Women: more vulnerable to depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. - Men: more likely to commit suicide, suffer alcohol dependence, diagnosed with autism, color-blindness, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as children, and antisocial personalities as adults. Gender Roles and Gender Typing - Gender is also socially constructed as culture shapes our gender roles. - A role is a cluster of prescribed actions. o For example, gender roles (expectations about the way men and women behave) vary across cultures, time, and across generations. - Gender identity: our sense of being male or female. - Gender typed: acquiring a traditional male or female role. - Social learning theory: assumes that children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating significant others; these behaviors are then rewarded and/or punished. - Thinking/cognition also plays a role - children learn gender schema of what it means to be male or female and adjust their behavior accordingly. - Transgender people’s sense of being male or female differs from their birth. Sex reassignment surgery may be recommended. - LECTURE NINE- 2/7 Biopsychosoical Approach - Nature and nurture jointly form us. That is, we are products of natural selection and heredity as well as cultural, family, and peer influences. But… - We are also open systems – that is, creators as well as creatures of our worlds. We respond to the world’s response to us, and the stream of causation runs through our resent choices. REVIEW Need to know the difference between psychiatrist and psychologist. Difference in basic and applied research Biopsychosocial approaches, 3 components Early thinks in the psychology field (Freud, Titchner, Wundt) Associate schools of thought that they are associated with ^ Concept of hindsight bias and overconfidence Different approaches of research (naturalistic observations, surveys, case studies, experiments) Pull a sample of a larger population Different groups in an experiment (experimental group, control group) Different types of variables in an experiment (independent, dependent, confounding) Statistical methods (describing data, mean, median, and mode) Psychologists who work from a biological perspective focus on the link between brain activity and behavior. Different structures and functions of the neurons Be familiar with electrochemical process Disorders/diseases (Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia) Reuptake, instamatic degrogation. Divisions of the nervous system Communication between the hemispheres, band of fibers, Selective attention, cocktail-party effect Pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a 24 hour cycle Four sleep stages w/ characteristic features Theories of dreams (Freud’s theory) Drug use and dependence and their specific features and it involving a particular system/circuiting the brain (limbic reward system/dopamine reward system) Temperament and its features Differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Correlational-relationship between variables Gender roles/identity
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