Exam 3 notes
Exam 3 notes Psych 1101
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kadijah Hamki on Saturday July 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr.Russell in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 07/16/16
EXAM THREE NOTES LECTURE EIGHTEEN – 3/7 Chapter Nine: Thinking and Language Cognition - Refers to the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. - We form some concepts by definition (ex. A triangle has three sides). - More often we form a concept by developing a prototype a mental image or best example of a particular category. o Example: a robin (prototype) more closely resembles our ‘bird’ category than does a penguin. Cognitive Strategies and Problem-Solving - Trail-and-Error problem-solving - Algorithm: a methodical or step-by-step process of problem-solving; more effortful - We often rely instead on simple thinking strategies called heuristics; however, more error-prone. - Confirmation bias: searching for information that confirms our ideas; this can sometimes lead to illogical ideas/conclusions in our problem-solving. - Another obstacle to problem solving is fixation – the inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. o The tendency to repeat solutions that have worked in the past is a type of fixation called mental set. Decision-Making and Judgment - Intuition: effortless, immediate, automatic-thinking (gut feeling). - Overconfidence: the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments; can be both adaptive (mobilizes us) and problematic (false impressions). - Belief perseverance: clinging to our ideas despite contrary evidenceonce beliefs are formed and justified, more compelling evidence is needed to change them than it did to create the . o To avoid this form of bias is to make a deliberate effort to consider evidence. Cognition and Intuition - Intuition is powerful, but sometimes perilous, and especially so when we over feel and under think. Language - Language: way of combining words to communicate meaning. - Spoken language is built from basic speech sounds called phonemes, that can change the meaning of a word (cat and cut). - Smallest units of language that have meaning, called morphemes(un-event- ful) - Language must have a grammar, a system of rules that govern the structure of a language –phrases. - Semantics: the study of the meaning of words. - Syntax: refers to the rules we use to order words into grammatically sensible sentences. Language Development - Receptive language abilities mature before productive language (expressive language). o Beginning at about 4 months, infants enter a babbling stage in which they spontaneously utter various sounds at first unrelated to the household language. - Around age 1 most children enter the one-word stage, and by their second birthday, they are uttering two-word sentences. o This two-word stage is characterized by telegraphic speech. - This soon leads to uttering longer phrases, there is no three-word stage, by early elementary school, children are able to understand complex sentences. Language Acquisition - Noam Chomsky notes that children are biologically prepared to learn words and use grammar (they are born with a language acquisition device already in place). - Chomsky argues that children acquire words that are untaught, and grammar at a rate that is too fast to be explained by learning. (Argued by Skinner). LECTURE NINETEEN- 3/10 Language Acquisition (cont.) - Skinner emphasis on learning helps explain how infants acquire their language as they interact with others. - Childhood does seem to represent a critical period for certain aspects of learning. Research indicates that children who have not been exposed to either spoken or sign language by about the age 7 gradually lose their ability to master any language. - Learning a second language also becomes difficult after this window of opportunity closes. Neuropsychology and Language - Wernicke’s area: left temporal lobe; controls language reception - Broca’s area: left frontal lobe; controls language expression by directing muscle movements that involve speech. - The band of tissues that connect these areas is Arcuate fasciculus - Aphasia: an impairment of language, can result from damage to any several cortical areas. o Some causes: stroke, brain damage, brain tumor, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia. - Broca’s Aphasia: (expressive aphasia): loss of ability to produce spoken or written language. - Wernicke’s Aphasia: (receptive aphasia): difficulty understanding single words and sentences or speaking with appropriately meaningful words. - Boston naming test Cognition and imager - We often think in images - In remembering how we do things, for example, turning on the water in the bathroom, we use non-declarative (procedural) memory – a mental picture of how we do it. LECTURE TWENTY – 3/12 Chapter Ten: Intelligence David Wechsler: “intelligence is the global capacity of a person to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment” What is Intelligence? - A socially constructed concept; varies from culture to culture. Does ‘intelligence’ vary among people or does expression of intelligence vary? - It varies among people and how we express it also varies - Most psychologists now define intelligences as the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. - Intelligence tests assess individuals’ mental abilities and compares them with others, using numerical scores. Intelligence (IQ) - General intelligences (g): proposed by Charles Spearman: according to Spearman, “g” is responsible for performance on ability tests, intelligence is a single score. - Factor analysis has identified several clusters of mental abilities. VCI, PRI, WMI, PSI (Wechsler scales). - Verbal comprehension, perceptional reasoning, working memory, processing speed. - Howard Gardner- proposed a theory of multiple intelligences based on evidence that brain damage may diminish in one ability but not others, as well as studies of savant syndrome. o Linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic (physical movement/ fine motor control), intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalistic. - Robert Sternberg – proposed a triarchic theory of multiple intelligences in which he distinguishes among analytical (academic problem solving), practical, and creative intelligences. Creativity - Generally, people with high IQ scores do well on creativity tests. - Five components of creativity: expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, and a creative environment. - Convergent thinking: when we are trying to narrow down and come up with a single, correct answer (multiple choice exams). Divergent thinking: not narrowing down, but opening up to coming up with a single answer (short answer exam). Emotional Intelligence (EQ) - An aspect of social intelligence; 4 components: - 1. Perceive emotions 2. To understand emotions 3. To manage emotions 4. To use emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking. Intelligence and Neuroanatomy - Positive correlation between brain size and IQ. - IQ is correlated with greater activity in specific areas (esp. frontal and parietal lobes). - Higher IQ is also associated with the ability to retrieve information from memory more quickly (PSI). Assessing intelligence - The intelligence testing movement started at the turn of the 20 centuryth when French psychologist Alfred Binet began assessing intellectual abilities. - Binet developed an intelligence test containing questions that asses mental age and helped predict children’s aptitude in Parisian schools - The tests original purpose was to identify children needing special attention - Terman came up with Standford-Binet test, could help guide people toward appropriate opportunities. He believed that intelligence was inherited. LECTURE TWENTY ONE- 3/14 Aptitude vs. Achievement Test - Aptitude: refers to the capacity to learn, and thus aptitude tests are those diagnosed to predict a person’s future “performance” (SAT, ACT). - Predictive Validity - Achievement tests are designed to assess what a person has learned. - The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): most widely used intelligence test and consists of 15 subtests. Yields, vci, pri wmi psi fsiq Standardization and Normal Distribution - Scores become meaningful only when they can be compared with others’ performances – they must be defined relative to a pretested group, a process called standardization. - The group on which a test is standardized must be representative of those who will be taking the test in the future. - Standardization test results typically form a normal distribution: a bell- shaped patter of scores that forms the normal curve > most scores cluster around the average, and increasingly fewer are distributed at the extremes. - Intelligence tests scores form such a curve, but in the past several decades the average score has risen, a phenomenon known as the Flynn Effect. Reliability and Validity - Reliability: refers to the extent to which a test yields consistent scores; a test can be reliable but not valid. - Validity: refers to the extent to which a test measures or predicts what is supposed to. - Aptitude tests have predictive validity if they can predict future achievement/performance. Intelligence over the lifespan - General studies show that, until later in life, intelligence remains fairly stable. - Crystallized intelligence – our accumulated knowledge, increases with age. - Fluid intelligence – our ability to reason speedily an abstractly; decreases beginning in the twenties and thirties. Intellectual Disabilities and Giftedness - Intellectual disability – formerly “mental retardation” intelligence scores fall below 70. Must have both low test score and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of living independently. - Intellectual disabilities sometimes results from known physical causes. - At the other extreme are the “gifted”. LECTURE TWENTY TWO- 3/24 Chapter Eleven: Motivation and Work Motivation - A motivation is a need or desire that energizes our behavior and directs it toward a goal. - 4 perspectives: (1) instinct/ evolutionary perspective, (2) drive-reduction theory, (3) arousal theory, (4) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. - (1) instincts- complex behaviors that are rigidly patterned throughout a species and are unlearned; this idea that genes predispose species-typical behavior is still influential in evolutionary psychology (migration, mothering, curiosity, laughter, sex, hunger). - (2) Drive-reduction theory- proposes that physiological needs create aroused psychological states that drive us to reduce or satisfy those needs (hunger, thirst, warmth). The aim of drive reduction is internal stability (homeostasis) < balanced. - We are not only pushed by internal drives but we are also pulled by external incentives > there is both a need (hunger) and an incentive (smell of freshly baked bread), we feel strongly driven. - (3) Arousal theory- states that rather than reducing a physiological need or minimizing tension, some motivated behaviors aim to maintain an ideal level of arousal. - Say you are under stimulated (studying for an exam) might feel driven to go out, to increase the level of arousal. If you are over stimulated, (been out to club way too many times), may feel the urge to take a walk and feel alone. Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) - (4) Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs expresses the idea that, until satisfied, some motives are more compelling than others. - Basic need : food, water - Only when there needs are met we are prompted to meet our need for safety, and then to meet the needs to give and receive love, to belong and be accepted, and to enjoy self-esteem. - Suggested that some people reach a level of self-transcendence in which they strive for meaning and purpose that is beyond the self, that is, transpersonal (experiencing spiritual ideas such as considering oneself an integral part of the universe). Hunger - Increases in the hormone insulin diminish blood glucose. - Our body’s internal state is monitored by areas deep within the hypothalamus (ex. The arcuate nucleus, influences feelings of hunger and fullness) - Fighting, fleeing, feeding, fornicating. - Set Point theory: a biologically fixed tendency to maintain an optimum weight. - Settling Point theory: an environmentally and biologically influenced level at which weight settles in response to caloric input and expenditure. - Although some taste preferences are genetic, conditioning and culture also affect taste. - A taste may be conditioned, as when people given highly salted foods developed a liking for excess salt or when people who have been sickened by a food develop an aversion to it. o We also tend to avoid unfamiliar foods (neophobia), which was adaptive for our ancestor. - We eat more when eating with others (through social facilitation). Sexual Response Cycle - The human sexual response cycle follows a pattern: - 1. Excitement 2. Plateau 3. Orgasm 4. Resolution 5. Refractory period tends to increase with age. - Sexual disorders are problems that consistently impair sexual arousal or functioning. (eg. Premature ejaculation and orgasmic dysfunction). Sex hormones - Sex hormones direct the physical development of male and female sex characteristics and activate sexual behavior. - Although testosterone is present in both sexes, males have a higher level. - The female hormones, the estrogens (such as estradiol) peak during ovulation. - Sex hormones decline in later life. Teen Pregnancy/ STDs - Americans have higher pregnancy and abortion rates. - Unprotected sex leads to increase in to STDs and STIs. Teenage girls, because of their less mature biological development and lower levels of protective antibodies, are especially vulnerable to STIs. - Attempts to protect teens through comprehensive sex education programs include a greater emphasis on teen abstinence. - Teens with high rather than average intelligence more often delay sex. LECTURE TWENTY THREE- 3/26 Sexual Orientation - Sexual orientation: our enduring sexual attraction towards members of either our own sex (homosexual) or the other sex (heterosexual), and both sex’s (bisexual). - Estimates derived from the sex of unmarried partners reported in the 2000 U.S Census suggested that 2.5 % of the population is gay/lesbian. - There is no correlation between homosexuality and one’s relationships with parents, fear/hatred of people of the other gender, levels of sex hormones currently in the blood, or childhood sexual experience. Need to Belong - Adults who formed attachments were more likely to come together to reproduce and to stay together to nurture their offspring. - People who feel supported by close relationships live with better health and at lower risk for psychological disorder and premature death. - People who are in healthy, securely attached relationships are more likely to pay attention to their health. Work - The income from work can indirectly satisfy the drive for food and shelter. - Some are driven by achievement motivation, wanting to feel successful, being productive. - In rare cases, the goals and activities of work can feel like a calling, a fulfilling and socially useful activity. Some people may seek the optimal work experience called flow (feeling purposefully engaged, deeply immersed). Industrial Organizational Psychology - Three areas of focus: 1. Personnel psychology: hiring and evaluating 2. Organizational psychology: management, supervision, leadership, and teamwork 3. Human factors psychology: how workers interface with machines and the environment. LECTURE TWENTY FOUR- 3/28 LECTURE TWENTY FIVE- 3/31 Expressed Emotion - All of us communicate nonverbally as well as verbally. - Most people can detect nonverbal cues, and we are especially sensitive to nonverbal threats. - Introverts are better emotion-detectors than extraverts, although extroverts are easier to read. - Women generally surpass men at reading people’s emotional cues. Women’s nonverbal sensitivity helps explain their greater emotional literacy. Their skill at decoding others’ emotions may also contribute to their greater emotional responsiveness. - The facial feedback effect indicates that expressions amplify our emotions by activating muscles associated with specific states, and the muscles signal the body to respond as though we were experiencing those states. o Example: students induced to make a frowning expression reported feeling a little angry. - Similarly, the behavior feedback phenomenon shows that if we move out body as we would when experiencing some emotion (shuffling along with downcast eyes, as when sad), we are likely to feel that emotion to some degree. General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye) - Selye’s General Adapatation Syndrome (GAS), the body’s adaptive response to stress is composed of three stages. - Phase 1: we experience an alarm reaction due to the sudden activation off our sympathetic nervous system. Heart rate increases and blood is diverted to the skeletal muscles. - Phase 2: (resistance), temperature, blood pressure, and respiration remain high, and there is a sudden outpouring of stress hormones. If the stress is persistent it may eventually deplete our body’s reserves during. - Phase 3: (exhaustion), with exhaustion, we are more vulnerable to illness or even, in extreme cases, collapse and death. Culture and Emotion - Although some gestures are culturally determined, facial expressions, such as those of happiness and anger, are common the world over. - Children’s facial expressions, even those of blind children who have never seen a face, are also universal. - Cultures differ in how much they express emotions. Like most psychological events, emotion is best understood as a biological, cognitive, and social- cultural phenomenon. Stress and Health - Prolonged stress increases our risk for serious illness and death. - Behavioral medicine- the interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge. - Stress is not just a stimulus or a response; rather, it is the process by which we appraise and respond to a threatening or challenging event. - When perceived as challenges, stressors can arouse and motivate us to conquer problems. - When perceived as threats, prolonged stressors can harm us and increase the risk of illness. Stress and Personality - Stress can increase the risk of coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in North America. - It has been linked with the competitive, hard-driving, and impatient Type A personality; experiences negative emotions, especially the anger associated with an aggressively reactive temperament. - The more easygoing Type B personality is less physiologically reactive when harassed or given a difficult challenge and less susceptible to coronary heart disease. - Pessimism and depression also can have a toxic effect on a person’s health. - Cancer and HIV can be cause by prolonged stress. LECTURE TWENTY SIX – 4/2 Chapter thirteen: Personality Psychodynamic Theories - Personality: viewed as a dynamic interaction between our conscious and unconscious minds, including motives and conflicts. - Sigmund Freud is the father of Psychodynamic theories. - According to Freud, the majority of what is happening to us is happening unconsciously. (Iceberg Theory). - The mind is mostly hidden – below the surface is the much larger unconscious, which contains thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are largely unaware. - Although we repress these thoughts, they seep out in our beliefs, habits, symptoms, and in our dreams (manifest content). - He believed that personality arises from our efforts to resolve the conflict between our biological impulses and the social restraints against them. - He theorized that the conflict center on three interacting systems: o The id: which operates on the pleasure principle. o The ego: which functions on the reality principle. o The superego: an internalized set of ideals. (shaming thoughts) Psychosexual Stages of Development - Oral Stage (birth – 18months) – pleasure centers on the mouth. - Anal Stage (18-36 months): centers on bowel/ bladder elimination. - Phallic Stage (3-6 years): pleasure centers on the genitals. - Boys experience the Oedipus complex, with unconscious sexual desires toward their mother and hatred of their father. They cope with theses threatening feelings through identification with their father, thereby incorporating many of his values and developing a sense of what psychologists now call gender identity. LECTURE TWENTY SEVEN – 4/4 - Latency State (6 years to puberty), in which sexuality is dormant, gives way to the genital stage (puberty on) as sexual interests mature. Neo-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories - Neo-Freudians accepted Freud’s basic ideas regarding personality structures, the importance of the unconscious, the shaping of personality in children and the dynamics of anxiety and defense mechanisms. - However, Neo-Freudians placed more emphasis on the conscious mind in interpreting experience, and they argued that we have more positive motives than sex and aggression. Projective Personality Assessment - Projective tests provide ambiguous stimuli that are designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics. - Rorschach inkblot test seeks to identify people’s inner feelings and conflicts by analyzing their interpretations of 10 inkblots; critics question the validity and reliability. - House-Tree-Person Drawings: ask the individual to draw a pic of house, tree, and person; how they draw them gives them a lot of info about their personalitily dynamics. Humanistic Theory - View personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth. - Self-actualization (Maslow) is the motivation to fulfill one’s potential, and self-transcendence is the desire to find meaning and purpose beyond the self. - Carl Rogers: to nurture growth in others, Rogers advised being genuine, empathic, and accepting (offering unconditional positive regard). In such a climate, people can develop a deeper self-awareness and a more realistic and positive self-concept. Humanistic Theories- Assessment - We assess an individual by asking the person questions and interviewing them. Trait Theories - Describe personality in terms of stable and enduring behavior patterns, or dispositions to feel and act. - One technique trait theorists use to identify basic traits is factor analysis, a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of behaviors that tend to appear together; example: extraversion – introversion and emotional stability – instability. Trait Theories – Objective Personality Assessment - Researchers have isolated five distinct personality dimensions, dubbed the big five: - Conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism (emotional stability versus instability), openness, and extraversion. - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): commonly used. Although it assesses “abnormal” personality tendencies rather than normal personality traits, the MMPI illustrates a good way of developing a personality inventory. Is empirically derived. Social Cognitive Theory - Applies principles of learning, cognition, and social behavior to understanding personality. - Emphasizes our sense of personal control (i.e. see ourselves as controlling or as being controlled by our environment). o Internal Locus of Control o External Locus of Control - This Learned helplessness REVIEW CHAPTER 9-13 1. Different problem solving strategies (algorithms, heuristics) 2. The concepts of creativity and a mental set 3. Intuition 4. Define language, and to know the different components of language (grammar, syntax) 5. Name associated with theories regarding language development (Chomsky) 6. Different stages of language development (1 word, 2 word) and features associated with them 7. Difficulties that people can experience if they sustain brain damage to particular parts of the brain that are responsible for language. Know what the impairments are called. And differentiate the areas of the brain. 8. The g factor 9. The purpose of the first intelligence test 10.Differentiate between intelligence test, achievement test, and aptitude test 11.Know the definition of reliability and validity, and to be able to distinguish between the two. 12.IQ scores, intellectual disability, savant syndrome 13.Different theories of motivation, instinct, drive reduction, arousal, Maslow hierarchy of needs. 14.Stages of sexual response cycle 15.Industrial organizational psychology (application of psychological principles in the work place) 16.Common sexual disorders 17.Difference between set-point, and settling point theories of weight. 18.Theories of emotions, james lang theory, cannon bard theory, two-factor theory 19.The autonomic nervous system, and its branches (sympathetic, and parasympathetic), regulates physiological arousal that accompanies different emotions. 20.Commonly used to measure physiological changes (polygraph, lie detector) 21.Research findings on non-verbal expression of emotion 22.People describe emotions on two dimensions (negative or positive, high or low) 23.Some of the findings that are related to the expression of emotion, specifically anger. Commonly known hypothesis, what it’s called, and the research related to it. 24.Definition of personality 25.4 specific theories of personality, psychodynamic, humanistic, trait, and social cognitive theory. 26.Two names that are associated with these theories (Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers) 27.Freud’s three structures of personality (Id, ego, superego). 28.Freud’s stages, psychosexual stages of development 29.Edopus complex and electra complex 30.Process of identification, being taking on as one’s own. 31.Defense mechanisms, purpose is to keep impulses repressed. 32.The ideas of Neo-Freudians 33.Statistical procedure known as factor analysis. 34.Social cognitive personality emphasizes interaction between traits and the environment. 35.Carl Rogers theory of personality emphasized the importance of empathy, acceptance, genuineness. 36.Internal locus of control and external 37.The term prototype as well as the concepts of belief perserverance, and confirmation bias 38.
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