Exam 4 notes
Exam 4 notes Psych 1101
Popular in Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kadijah Hamki on Saturday July 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr.Russell in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 07/16/16
4/11/14 Social Psychology - The scientific study of how (1) we think about, (2) influence, and (3) relate to one another. - Attribution Theory: we tend to give a casual explanation for someone’s behavior; explain people’s behavior in terms of internal dispositions or in terms of the external situation. o A teacher may explain a child’s hostility in terms of an aggressive personality or as a reaction to stress or abuse. - Fundamental Attribution Error- tendency to overestimate personality influences and to underestimate situational. o Blame the poor and the unemployment for their own misfortune. - Attitudes: feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. For example: we may feel dislike for a person because we believe he or she is mean, and , as a result, act unfriendly. Attitudes and Behavior - Attitudes often predict our behavior. - Peripheral route persuasion occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness. - Central route persuasion occurs when people focus on the arguments and content of the message. - Foot-in-the-door phenomenon is the tendency for people who first agree to a small request to comply with a larger request (e.g. sing a petition, contribute to the cause). - Opposite is door-in-the-face technique (up-pricing a car). - Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger) argues that people feel discomfort when their actions conflict with their attitudes; more in line with their actions. Social Influence - The Chameleon Effect- our natural tendency to mimic others. o Unconsciously mimicking other’s expressions, postures, and voice tones help us feel what they are feeling (empathize). o Explains why we feel happier around happy people – research supports. - Conformity: Adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard. Under certain conditions, people will conform to a group’s judgment, even when it is clearly incorrect o Conformity increases when an individual feels incompetent or insecure admires the group’s status and attractiveness, are being observed by other group members come from a culture that encourages respect for social standards , and are in a group with at least three people who are unanimous in their Obedience –Milgram Studies - Experimenter ordered “teachers” to deliver shocks to a “learner” for wrong answers. Torn between obeying the experimenter and responding to the learners pleas, the people usually chose to obey orders, even though it supposedly meant harming the learner. - The experiment demonstrates that social influences can be strong enough to make people conform to falsehoods or engage in cruelty. 4/14/14 Social Relations - Prejudice: a mixture of beliefs (often overgeneralized and called stereotypes), emotions (hostility, envy, or fear), and predispositions to action (to discriminate). o Prejudice is a negative attitude; discrimination is a negative behavior. - In group: people we associate ourselves with; who we see similar too. - Out group: everyone else. - Just-world-phenomenon: reflects the idea that good is rewarded and evil is punished. - Some group identifications promote an ingroup-bias: a favoring of one’s own group. - Scapegoat theory suggests that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. Denigrating others boosts one’s own sense of status. - One way we simplify the world is to form categories. - In categorizing others, we often stereotype them, overestimating the similarity of those within another group. - The other-race effect (or cross-race effect or own-race bias) is the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races. - Victim-blaming: victims may be blamed based on the assumption that the world is just and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get. Aggression - Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. - Biological influences on aggression operate at the genetic, neural, and biochemical levels. - Studies of violent criminals have revealed diminished activity in the frontal lobes, which play an important role in controlling impulses. - Studies of the effect of hormones (e.g., testosterone), alcohol, and other substances in the blood show that biochemical influences contribute to aggression. Aggression/Frustration - The frustration-aggression principle states that the blocking of an attempt to reach some goal creates anger, which can generate aggression. - People can learn aggression by observing models who act aggressively, for example, in the family or in the media (watching violence or sexual aggression on TV or in film). - Laboratory experiments reveal that repeatedly watching on-screen violence makes sexual aggression seem less serious, extramarital sex less troubling, and a woman’s friendliness more sexual. - Media depictions of violence also trigger aggression by providing social scripts (mental tapes for how to act provided by our culture. Attraction - Three factors that contribute to our liking of someone: 1. Geographical proximity: exposure effect. Repeated exposure to novel stimuli enhances liking of them. 2. Physical attractiveness: influences social opportunities and the way one is perceived. People viewed as attractive then we are more likely to view that person as healthier, happier, and more successful. 3. Similarity of attitudes and interests - The factors that foster attraction are explained by a reward theory of attraction: we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us, and we will continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs. Alturism - Unselfish regard for the welfare of others. - The bystander effect is the tendency for any given bystander to an emergency to be less likely too give aid if other bystanders present (Kitty Genovese, 1964) 4/16/14 Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders - Patterns of thoughts, feelings, or actions that are deviants, distressful, and dysfunctional. o Abnormal o Upsetting o Impaired Functioning Defining Abnormality - Age appropriate - Frequency (same behavior in moderation. Ex.alcohol use) - Stress-related - Number of symptoms - Change from baseline (changes in activity/sleep/eating habits; requires your awareness) - Cultural norms - Continuum? Distress - Emotional suffering or pain - Whose suffering counts: o Self? o Others? Dysfunction - Effects on: Work, Others, and Independence - Dysfunction most critical on the 3 factors. - If you can maintain these three factors, then there is no disorder. Understanding Disorders - Origins: o Psychodynamic o Biological o Cognitive-behavioral o Social-cultural o Humanistic - Medical Model: disorders as disease o Mental health o People with disorders mentally ill Psychopathology: studies mental diseases o Diagnosed based on symptoms o Treatment to cure the patient Biopsychosoical Approach - Evidence: Genetics, medication, individual experience, personality, cultures differ. - Biological influences: evolution, individual genes, brain structure and chemistry. - Psychological influences: stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood- related perceptions and memories. - Social-cultural influences: roles, expectations, definitions of normality and disorder. Classifying Psychological Disorders - Classification provides: description, future course, treatment directions. - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Fifth edition - Does not explain causes - Reliability, consistency - Issues: a disorder for everything? It keeps getting bigger, criticism that everything we do is being classified as a disorder. Pros/Cons of Labeling Psychological Disorders 1. Stigma 2. Focus on “problem” (vs. strengths) 3. Negative prognosis (effect on self and others) --------------------------- 4. Understand problems 5. Direct treatment 6. Eligible for services Anxiety Disorders 1. Generalized anxiety disorder: Constant worry, difficult to identify cause 2. Panic disorder: brief, sudden, seemingly unprovoked anxiety. Intense Physiological response: spontaneous fight or flight response 3. Phobias: persistent and irrational fear of an object/situation. They impact your life. 4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder 5. Post-traumatic stress disorder 4/18/14 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder PTSD: - Can occur after trauma - Intense anxiety, nightmares, avoidance of situations, withdrawl o Depression, substance abuse common - Amygdala involved, other biological factors Explaining Anxiety Disorders - Freud - Behavioral o Conditioning, observational learning, cognition - Biological o Evolutionary threats, genes, brain activity Mood Disorders - Depression - Bipolar Disorder - Both involve biopsychosocial interaction o Most successful treatment addresses all Depression - Range of severity o Major depressive disorder: severe symptoms, single episodes or recurrent o Dysthymia: symptoms less severe but chronic o More common in women than in men - Symptoms: Depressed mood most of the day, no interest/pleasure, insomnia or sleeping to much, fatigue, throughts of death - Biological perspective: genetic heritability, lower brain activity, drug alter neurotransmitter. - Social cognitive perspective: negative thoughts and moods, learned helplessness, rumination, explanatory style, pessimism. Bipolar Disorder - Cycles of abnormally elevated and depressed moods o Manic Depression - Mania o Restless activity, excitement, self-confidence, rambling speech, loss of inhibition, impulse control issues, attention deficits. - Cycling o Normal bouts last 3-6 months, <1 per year. o Rapid bouts ~4 bouts per year, uncommon o Ultra rapid bouts everyday. 4/21/14 Schizophrenia - Is a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional (false belief) thinking, disturbed perceptions (experiencing some sort of sensory perception about something in the absence of a stimulus; hearing voices, seeing things; halucinations), and inappropriate emotions and actions (might look totally flat/no emotion/monotone/grossly inappropriate laughter/anger/rage/ emotions that are out of context). - 2 primary types of delusions: Persecution (others are out to get them) or grandeur (believing that they are something higher/ “queen of England”) - Hallucinations: sensory experiences without sensory stimulation; usually auditory and often take the form of voices. - Individuals with schizophrenia who are disorganized and deluded in their talk or prone to inappropriate laughter, tear, or rage are said to have positive symptoms. - When appropriate behaviors are absent the person is showing negative symptoms. (patient has a toneless voice, expressionless face, and a mute or rigid body.) - Researchers have linked certain forms of schizophrenia with brain abnormalities such as increased receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine. - Brain-scanning techniques indicate that people with chronic schizophrenia have abnormal activity in multiple brain areas. - Some patients appear to have enlarged, fluid-filled areas (ventricles) and a corresponding shrinkage of cerebral tissue. Persons with schizophrenia also have a smaller-than-normal thalamus (relay center). - Frontal lobes, amaygdala, ventricles in the brain (spaces in the brain/ they tend to have larger ventricles/ smaller surface area of brain). Dissociative Disorders - A person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity, often in response to an overwhelming stressful situation. o May have no memory of identity or family. Dissociation itself is not uncommon (daydreaming). - Often in response to a stressful event. - Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): A person exhibits two or more distinct and alternation personalities, with the original personality typically denying awareness of the other(s). - Skeptics question whether DID is a genuine disorder. Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa: normal weight person (usually female) diets to become significantly underweight (15% or more), yet feels overweight and is obsessed with losing weight - Bulimia Nervosa: characterized by private, binge-purge episodes of overeating, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise. 4/25/14 Chapter 16: Therapy Psychotherapy - In psychotherapy, a trained therapist uses psychological techniques to assist someone seeking to overcome difficulties or achiever personal growth. - The biomedical therapies are prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the person’s physiology. - Eclectic approach: therapists pull from different strategies depending on the clients problem. Psychoanalysis - Goal: help people gain insight into the unconscious orgins of their disorders, to work through the accompanying feelings, and to take responsibility for their own growth. - Techniques include: free association (anything that pops into the patients mind), resistance (people experience anxiety when close to unconscious material), interpretation (making connections), and transferences (recreate early relationships) and countertransference (). - Psychoanalysis is criticized because its interpretations are hard to prove or disprove and because it is time-consuming and costly. - Psychodynamic Therapists try to understand patients current symptoms by exploring their childhood experiences and the therapist-patient relationship. - Interpersonal Psychotherapy: very effective in treating depression; emphasizes symptom relief in the present; focuses on relationship skills, help the person learn more adaptive relationship skills. Humanistic/Client-Centered Therapy - Both psychodynamic and humanistic therapies are rfered to as insight therapies. Which attempt to improve psychological functioning by increasing the person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses. - Present and future rather than the past. Focuses on growth rather than illness Behavior therapy - Assume behaviors are the problems and thus do not look for inner causes. Instead, they apply learning principles to eliminate a troubling behavior. - Exposure therapies treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid. - Systematic desensitization, an exposure therapy a pleasant, relaxed state is associated with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. This procedure is commonly used to treat phobias. - Virtual reality exposure- provides vivid stimulations of feared stimuli, such as a plane’s takeoff. Frequently used with PTSD. - In aversive conditioning, an unpleasant state (such as nausea) is associated with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol). This method works in the short run, but for long-term effectiveness it is usually combined with other methods. Behavioral Modification - Operant conditioning therapies are based on the premise that voluntary behaviors are strongly influenced by their consequences. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy - Cognitive therapists assume that our thinking influences our feelings, and so they try to teach people who suffer from psychological disorders new, more constructive ways of thinking. Group and Family Therapy - s Therapy: Criticism Clients and therapists views of therapy effectiveness are vulnerable to inflation from the placebo effect – the power of belief in a treatment. - In addition, regression toward the mean- the tendency for unusual events (including emotions) to return to their average state – may lead people to overestimate the effectiveness of therapy.
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