HIST 1010 Exam 3 Study Guide
HIST 1010 Exam 3 Study Guide History 1010
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World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 Terms to Know COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA • Encomienda: a system in which the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Indians—it was a disguised form of slavery. • Haciendas: large plantation like farms. • Viceroys: can be thought of as “the men on the scene” for the king—it gave Spaniards new job opportunities • Castas: a hierarchally arranged society with Europeans (full blooded) being on the top. • Mestizos: children that resulted from the breeding of the Europeans and the Indians. • Mulattoes: children that resulted from the breeding of the Europeans and the Africans. • Creoles: those who were European but born in the Americas—considered to be more middle class than the Peninsulares since they weren’t born in Europe. • Peninsulares: those who were European but came to the Americas. OTHER REFORMATIONS & VARIndIES OF PROTESTANTISM • Henry VIII: the 2 king of the Tudor Dynasty that was married to many women, including Catherine of Aragon (had a daughter named Mary), Anne Boleyn (had a daughter named Elizabeth), and Jane Seymour (had a son named Edward). • Edward IV: the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, who seceded his father at the time of his death, but was too young to rule; therefore, having his uncle as the regent. • Mary Tudor: the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon that seceded the throne after her half brother, Edward IV died. She went back to the way things were before the separation of her mother and father. • Elizabeth I: the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn who seceded the throne after her half sister Mary died. She wanted the church, as it was when her dad ruled it—this meant no pope, and only her ruling the church. • Catherine of Aragon: the first wife of Henry VIII, of whom he divorced due to her not being able to have a son. • Anne Boleyn: the second wife of Henry VIII, of whom he got beheaded for not having a son. • Thomas Cromwell: Henry VIII’s right hand man. nd • Thomas Crammar: developed the 2 Book of Common Prayer that became a liturgy • Zwingli: a man that started out as a catholic priest, but ended up becoming a protestant, and had conflicting ideas with Luther. He claimed that Christ was spiritually present, but not physically. • Martyrs: people that die/are killed for what they believe in. • Anabaptists: “a diversity of congregations”, in which to be apart of, one had to be spiritually regenerated. They were also the first people to live with the concept of “the church being separate from the state”. • The Elect: according to Calvin, those who god had chosen to be “saved”. • Calvinism: the most dynamic form of Protestantism—the majesty of god and predestination were the 2 main ideas. • Marburg: the location in which Zwingli and Luther got together to see if they could compromise over their ideas. • Anglican Church: the church that the puritans wanted to purify. • Second Book of Common Prayer: a liturgy written by Thomas Crammar. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 • Loyola: a man that grew up to be a warrior, but got injured, so he read as many books as he could out of boredom—his reading resulted in his realization of him needed to serve the church. • Paul III: wanted to end the abuse in the church and therefore called the Council of Trent. • Catechism: a formal program for the religious education of children. CONSTITUIONALISM IN ENGLAND • James I: seceded Queen Elizabeth, and believed the monarch had a divine right to its authority and was responsible only to god. • Charels I: a monarch that seceded his father and believed in the divine right of kings— he thought that he could govern according to his conscience. • Charels II: a monarch whose father was Charles I, and ended up being exiled in France. • Stuarts: monarchs that ruled Scotland. • Divine Right Theory: a theory in which people claimed that god had specifically chosen them to be “the ruler” until the people were no longer satisfied. • Puritans: wanted to “purify” the church. • Royal Prerogative: a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity that is recognized in common law. • Star Chamber: an English court of law, which was located in the Palace of Westminster. • Roundheads: a name that the supporters of the English Parliament were given during the English Civil War. • Cavaliers: what the round heads referred to as a term of abuse for the wealthy supporters of Charles I and Charles II. EUROPEAN REFORMATIONS • Martin Luther: a German professor of theology that was the leader of Lutheranism. He taught that salvation and eternal life was not earned by good deeds, but by the gift of God’s grace through faith in Jesus. • Charles V: ruler of the Spanish Empire and Holy Roman Empire. • Avignon Papacy: a period of time in which 7 successive popes had resided in Avignon. • Great Schism: a split that occurred within the Roman Catholic Church. • Absenteeism: a regular practice of absence from something one has to do, or not participating in certain events. • Pluralism: when 2 or more states/groups/etc. coexist. • Purgatory: the state a sinner’s soul is in, in which it is suffering before waiting to expiate their sins before going to heaven. • Johann Tetzel: a Roman Catholic German that was a preacher who was a Heresy to Poland. He was known for granting indulgences in exchange for money. • Ninety-Five Theses: a list of questions/propositions for debate that was written by Luther. • Communion: a Christian worship at which bread and wine are shared. • Transubstantiation: a practice done by the Catholic Church in which bread and wine are offered during mass to become in reality Jesus’ blood and body. • Consubstantiation: a Lutheran belief that claims that the bread and wine coexists with the body and blood of Jesus. • Erasmus: a scholar that wrote in a Latin style. He prepared Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 • Suleiman the Magnificent: the 10 , longest reigning sultan of the Ottoman Empire. • Fredrick, Elector of Saxony: worked for constitutional reform of the Holy Roman Empire and protected Luther after he was placed under imperial ban. FRENCH ABSOLUTISM • Henry IV: one of the first Bourbon monarchs, whose first decade in reign was spent ending the wars of religion. • Louis XIII: the son of Henry IV, who was 9 at the time of his succession to throne, therefore having to have his mother, Marie de Medici be the regent. • Richelieu: Louis XIII’s right hand man that took on La Rochelle and proposed the creation of intendants. • La Rochelle: the capital of Protestantism that was taken on by Richelieu to ensure that the Protestants wouldn’t be a war threat. • Louis XIV: was the monarch of the bourbons that ruled as the king of France. He created a centralized state governed from the capital. • Anne of Austria: was the mother of Louis XIV, and his regent. • Sully: Henry IV’s right hand man that was the one who constructed a way of trying to make France financially stable again after many years of war. • Marie de Medici: the mother and regent of Louis XIII that was very pro-catholic and didn’t know what she was doing as leader. She spent a lot of money trying to get people to behave during her rule • Mazarin: seceded Richelieu, and served as a chief minister to the French king. EUROPEAN EXPANSION IN THE AMERICAS • Montezuma II: the Aztec ruler at the time of the conquering of Hernan Cortez. • Cortes: a Spanish conquistador that conquered the Aztecs. • Pizarro: a Spanish conquistador that conquered the Incas. He kidnapped and executed the Incan ruler at the time. • Aztecs: a Mesoamerican empire that had war like groups of people. They would perform human sacrifices (beating hearts) to satisfy/feed the sun god. • Incas: a sophisticated and roman empire style that divided their property into 4 parts known as the 4 quarters. • Tenochtitlan: the Aztec capital (currently known as Mexico City). • Cuzco: the Incan capital. • Quipu: an intricate Incan system of knotted and colored strings used to keep track of census and tax records. • Bombards: the earliest type of cannon. THE EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE • Petrarch: known as the father of humanism, who became obsessed with Latin forms of writing. • Lorenzo Valla: was known as the best philogest among the humanists—became famous for realizing that “The Donation of Constantine” was forged. • Marsillio Ficino: a Catholic priest that was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the Italian Renaissance. • Cosimo de Medici: collected many manuscripts and can be thought of as the reason for Greek revival. He also realized that humans were god’s creatures that were “perfect” because they could understand ideal forms. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 • Pico della Mirandola: Ficino’s associate that thought that human beings were creatures of free will—they have the ability to rise or descend. • Michelangelo: painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. • Erasmus: was a Dutch intellectual that was a scholar for the Greeks. He was very interested in the philosophy of Christ. • Ximenes de Cisneros: was a Spanish humanist who was apart of the formation of the polygot bible. • Polygot Bible: an effort to clean up the bible; it had 2 columns (the vulgate and what should have actually been said, with the actual saying in the middle of the 2 columns). • Boccaccio: wrote a book called “The Decameron” which was about the plague striking, and a group of people running off to escape it, and then telling stories about it. WARS OF RELIGION • Henry II: wanted to kill many Protestants, but ended up being captured and forced to convert to Catholicism. • Cathestne de Medici: the mother and regent of Charles VIII, who was in control during the 1 decade of the religious war “The Policy of Moderation” is what she proposed in order to try and make everyone happy and to promote religious toleration, but it ended up failing. • Henry of Navarre: “the protestant prince” that voluntarily converted to Catholicism. He also married Catherine de Medici’s daughter. • Mary Stuart: aka Mary Queen of Scotts was raised an arch Catholic due to her mom being a part of the Guise. • Guise: those who were arch Catholics (more catholic than the royal family). • Bourbons: a protestant family. • Edict of Nantes: what Henry of Navarre granted which promoted the religious tolerance of Protestants, but not religious freedom. • Purgatory: what the Catholics would do to a dead body after they killed it—continue stabbing and mutilating the body even though it showed no signs of life. • St. Bartholomew’s Massacre: Henry II’s killing of many protestants. Iconoclasm: was a form protestant violence—this was the destruction of idols. Book Notes The Crusades v Backgrounds and Motives • The expansion of Christianity to the Middle East was known as the crusades. - Crusades: holy wars sponsored by the papacy for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims. • Popes grained for war by promising spiritual benefits. • Religious zeal led to people going on pilgrimages to holy places. v The Course of the Crusades • The first crusade was successful because of the enthusiasm from the participants. - When the crusaders saw that Jerusalem was taken, they thought they accomplished their mission, but stayed because of the Muslims. • The 4 crusader states were Jerusalem, Edessa, Tripoli, and Antioch. v Consequences of the Crusades • The crusades were a disaster for Jewish-Christian relations. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 - Legal restriction of Jews increased and they weren’t allowed to trade with Christians. - It also impacted Muslim-Christian relations. The Life of the People v The Life and Work of the Peasants • There were many levels of peasants that ranged from slavesàfree. - Most were serfs, and serfdom was a hereditary condition. • Most European peasants lived in family groups—they had a married couple + children + relatives. • Arabic land of manor was divided between lord and peasantry. • Peasant work was divided by gender. - Men and boys would farm the land, plow, and care for animals. - Both male and female would harvest and plant. • Peasants mainly ate bread and vegetables because animals were very valuable. v The Life and Work of the Nobles • Nobles paid a few taxes and had power over the people that lived on their land. The noble’s privileges were inheritable. • Noble’s prime obligation was warfare. - Chivalry emerged. o Chivalry: a code of conduct that was supposed to govern the behavior of a knight. o Bravery, generosity, honor, graciousness, and mercy were apart of it. • Noble women played a big role in estate function. v Towns, cities, and the Growth of Commercial Interests • Walls closed European towns. - Most towns were first established as trading centers. - When population increased, towns rebuilt their walls. • Merchants were the most powerful group in towns. • Towns became the center of production and would have their own craft guilds. - Craft guilds: associations of artisans organized to regulate quality, quantity, and price of goods produced. • Artisans would make and sell products in their own homes. v The Expansion of Trade and the Commercial Revolution • Italian cities led the west in trade and dominated trade with Asia and North America. • Merchants from Florence and Milan were also important traders. • The towns Bruges, Ghent, and Ypres, were leaders in long distant trade. • The Han Seatic League was a mercantile association of towns that controlled trade. • The commercial revolution was a direct parallel to economic revolution. - Commercial revolution: the transformation of the economic structure of Europe. - It created a lot of new wealth. v Universities and Scholasticism • Monasteries were located in rural environments. • In the city of Bologna, many schools were established. - The growth of the University of Bologna coincided with the rival of Roman law. • In Sal Reno, medicine became of interest. • Theology was considered the Queen of sciences. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 • University professors were known as scholastics. - Scholastics: medieval professors that developed a method of thinking, reasoning, and writing in which questions were raised. - Peter Abelard was fascinated by logic and believed that it could be used in problem solving. - The Sumna are a collection of knowledge on all topics created by scholastics. • Lecture was the method of teaching used. v Cathedrals and a new Architectural Style • A cathedral is the bishop’s church, and the administrative headquarters of the diocese. - These cathedrals were built in a gothic style. o Gothic: the term describing the architectural and artistic styles that prevailed in Europe. v Vernacular Literature and Drama • Latin was used for university education, scholarly writing, and works of literature. • During the high Middle Ages, some authors started writing in languages from their region known as vernacular literature. - Vernacular literature: literature that is written in an everyday language of a region. • France poets called themselves Troubadours. • Drama was derived from the church liturgy. Crises of the Later Middle Ages v The Great Famine and Black Death • Europe experienced weather changes known as the “Little Ice Age”. - Effects were disastrous. • The disease called The Black Death appeared and scientists described it as the “bubonic plague”. - The Black Death: the plague that spread in Europe, which killed 1/3 of the population. - Most people thought that it was caused by poison or corrupt air. - Economy was also affected. v The hundred Years War • The war had many causes. - The English king, Edward III, argued that the grandson of an earlier French king should have gotten the throne in France. • The war was fought in France and they won, mostly because of Joan of Arc. • The war had an impact on both of the countries. - During the war, England and France promoted nationalism, which led to technology experimentation. v Challenges to tth Church • In the 14 century, the Christian church offered little solace. • There was a dispute over the “real pope” which weakened the church. v Peasant and Urban Revolts • The taxations of the Hundred Years War fell heavily on the poor. - Some got angry that it would go on in to the countryside and kill others. • Eventually the parliament imposed a poll tax on all the citizens to fund the war. • The king, Richard II, agreed to charters in order to ensure the freedom of the peasants. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 CHAPTER 15: Europe in the Renaissance and the Reformation Renaissance Culture v Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy th th • The renaissance happened during the 14 and 15 centuries. - Renaissance: a French word that means “rebirth” used to describe the cultural movement that began in 14 century Italy and looked back to the classical past. • The merchants used a patronage system. - Patronage: financial support of writers and artists by cities, groups, and individuals, often to produce a specific work or works in specific styles. • The renaissance began in the other Italian city of Florence. • Banking families would control the city’s politics and culture. • Wealthy bankers and merchants would build huge palaces, these things appealed to the rich. • Venice, Milan, Florence, the Papal States and Naples competed for territory. • Renaissance Italians invented the machinery of modern diplomacy. - These however, didn’t prevent invasions. v The Rise of Humanism • The humanist, Petrarch claimed that Rome had inaugurated the dark ages. - He showed a deep interest in classical Latin texts. o Humanism: a program of study designed by Italians that emphasized the critical study of Latin and Greek literature with the goal of understanding human nature. § Humanists didn’t reject religion, but they sought to synthesize it. • Humanists put their educational ideas to practice and opened schools. - They disagreed about education for women and never made a school for girls. • The best-known political theorist was Niccolo Machiavelli. - He was most famous for writing “The Prince”. o It is seen as the modern guide to politics in the west. v Christian Humanism • Students from Low Countries went to Italy to absorb the “new learning” of humanism. - They were known as Christian humanities. o Christian Humanities: humanists from northern Europe who thought that the best elements of classical and Christian cultures should be combined and saw humanist learning as a way to bring about reform of the church and deepen people’s spiritual lives. • Thomas Moore became best known for his dialogue, Utopia. • The Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus wrote “The Education of a Christian Prince”. - For him, education was key to moral and intellectual improvement. v Printing and It’s Social Impact • Printing with movable type was invented in China, but printing with metal type was invented in Korea. • Printing improved public and private lives of the Europeans. v Art and the Artist • Due to patronage, certain artists gained great public acclaim and acculation. • The individual portrait emerged as a distinct genre. • Eventually the center of the renaissance shifted form Florence to Rome. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 Social Hierarchies v Race and Slavery • Only a few blacks lived in the roman republic. - Muslims and Christian merchants constantly brought in slaves. o They would serve as agriculture laborers, crafts men and seamen. v Wealth and Nobility • The word “class” wasn’t used to classify division. v Gender Roles • An argument about women’s character and nature was known as “debate about women”. th - Debate About Women: a discussion, which began in the later years of the 14 century, which attempted to answer fundamental questions about gender and to define the role of women in society. - Women in Spain, England, France, and Scotland, would serve as advisors to the king. • Women that worked wouldn’t earn as much as men. • Gender was the most “natural” form of distinction. Politics and the State in the Renaissance v France • France was depopulated due to the Black Death and the hundred years war. v England • Population was declining due to the Black Death. • Henry VII rebuilt the monarchy and left the country at peace. v Spain • Spain was a conglomerate/independent kingdom. - They excluded aristocrats and great territorial magnates. • A greater persecution of Jews started. - An anti Semitism against Jews happened. o Eventually they were expelled from Spain. v The Hash burgs • Marriage was a way that a person could benefit. CHAPTER 15: Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation The Protestant Reformation v Criticism of the Church • The Protestant Reformation: a religious reform movement that split the Western Christian Church. • Critics of the church would focus their attacks on clerical immortality, ignorance, and absenteeism. - Many clerics held several offices and practiced pluralism. • Priests, monks, and nuns were exempt from civic responsibilities. v Martin Luther • Martin Luther was ordained a priest and earned a doctorate in theology—he served as a professor of scriptures. • Luther was a very conscientious friar and enjoyed professional lecturing. • Indulgence: a papal statement that granted the remission of a priest-imposed penalty for sin. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 - Luther was troubled that many people thought they had no further repentance once they purchased indulgences. • Charles V wanted Luther to appear in front of the Diet of Worms - Diet of Worms: an assembly of representatives from the territories of the Holy Roman Empire convened by Charles V in the city of worms. v Protestant Thoughts and Its Appeal • Initially protestant meant a follower of Luther, but was eventually changed. - Protestant: a term that can be applied to all non-Catholic western European Christians. • Catholics and Protestants often disagreed. • Pulpits and printing presses spread the protestant message all over Germany. • Educated people and humanists were attracted to Luther’s ideas. - Scholars in many disciplines have contributed in Luther’s success. • Luther worked closely with political authorities. v The Radical Reformation and the German Pea’s War • The practice of religion was a public matter. • Some people didn’t agree that the church and state should be unified. • People often didn’t like religious radicals. • Peasants would demand limitations on new Texas and labor obligations that their landlords imposed. - Luther initially sided with them but he then decided not to. o At the end he wrote “Against Murdering, Thieving, Lords of the Peasants”. o The peasant war strengthened the authority of lay rulers. v Marriage and Women’s Roles • Luther married a former nun, who had many children with him. - Catholics viewed marriage as a sacramental union that couldn’t be distorted. - Protestants saw it as a contract and allowed divorce. • In marriage, women were subject to men—they were supposed to be cheerful and men were supposed to respect them. • Marriage became the only occupation for the upper class. v The Reformation and German Politics • Luther’s ideas appealed to local rulers within the empire. • The emperor of Hasburg, Charles V, was a defender of Catholicism and ended the religious war in Germany by agreeing to the Peace of Augsburg. v England’s Shift Towards Protestantism • States in the Holy Roman Empire and kingdom of Denmark, Norway were the earliest to accept the protestant reformation. • The roman king, Henry VII, used the parliament to legalize reformation in England. • Members that “purified” the church were called puritans. v Calvinism and Its Moral Standards • John Calvin believed that god specifically chose him to reform the church. - He embodied his ideas in the Institutes of Christian Religion. - He believed that god decided in the beginning who will be saved and who would be dammed. This was known as predestination. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 o Predestination: a teaching of Calvin that meant that god has already predetermined who will be saved and who will be dammed. The Catholic Reformation v Papal Reforms and the Council of Trent • Pope Paul III established The Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. • The Council of Trent laid a solid spiritual renewal of the Catholic Church. - It said in order for a marriage to be valid, vows must be given before witnesses. v New Religious Orders • New religious orders aimed to raise moral and intellectual levels of the clergy and people. • The Ursuline Order of the Nuns played a big role in the education for women. • Jesuits was a society that played a role in strengthening Catholicism in Europe. - Jesuits: members of the Society of Jesus, whose goal was to spread the Roman Catholic faith through humanistic schools and missionary activity. Religious Violence v French Religious Wars • Many French people were attracted to reform religion. - By the middle of the 16 century many French had become Huguenots. o Huguenots: French Calvinists. • Calvinist teachings called the power of sacred imaged into questions. • During Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, the Catholics attacked the Calvinists. - The politiques ended by saving France. o Politiques: Catholic and Protestant moderates who sought to end the religious violence in France by restoring a strong monarchy and granting official recognition to the Huguenots. v Civil Wars in the Netherlands • By the 1560s, Protestants in the Netherlands were mainly Calvinists. • Spanish troops tried to suppress Calvinism by raising taxes, which led to riots. v The Great European Witch Hunt • Witch-hunts: a campaign against witchcraft in which many were tried for being witches and executed if found “guilty”. • People thought that witches were those who got the devil to do what they wanted. - The witch trials began in Switzerland. CHAPTER 11: The Americas Societies of the Americas in a Global Context v Trade and Technology • As cities emerged, they became networks of trade. • There were 3 different kinds of technology—wheel, writing, and communications. • Mesoamericans used pictographic glyphs for their writing system along with many calendars. - Mesoamericans: the term used to designate the area of present day Mexico and Central America. • The quipu served as a binary system. - Quipu: an intricate system of knotted and colored strings used to keep track of census and tax records. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 v Settlement and Environment • The first settlers migrated from Asia. - The original settlers in the Americas arrived as fisherman. • Populations of the Americas were—the nomadic peoples, the semi sedentary farming community, and the dense agriculture community. - They began the process of domesticating and modifying plants. • The Mesoamericans processed kernels through nixtamalization—corn was known as “masa”. - Nixtamalization: boiling maize in a solution of water and mineral lime to break down compounds in kernels, increasing their nutritional value. Ancient Societies v Olmec Agriculture, Technology, and Religion • The Olmecs shaped religion, trade practices, and technology of later civilizations. - Olmecs: the oldest of the early advanced Mesoamerican civilizations. • Olmecs used a long count solar calendar. v Hohokam, Hopewell, and Mississippian Societies • The Hohokams used irrigation canals, dams, and terraces to enhance farming. - They planted dessert crops. • Cahokia was the largest city north of Mesoamerica. v Kinship and Ancestors in the Andes • The Andes social organization and religion shaped ideas of spiritual kinship and patterns of production and trade. • Ancestor worship is what provided the foundation of Andean religion and spirituality. • The Moche civilization flourished along Peru. - Moche: a Native American culture that thrived along Peru’s coast, which existed as a series of city-states and was distinguished by an extraordinarily rich and diverse pottery industry. The Incas v The Inca Model of Empire • The Incas: the name of the dynasty of rulers who built a large empire across the Andes. • Viracocha Inca was the first Inca leader to accept permanent conquest. • When an Incan ruler would die, their corpse was presented as a mummy. v Inca Imperial Expansion • Ancestor worship and split heritage provided the logic and impulse for expanding Inca power. • The Incas got people to adopt the language of Quecha. - Quecha: the first official language of the Incas. v Imperial Needs and Obligations • The Incan empire met demands of sustaining their empire by adapting aspects of local cultures. - A community practice became a tool of imperial expansion. - Mitmaq settlers were sent to create diverse ethnic enclaves. • There was a labor tax imposed called the mit’a. The Maya and Teotihuacan World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 • Maya: a highly developed Mesoamerican culture centered in Mexico. They created an intricate writing system. • Teotihuacan: the monumental city-state that dominated trade in classical era Mesoamerica. v Maya Agriculture and Trade • High quality limestone allowed them to build monumental architectures. • A staple crop of the Maya was maize. • Methods of exchange were jade, obsidian, and beads. v Maya Science and Religion • The Mayans developed the most complex writing system. • The Mayans used a mathematics system called vigesimal, which allowed for more complex calculations. - This made them masters of abstract knowledge. • They persisted in farming communities that helped preserve their culture. v Teotihuacan and Toltecs • The most powerful city in Mesoamerica was Teotihuacan. - The buildings there were massive and thought to be built by giants. • Caves symbolized from which the sun and moon had been born. • Religion followed trade, and one factor of success was ethnic diversity. • The Toltecs filled the void that was created by the Teotihuacan’s decline. - They entered and settled in Tula. • The Toltecs built a military empire and gradually absorbed culture, practices, and religions of their neighbors. The Aztecs v The Mexica: From Vassals to Masters • Nahuatl: the language of both the Toltecs and the Aztecs. • Mexica: the dominant ethnic group of what is now Mexico, who created an empire based on war and religion –these people were eventually known as the Aztecs. - When the Mexica arrived, the tepance alliance controlled a lot of the valley, so the Mexicas negotiated. • Mexica had clan-based communities known as Calpoli. • The Spanish called Tenochtitlan, Mexico City. - Tenochtitlan: a large and prosperous Aztec city that the Spanish admired. • Under a new imperial government there was a combination of military, religion, and political functions. v Life in the Aztec Empire • The Aztecs wrote many pictographic books. • Any free man was allowed to be a warrior. - Parents would sell their child’s umbilical cord in exchange for a sword and shield. • The macehualtin were the backbone of Aztec society and the biggest chunk of the population—they were ordinary citizens. - They payed taxes, unlike any other class. • The Tlalmatil were the serfs. • Women of all classes did domestic duties. • The class order: military leadersàwarriorsàmacehualtinàtlalmatil World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 v Limits of the Aztec Empire • The death of a ruler was a time of uncertainty for the Aztecs. - The council would choose a new tlaloani and get questions answered through a military campaign. • There were human sacrifices that went on for different purposes. American Empires and the Encounter v The Fall of the Aztecs • Aztec leaders looked for places that were easy to overpower and were strategic for trade. • The cost of expansion and sustaining the empire had become orderous. - Due to this, the ruler Moctezuma reformed his empire by reducing privileges and narrowing the pathways of social mobility. o Moctezuma was taken hostage by Hernan Cortez and killed which led to the fall of the empire. v The Fall of the Incas • A civil war happened between sons of the deceased emperor of who would secede the power. - In the process of this the fall of the empire also occurred. CHAPTER 16: The Acceleration of Global Contact The Afroeurasian World v The Trade World of the Global Contact • The Indian Ocean was the center of the Afroeurasian trade world. - It served as a crossroad for commercial and cultural exchanges among china. • Mongol emperors opened the doors of China to the west so that Europeans could do business there. • After the fall of the Mongols to the Ming Dynasty, China entered a period of agricultural/commercial expansion, population growth, and urbanization. • China took a lead in exploration and sent Admiral Zheng to do it. - He brought back animals like giraffes and zebras. - Large-scale exploration was the turning point in world history and allowed an opening for suriperan states to expand their role in trade. • India was also a big trader; it was the crucial link between the Persian Gulf and the Southeast Asian and East Asian trade networks. v People and Culture of the Indian Ocean • To symbolize interaction, people from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and islands in between spoke the same language of the Afroeurasian family. • At the time of marriage, the groom paid the bride a bride wealth. - Bride Wealth: a sum of money the groom paid the bride or her family at the time of marriage. - The respect for women went up during this time and place. v Trade with Africa and the Middle East • Swahili speaking states engaged in Indian Ocean trade. - They exchanged ivory, rhino horn, copra, etc. • Gold trade was big in Africa. • Slavery was practiced in Africa and also an important trade item. v Genoese and Venetian Middle Men World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 • Venice’s trading rival was Genoa, due to its domination in the northern trade route from Asia to the black sea. The European Voyages of Discovery v Causes of Estopean Expansion • The 1 cause of European expansion was economic reasons. - The crusaders introduced spice to Western Europe. • The 2 cause was religious fever and the crusading spirit. rd • The 3 cause was the dynamic spirit of the renaissance. - Explorers sought to win glory and explore more unknown waters. • Conquistadors would conquer unknown places. - Conquistadors: a Spanish explorer who sought to conquer the New World for the Spanish crown. v Technology and The Rise of Exploration • Technology developments in navigation and shipbuilding enabled European expansion. - The Portuguese developed a caravel, which was easily maneuverable. o Caravel: a small maneuverable three-mast sailing ship developed by the Portuguese. • Arab scholars introduced Europeans to Ptolemy’s Geography. - Ptolemy’s Geography: synthesized classical knowledge of geography and introduced the concepts of latitude and longitude. • The magnetic compass made it possible for sailors to determine direction/position at sea. v Portuguese in Africa and Asia • Portugal was a small and poor nation whose main activities were fishing and farming. • Portugal’s conquest of Leula marked the beginning of overseas expansion. • Lisbon became the entrance for Asian goods into Europe. v Spain’s Voyage to the Americas • Christopher Columbus was a Genoa native. - He worked as a mapmaker in Lisbon. - He was a deeply religious man. • Columbus, with his fleet, set out to explore and he landed on the Bahamas, where he christened San Salvador and claimed on behalf of the Spanish crown. • On Columbus’ next voyage, he took control of the island of Hispaniola. v Spain Discovers the Pacific • Amerigo Vespucci wrote about his discoveries on the coast of modern day Venezuela—it was titled “Mundus Novus”. • Spain and Portugal relied on Pope Alexander VI to settle competing claims to the Atlantic discoveries. - What resulted was the Treaty of Tordesillas. o Treaty of Tordesillas: an agreement that gave Spain everything west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and giving Portugal everything to the east. • Charles V of Spain asked Magellan to find a direct sea route to the spices of the Moluccas. - Magellan was killed in a skirmish. v Early Exploration by Northern European Powers World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 • A Genoese merchant named John Cabot landed in Newfoundland. Conquest and Settlement v Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Incan Empires • The Spanish had colonized Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico, etc. • Cuba sponsored Hernan Cortes’ expedition. • The Aztec Empire grew rapidly in size and power. - Aztec Empire: also known as the Mexica Empire, that possessed advanced mathematical, astronomical, and engineering technology. - Moctezuma II ruled the empire. o He was very impressed by the Spanish people. o He was taken hostage by Cortes and killed. • The Incan Empire fell in Peru. - Incan Empire: the vast and sophisticated Peruvian empire centered at the capital city of Cuzco. - They would use a system of quipus for keeping track of book keeping. - They also benefitted by the use of llamas. - They were weakened by the civil war. - The leader at the time was Atahualpa, who was captured by the Spanish and then killed. v Portuguese Brazil • Brazil contained many small tribes with nomadic people. • Portuguese settlers brought sugar cane production to Brazil. v Colonial Administration • The House of Trade was established to over see economic matters. • Spanish territories were divided into 2 viceroyalties (administrative divisions). - Viceroyalties: the name for the 4 administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata. - There would be a viceroy inside each division. • In order to secure the vast expanse of Brazil, the Portuguese put forth a system called captaincies. - Captaincies: a system that the Portuguese in Brazil established in which hereditary grants of land were given to nobles and loyal officials who bore the costs of settling and administrating their territories. • The Catholic Church played a role in Iberian rule—cathedrals were consecrated and bishoprics were established. v Indigenous Population Loss and Economic Expansion • The Encomienda system was used to profit from people and their encountered territories. - Encomienda System: a system in which the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Indians—it was a disguised form of slavery. - There was a law established which called for indigenous peoples to be treated fairly—it didn’t work. o Many died due to mistreatment. v Patterns of Settlement • The Spanish settled in towns that the former Aztecs and Incas were in. - They established new cities like Santo Domingo and Vera Cruz. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 The Era of Global Contact v The Columbian Exchange • The exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the old and new worlds was known as the Columbian exchange. - The Columbian Exchange: the exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and the New Worlds. - The white potato was the most valuable thing that was traded. - The introduction to disease was disastrous on the population. v Sugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery • 2 crucial items of the Columbian exchange were sugar and slaves. - Sugar used to be an expensive luxury, but increased in demand. v The Birth of the Global Economy • The Portuguese were the 1 worldwide traders. - Afterwards the Spanish were determined to claim the “best trader” title. - Soon after, the Dutch challenged both the Spanish and Portuguese for the leading title. Changing Attitudes and Beliefs v Religious Conversion • Converting people to Christianity was one of the most crucial things that happened in the European expansion. - Catholic friars made Christianity comprehensible. v European Debates About Indigenous People • There was an issue with catholic missionaries mistreating people that weren’t Christian or affiliated with a religion. - Charles V set up a debate for the issue, one side of which was the Valladolid Debate. o Valladolid Debate: a debate organized by Charles V, which pitted defenders of Spanish conquest and forcible conversion against critics of these practices. o This side argued that a forcible conversion to Christianity was necessary and justified. • The Black Legend: the notion that the Spanish were uniquely brutal and cruel in their conquest and settlement of the Americas. v New Ideas About Rise • Africans were grouped into categories of pagan heathens or Muslim infidels. CHAPTER 18: European Power and Expansion The Protestant and Catholic Reformations v The Protestant Reformation • Critics of the church concentrated their attacks on clerical immortality, ignorance, and absenteeism. • There was a local resentment of clerical privileges and immunities. - Priests, monks, nuns, were all exempt from civic responsibilities. • Martin Luther was a priest and professor of theology. - He lived in the Holy Roman Empire. - His ideas were appealed to the local rulers. • The issue of the royal succession triggered the country’s break with Rome. • Protestant ideas spread innd France, The Netherlands, Scotland, and Eastern Europe. - The most important 2 generation reformer was John Calvin. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 o He believed that god was absolutely sovereign and omnipotent and that human had no free will. v The Catholic Reformation • Under Pope Paul III, the papal court became the center of the reform movement. • The new religious orders claimed to raise the moral and intellectual levels of the clergy and people. - The Ursuline Order of Nuns was an education center for women. • The Jesuits played a role in strengthening Catholicism in Europe. v Religious Violence • Calvinists and Catholics believed that each other’s books, services, and ministries polluted the economy. - The Catholics attacked the Calvinists in Paris. • The era of religious wars was also the time of the most persecutions in European history. - Protestants and Catholics tried/executed people for being witches. The 17 Century Crisis and Rebuilding v The Social Order and Rebuilding • The peasants were the lowest class and the largest class. • European societies were patriarchal. • Bread was the primary food source of the European diet. v Famine and Economic Crises • A period of cold and wet climate that was known as “the little ice age” occurred. - This led to shorter farming seasons—which meant less food for the population. - Moral Economy: the early modern European view that community needs predominated over competition and profit and that necessary goods should thus be sold at a fair price. v The 30 Years War • The 30 Years War: a large-scale conflict that pitted Protestants against Catholics in central Europe, but also involved dynastic interests. - The shift balance of the population between the Protestants and Catholics led to the deterioration of the Peace of Augsburg. o Conflict began with bohemia between the Catholic league and the protestant union. § The 1648 Peace of Westphalia ended it. § The 20 years war was also very destructive. v Expansion Within Europe • France had acquired a huge army and almost doubled in size. • During the wars, Louis’ goals were to expand France to its natural borders. - At the end of the expansion, the Peace of Utrecht was established. v The Economic Policy of Mercantilism • Mercantilism: a system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state derived from the belief that a nation’s international power was based on its wealth • A man named Jean-Baptiste Colbert was known to be a financial genius. - He supported old industries and created new ones. - His death undid many of his economic achievements. v The Austrian Hapsburgs World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 • Absolutism was the dominant form of monarchial rule among many Holy Roman Empire states. - Absolutism: a political system common to early modern Europe in which monarchs claimed exclusive power to make and enforce laws without checks by other institutions. - Sovereignty: authority of states that possess a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries and in which private armies present no threat to central control. • The Austrian Hapsburgs ruled Bohemia and eliminated Protestantism there. • Ferdinand III continued to build state power by centralizing the government. - State building achievements were also made. v The Absolutist Palace • The French court started out with no fixed home, but eventually the palace became one. - French became the language of international diplomacy. Constitutionalism and Empire England and the Dutch Republic v Religious Divides and Civil War • Constitutionalism: a form of government in which power is limited by law and balanced between the authority and power of the government, on the one hand, and the rights and liberties of the subject of citizen on the other. • James I seceded Queen Elizabeth. - He believed the monarch had a divine right to its authority ad was responsible only to god. • Between the king and the House of Commons, religious issues occurred. - The Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church. o Puritans: members of the reform movement within the Church of England that advocated purifying it of Roman Catholic elements. • English civil war pitted the power of the king against the parliaments. v The Puritan Protectorate • Due to Charles’ execution, the monarchy was abolished, how the economy would be governed was the rising question. - Thomas Hobbes, a philosopher, provided the solution in which he outlined in the Leviathan. • Oliver Cromwell controlled the army in which Puritan ideas of morality were reflected. v Constitutional Monarchy • Charles II was the son of Charles I, who was seceded by his brother James II due o a fear of Catholicism. • The Glorious Revolution was a time period in which one king was replaced by another king without bloodshed. • The Bill of Rights 1689: a bill that Parliament passed and accepted by William and Mary that limited powers of British monarchs and affirmed those of Parliament. • Protestants could posses arms, but not the Catholics. Catholics also couldn’t inherit the throne. • John Cocke helped in protecting the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. v The Dutch Republic • The Dutch adopted the republicanism system. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 3 - Republicanism: a form of government in which there is no monarch and power rests in the hands of the people as exercised through elected representatives. - Each province had an estate, and each estate had an executive officer (stakeholder). • Because of global trade, the Dutch had the highest standards of living in the world. Colonial Expansion and Empire v The Dutch Trading Empire • A Dutch fleet returning from Southeast Asia was carrying pepper, cloves, and nutmeg— this voyage led to the Dutch East India Company. v Colonial Empires of England and France • Like the Dutch, England and France challenged Iberian dominance overseas. • Tobacco was produced in Virginia. • The Northeast European powers expanded in Africa and Asia. v Mercantilism and Colonial Wars • Trade to and from European overseas was governed by mercantilists’ economy policy. - Oliver Cromwell established a series of Navigation Acts. o Navigation Acts: laws that greatly restricted other countries’ right to trade with England and its colonies. - They were a form of economic warfare against the Dutch. o France became England’s new rival. v People Beyond Borders • As new territories were seized, European nations produced new maps to show it. • Jews were participants in colonial trade. - Both Jews and Armenians were in minority. • The growth of world trade attracted smugglers. The Russian Empire v Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow • Ivan the Great expanded the principality of Moscow. - He was strong enough to deny paying tribute to the Mongols. v Building the Russian Empire • Ivan the terrible was when Russia took a bad turn. • Cossacks: free groups and outlaw armies living on the borders of Russian territory. • Ivan’s reign was successful in defeating remnants of Mongol power. - After his death, Russia entered the time of troubles. v Peter the Great and Russia’s Turn to the West • Peter the Great built on the service of obligations of Ivan the Terrible. - His first territorial goal was conquering the Ottoman Fort of Azor. - He ended up entering The Great Northern War. • Peter developed a new war machine that was able to crush the Swedish army.
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