Advertising and Consumer Culture Midterm Notes and Study Guide
Advertising and Consumer Culture Midterm Notes and Study Guide MSCH-A315
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Advertising and Consumer Culture Midterm 1. What is the definition of consumer culture? a. A form of capitalism where the economy is focused on the selling of consumer goods and the spending of consumer money 2. What is the purpose of studying consumer culture? a. Once you have knowledge about it you will be able to use it in advertising. 3. Pick the term consumer culture apart- what does it mean to be a consumer? a. Someone who trades money for goods as an individual. 4. How can the idea of being a consumer relate to an entire culture? a. Consumers make up a culture. b. When you see a product you want, you will then consume it and it will become a part of your culture. 5. What does it mean to say that culture is aesthetic, archeological, and anthropological? a. Aesthetic i. Symptoms of value, cultivation, taste, appreciation, pleasure, sensation b. Archeological i. Artifacts, texts, architecture, material culture c. Anthropological i. The social customs, belief systems, a “whole way of life,” this way of life was not totally given- complicated by sub-cultures and other oppositional forces 6. What are the differences between consumption and production? a. Production is the act of things being made or produced b. Consumption is the purchasing or interacting with the things being produced 7. What are the differences between consumption and consumerism? a. Consumption is the act of using something b. Consumerism is how the social system operates 8. What is the idea of social tableau? (ESSAY QUESTION)*** a. Example of picture of family sitting watching TV with mother serving drinks b. Stereotypical picture of the American dream and how society is c. One boy and girl children d. Father relaxing after work with cigar and feet up e. “TV happiness shared by all the family” f. Advertising may represent this as a kind of reality g. Supposed to be a constructive image h. Can try to make you desire the image, for example, oh I don’t own that shirt but maybe if I wear what they wear in the advertisement my life will be like theirs i. Distorted image of society j. Appears to be the only representation of American society which is not the case, not everybody looks like that and not everybody can afford all of that 9. What produces ad clutter? a. Space/place i. Our world is filled with advertising for a distinct purpose so it can express something about itself ii. Outdoor/indoor space and public/private space iii. Our boundaries are being affected in some type of way iv. We are becoming an increasingly more distracted population b. Technology (billboards) i. Ranging from everything going on around us, to our own mobile devices ii. Getting harder and harder to escape 10. What is ad fatigue? a. A lot of advertising is junk now and we have no idea why it is there b. It is unnecessary and populates space c. Leads to ad blocking and the use of ad blocking software 11. What is consumption (and consumer culture) as social? a. Exchange of ideas through talking or social actions b. Example, TV can bring people together even people who seem to be divided Catching up on shows c. Listening to the radio because you feel the need to stay in the loop and be updated on the news 12. What is consumption as productive? a. Example bought a kitchen table b. Produce memories at that table c. Those are the stories and memories that are made so they are productive means of consumption d. Bought the table for that reason e. Producing a value because those memories will be remembered years from then f. We add meaning to things because of our social beings 13. What is the relationship between consumer culture and democracy in the US? (Thinking of cross chapter here) a. Consumerism redefined democracy b. Consumerism reflected real social needs and fulfilled those needs with little conflict c. Consumer culture is democracy’s highest achievement i. Giving meaning and dignity to people when workplace participation, ethnic solidarity, and representative democracy have failed 14. How do we define Commodity Fetishism? a. A product that becomes an idol, when the product becomes more than the actual meaning that comes with it. They take on new meanings and values. 15. How does Marx’s concept of Commodity Fetishism help us understand the development of consumer culture? a. Industrialization Mass production new mass culture and relationship to goods/services b. Idealization i. The object being a religious item ii. The item represents something but also takes on many other qualities and context iii. Example. Jesus on the cross 16. What is alienation/ disconnection? a. Marx’s terminology specifically b. Disassociation from the means of production c. We get alienated from how our stuff is made d. Common in foods, what goes into the foods I’m eating? e. Leads to things being released that are not properly made or safe 17. What is propaganda? a. Bernays called his work propaganda b. Advertising is being considered as this c. The same processes as analyzing the mind and body that were used in the war d. Commonly used with the Nazi’s e. Usage of media to basically convince a whole public (example that war was okay) 18. What is paranoia? a. The probing aspect b. To find out what makes us do what we do c. Then once we find out what influences our behaviors, maybe we can influence those behaviors in some way 19. What is the relationship between consumption, production, and labor? a. Production i. There is a middle step between production and consumption (sales) ii. When we see the rise of the industry across the US in the early 1900’s they could not stop producing stuff, they got very excited, and new methods of making stuff did not stop b. Consumption i. Consumers will just want whatever we put out there for any price 1. That is not the case but people used to believe in this ii. The Great Depression did not allow people to buy what they wanted iii. Things need to be on sale and discounted iv. They can still have high priced goods because people will buy them, but not everybody so they need to differentiate c. Sales (Labor????) i. Because they realize they have a surplus of goods ii. How can they keep doing that if they are charging such high prices on stuff iii. That is when they changed from a sales culture to a consumer culture 20. What does Bernays mean by “organized chaos?” a. Society would be a free for all if there weren’t certain people who could control it b. It would be chaotic if it was not only a democratic democracy because there would be all different types of people (example) 21. What does Bernays see the function of advertising to be? a. Advertising itself can be part of it and part of organizing the chaos b. Trying to control the population c. Strong suggestions of how to behave and what to believe 22. What is the meaning and value of the ideas that Leach introduces to us? a. The relationship of advertising to happiness i. Very basic idea to have in mind ii. It has developed over the time of advertising that products can be the pathway to happiness iii. Gets developed overtime iv. Gets applied to a lot of different things v. It is significant that we can find happiness through so many different things vi. Example is how an automobile can provide the same amount of happiness and pleasure as a bag of Doritos or in a friendship b. The “cult of the new” i. How can we be happy if we constantly need something new ii. When will we ever be satisfied with what we have in our lives iii. Leads to planned obsolescence (example. An iPhone purposely has updates if you keep changing it but if you use it for the basics it will be fine for years) c. The “democratization of desire” i. Everybody is allowed to desire these new products ii. Becomes a driving force iii. Becomes a goal to get the newest products iv. It is peoples motivation to work so they can get what they desire v. Something is being produces by various industries that was unattainable by all social classes vi. This helps create the middle class vii. If you work hard enough at something you can achieve anything d. The idea that monetary value is the ultimate sign of societal/ cultural value i. We have such a close relationship with money ii. It seems to really matter a lot iii. Signifying class status in terms of separating iv. These have been problems since before consumer culture but this put a new twist on it 23. What is the use value versus market value? (The shifting focus of the culture) a. Goes back to Marx b. Connects to the fetishized object c. Use may seem useless or just something random to put things in (Example box from the show) d. Market value is what it is truly worth, very different from the generic use (economically) 24. What fears and concerns about advertising permeated the post WWII years? a. Citizens now possess significant purchasing power b. So the advertising industry can’t control the consumers but it’s the other way around 25. What produces post war consumer culture? What sustains it? a. The post-war period in America is often understood as one of: Economic Prosperity Population Increase (the “baby boom”) Suburbanization b. All of these three things bring about new categories of consumers 26. Explain the following concepts a. Economic prosperity- flourishing in wealth i. Planned Obsolescence 1. Business/marketing strategy where the obsolescence of a product (it’s becoming unusable) is planned and built in production, distribution, and advertising practices ii. Goal: Create consumer “need” for the new b. The Baby Boom i. Prosperity and economic security: sense of certainty about providing for one’s family 1. “My family can have all the things I never had” 2. Idea: Abundance of material goods= lack of wanting anything ii. “Baby Boomers” become a whole new market 1. Purchasing power of the teenage, influence of children on parents’ consumption practices c. Suburbanization Role i. Linked to the baby boom ii. Mass movement to mass produced, affordable housing outside of urban areas iii. Emphasis on the family iv. Television becomes a key product in this process d. Television as Ad Medium (home and use within the family) i. Repetition is key ii. Emphasis on visual element iii. Unique selling proposition (USP) 1. Break a barrier for the consumer 2. Make way in the consumers mind 3. In order for the ad to remain in mind, have a USP a. Set yourself apart and show why you’re better than others iv. Loyalty is very important e. Development of youth/teen market i. Purchasing power ii. Parent’s involvement with control over how much/what their kids watch iii. Baby boomers become a whole new market 27. How are children marketed to? a. Repetition and building brand name loyalty. b. They get songs and ideas stuck in their head and want it. 28. What are the problems with the ways children are marketed to? a. They get hooked on one advertisement and cannot move on to another product. b. They won’t drop the idea of it. 29. What is planned obsolescence? a. Business/marketing strategy where the obsolescence of a product (it’s becoming unusable) is planned and built in production, distribution, and advertising practices 30. What is unique selling proposition (USP)? a. It breaks a barrier for the consumer i. Unique: rational feature ii. Selling: Value, what meets, even goes beyond, consumer expectations? iii. Proposition: promise of specific product providing specific benefit 31. How is the relationship between Counterculture and consumer culture developed and negotiated? a. Idea: Modern capitalism/consumer culture= not one of total domination and order, but a messy negotiation between consumer resistance and capitalist re- appropriation b. 1960’s countercultural idea co-opted by consumer culture c. Changing attitudes toward war, sex, gender, race, the environment, age, authority, and tradition become “marketable” d. Counterculture conflated with youth culture e. Youth culture, and thus consumption= “COOL ” f. Advertisers embrace notions of freedom, individuality, rule- breaking, defiance, and mockery of the establishment g. “Cool Capitalism is the incorporation of disaffection into capitalism itself” 32. What exactly gets co-opted by the advertising establishment? a. The advertising establishment merges with the company their advertising for. b. The idea they create for the advertisement gets co-opted. 33. Why does the above answer get co-opted by the advertising establishment and what are the consequences? a. Feeling out our hidden weaknesses to influence behavior 34. Is consuming brands or living in space as production or labor? a. Labor- consumption is an activity that involves work b. Production- In this new age we must use our organization skills to get work done 35. What is the incorporation of disaffection into capitalism? a. Disaffection is not willing to support authority b. If you’re not willing to support authority of the advertisements, why would you support the actual product being advertised? 36. What does “capitalism as flexible and adaptive” mean for the consumer? For the industry itself? a. As new products are produced, consumers will have to be flexible and adjust. b. It is important for both the industry and the consumers to be flexible and open to change. 37. What does the development of “cool”consumption mean? a. Youth culture and thus consumption= “cool” 38. Frank chapter and changing notions of the ad culture: shift from “science, reason, and order” to…? a. The use and talent and creativity over the use of science b. Creativity is the key term c. Creativity is viewed as a disorder or a rebelliousness 39. How do we use brands? a. It is a social status and shows your connection and involvement with the brand idea. 40. How might brands use us? a. As advertisements, by giving out stickers we advertise for their brand. 41. What is product placement? a. When the product is in a source of media intentionally even without being mentioned just to show that it is being used which makes it more desirable. 42. What is product integration? a. Using a product in a show, for example a daughter using an Apple computer, rather than it just sitting on a table. 315 Midterm The exam will consist of the following: 20 multiplechoice questions3 out of 5 short answer/definition questions1 out of 2 long answer / essaystyle questions. KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS (General Overview) 1. How do we define Consumer Culture? What is the purpose of studying it, of being critical of it? Consumer culture is a form of capitalism in which the economy is focused on the selling of consumer goods and the spending of consumer money. (Most people would agree that the US is a consumer culture.) 2. Pick the term consumer culture apart – what does it mean to be a consumer? How can that be configured as an entire culture? 3. What does it mean to say that culture is aesthetic, archeological, and anthropological? Aesthetic: symptoms of value, cultivation, taste, appreciation, pleasure, sensation Archeological: artifacts, texts, architecture, material culture Anthropological: the social customs, belief systems, a “whole way of life,” this way of life not totally given complicated by subcultures and other oppositional forces 4. Differences: Between Consumption and Production? Consumption and Consumerism? Turn to McGuigan’s chapter for help on the above items. Consumption VS Production Consumption and Consumerism 5. Idea of Social Tableau is key (Marchand) 6. What produces Ad Clutter? Related to that (and discussed in other weeks) 1. Space/ Place Our world is filled with advertising for a distinct purpose so it can express something about itself Outdoor/indoor space and public/private space Our boundaries are being affected in some type of way Distraction is key in terms of what people have and the clutter We become an increasingly more distracted population 2. Technology (billboards) Ranging from everything going on around us, to our own mobile devices Getting harder and harder to escape 7. What is Ad Fatigue? A lot of advertising is junk now and we have no idea why or how it is there and goes right into the recycling bin It unnecessarily populates space Leads to ad blocking and the use of ad blocking software 7. Key concept: Consumption (and consumer culture) as social. Key concept: Consumption as productive. 8. What is the relationship between consumer culture and democracy in the U.S.? (Thinking of Cross chapter here, among other things) 9. How do we define Commodity Fetishism? How does Marx’s concept help us understand the development of Consumer Culture? 10. Key concepts: Alienation and Disconnection 11. Key concepts: Propaganda and Paranoia Bernays called his work propaganda 12. Once again: relationship of consumption, production, and labor. ▯ Production There is a middle step between production and consumption (sales) When we see the rise of industry across the US in the early 1900’s they could not producing stuff, they got very excited, and new methods of making stuff did not stop ▯ Sales Because they realize they have a surplus of goods How can they keep doing that if they are charging such high prices on stuff That is when they changed from a sales culture to a consumer culture ▯ Consumer Consumer will just want whatever we put out there and for any price o Not the case, but that is what they used to think The Great Depression did not allow people to buy what they wanted Things need to be on “sale” and discounted There needs to be differentiation They can still have high priced goods because people will buy them, but not everybody so they need to differentiate 13. What does Bernays mean by “organizing chaos”? What does he see the function of advertising to be, and what role did he play in the industry? 14. What is the meaning and value of the following ideas Leach introduces to us: (1) the relationship of advertising to happiness; (2) the “cult of the new”; (3) the “democratization of desire”; ▯ “The democratization of desire” – Leach Linked to our freedom of choice which leads to democracy We are able to make these choices and the democratic process has tied into desire in a way of consumerism that only allows our democracy to flourish Idea of desire can be something we try to strive for (4) the idea that monetary value is the ultimate sign of societal/cultural value 15. Key concept: Use Value versus Market ValueKey concept: The shifting focus of the culture (from ProductionàSalesàThe Consumer) 16. What fears and concerns about advertising permeated the postWWII years? (think of what Vance Packard details in Hidden Persuaders) 17. Deep analysis of postwar consumer culture what produces it? Sustains it?Ideas of Economic Prosperity, the Baby Boom, and SuburbanizationRole of Television as ad medium (especially within the home, as used by the family) Development of youth/teen market how are children marketed to? Problems with this? ▯ Economic Prosperity Planned Obsolescence o Business/marketing strategy where the obsolescence of a product (it’s becoming obsolete “unusable”/”unfashionable”) is planned and built in to production, distribution, and advertising practices Goal: Create consumer “need” for the new Population Increase (the “Baby Boom”) Why does this happen? Connection to advertising and consumer culture? o Prosperity and economic security= sense of certainty about providing for one’s family “My family can have all the things I never had” Idea: Abundance of material goods= lack of wanting for anything o “Baby boomers” become a whole new market Purchasing power of the teenager; influence of children on parents’ consumption practices ▯ ▯ Suburbanization Linked to “baby boom” Mass movement to mass produced, affordable housing outside of urban areas Emphasis on the family Television becomes key product of this process o Why is TV in terms of advertising understood as so important compared to radio and print? o What is TV’s relationship to the family? To the family as a group of consumers? ▯ ▯ TV Ads Repetition is key Emphasis on visual element Aural elements key too! (“Jingles”) Unique selling proposition (USP) Rosser Reeves o Break a barrier for the consumer o Make way in the consumers mind o In order for the ad to remain in mind, have a unique selling proposition Set yourself apart and say why you are better than the others ▯ ▯ TV Ads What gets a potential and indecisive consumer to not only choose a product/brand, but also become loyal to it? o Loyalty is very important Unique= inimitable feature, rational feature Selling= value, what meets, even goes beyond, consumer expectations? o To not just sell the product one time, but to sell it over and over again Proposition= promise of specific product providing specific benefit 18. Key concept: Planned Obsolescence Planned Obsolescence o Business/marketing strategy where the obsolescence of a product (it’s becoming obsolete “unusable”/”unfashionable”) is planned and built in to production, distribution, and advertising practices 19. Key concept: Unique Selling Proposition Unique selling proposition (USP) Rosser Reeves o Break a barrier for the consumer o Make way in the consumers mind o In order for the ad to remain in mind, have a unique selling proposition Set yourself apart and say why you are better than the others 20. Counterculture and Consumer Culture how is their relationship developed and negotiated? Consumer culture/ Counterculture Idea: Modern capitalism/ consumer culture= not one of total domination and order, but a messy negotiation between consumer resistance and capitalist re appropriation Cannot be about domination, has to be about negotiation 1960’s countercultural ideas coopted by consumer culture Chaning attitudes towards war, sex, gender, race, the environment, age, authorirty, and tradition become “marketable” Counterculture conflated with youth culture ▯ Consumer Culture/ Counterculture Changing attitudes towards war, sex, gender, race, the environment, age, authority, and tradition become “marketable” Counterculture conflated with youth cuure Youth culture, and thus consumption= “COOL” Advertisers embrace notions of freedom, individuality, rulebreaking, and mockery of the establishment “Cool capitalism is the incorporation of disaffection into capitalism itself” 21. What exactly gets coopted by the advertising establishment? Why? Consequences? 22. Key concept: Incorporation of disaffection into capitalism. 23. Capitalism as flexible and adaptive – what does this mean for the consumer? For the ad industry itself? 24. The development of “cool” consumption what does it mean for a product to be “cool”? (Think: social relations) 25. Frank chapter and changing notions of the ad culture: shift from “science, reason, and order” to....? 26. BRANDS (a lot to draw from here!)Klein and Arvidsson (perhaps quite obvious at this point). Branding and concepts of place and spaceBrand cultureHow do we use brands? How might they use us?Consuming brands or living in brandspace as production or labor Key concepts: Product Placement / Product Integration
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