Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Ruhe on Sunday March 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 96 views.
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Date Created: 03/22/15
Group Leadership 03222015 0 Leader a person who mobilizes members to achieve a goal 0 Leadership the actions leaders take to achieve group goals 0 Groups can be effective without a leader but not without leadership 0 Managers appointed taskoriented Leadership dialectics Build cohesion v welcoming disagreement o Imposing structure v promoting spontaneity Leadershipfollowership dialect signi cant to success 0 US glori es leadership but followership just as important Becoming a leader 0 l appointed by group or outside authority 0 Not easy because sometimes group can be resistant especially if appointed by outside authority 0 l gradually achieves leadership 0 Comes from within the group 0 Usually have more advantages than designated 0 Have referent power expert power 0 Talk early amp often 0 Listen to others 0 Share what you know 0 Offer opinion 0 Welcome disagreement 0 Questions to determine if leadership behavior is ethical o Is it right Is it fair Who gets hurt Would you be comfortable if the details were made public How does it smell 0 Leadership can become an ego or power trip leader with too much ambition or not enough competence or integrity risks become destructive pursuing sel sh goals Leadership 6 power 0 l abilityauthority to in uencemotivate others French amp Raven s 5 categories to classify power l can punish l relies on job title authorization etc respectedliked Most effective referent amp expert Yukl amp Fable add 3 0 Claim that all 8 divide into 2 categories l depends on jobstatus l depends on character competence amp earned social status Leadership theories 4 approaches to leadership 0 Great Man certain personality traits are common for quotnatural leadersquot 0 Leaders are born not made 0 l leadership styles can be learned 0 Leaders may be controlling open amp encouraging laidback o l effective leaders use different stylesstrategies in different situations 0 I Effective leadership occurs only when leader s style matches with the group s work situation 1 Determine leadership style D D does well in extreme situations because their primary motivation is to take charge amp get the job done I uses diplomacy amp works to improve leadermember relations Comfortable with depending on group efforts when tasks are unclear 2 Determine dimensions of every situation a I does the group get along positivenegativeneutral e l are task goals clear Ranges from disorganizedchaotic to organizedrule driven e Power where is the power source Outside authority Has the leader earned it What kind of power is evident HerseyBlanchard Model links leadership style to readiness of group members 0 Member readiness l extent to which group members are willing amp able to work together to achieve common goal Low readiness telling stage Moderate readiness selling Moderate to high participating High delegating Functional leadership theory l do whatever is not being satis ed 0 Howto lead not who should lead 0 Leadership the job not the person 0 5 questions to determine if group is meeting leadership funcUons do your behaviorsdecisions help your group achieve the common goal do your personal traitsskills match the group s needs Does your intelligencecreativityknowledgeetc promote the common goal Do members assume essential leadership functions Do you have the courage to move toward amp learn from difficult situations D balance necessary be an effective leader 0 l aims for success 0 l keeps ego in check divides leadership tasks into 5 interdependent functions 0 model leadership motivate members manage group process make decisions mentor members 0000 Diversity 8 leadership women often perceived more negatively If they attempt to become leaders seen as bossy If they stay submissive seen as weekineffective l leadership attributes viewed differently in various cultures 0 Western societies more individualist amp more coectivist 2 Essential Tools 0 l meaning from spoken words 0 l meaning from other forms 0 Ex hand gestures nervous habbits etc 0 23 of meaning from nonverbal 0 high context v low context cultures 0 high context requires less verbal communication amp low requires more verbal communication Enables group to use language to encourage group atmosphere Reveals where the group is coming from amp where it is headed Dimensions Identi cation plural pronouns Interdependence collective Minimum power differentiation considerate Social equality casualinformal Con ict management collaborative Nego a on 000000 0 Expresses shared needs Language Challeng l refer to ideasconcepts that cannot be seen or touched Concrete words refer to speci c things that can be evaluated with the senses I differences in meaning amp interpretation l biaseddemeaninginappropriate 0 Ex cursing racial slurs etc o l specialized language of a profession o Often bene cial but not if someone is of a different profession Language Differences Women tend to be more tentative amp used to maintain relationships 0 Quali ers l conveys uncertainty ex maybe perhaps 0 Tag questions connected at the end of a statement Is that ok Do you agree 0 Men tend to assert their ideas amp compete 0 Direct amp forceful l style of language unique to a geographical location or culture 0 Ex accents slang o l ability of to switch from originalpersonal dialect to dialect of the majority or situation 0 the structure of a language determines how we see experience amp interpret the world around us but does not affect how we THINK 0 Ex if our language doesn t have a word for quotredquot then we can t see it 0 6070 of meaning derived from communication comes from nonverbal communication 0 many behaviors occur simultaneously Nonverbal Behavior o used to create initial opinionsstereotypes o Facial expression amp eye contact 0 l supplementcompliment verbal messages 0 Eye contact the most revealing facial feature a varying in pitch volume speed amp o l study of body language amp physical expression 0 Ex gestures posture touch Dgre 0 side facetoface o arrangement of a room Lecture style forces focus on front Long rectangular table gives leaderhead prominence Circular tables members all equal Perception of personal space how we perceiveuse personal space 0 I o l sense of ownership over a space Ex favorite seat in a classroom 0 D personal bubble atly impacts communication roundtable cornertocorner sideby touching 18 in 18 in 4 ft 4 12 ft Nonverbal Differences Women tend to Use more facial expressions Smile more Use more eye contact Touch more Notice more nonverbal behavior Use more expressive movements tend to Use more expressive movements Appear more relaxed amp less involved Touch less especially other men Shake hands more Use larger personal space 0 0Me 00000300000 0 Communication with someone of a different culture is similar to understanding a different language 0 Personal space eye contact Creating a Supportive Communication Climate 0 l degree to which a member feels comfortable interacting o Behaviors description problem orientation spontaneity empathy equality provisionalism o l degree to which a person seems approachable or likable o Behaviors evaluation control strategy neutrality superiority certainty o Nonverbal behavior is contagious o If one person is negative the rest are more likely to develop negative attitudes More difficult because multiple speakers perspectives amp goals 0 Members may not listen because they assume someone else will Nature of Listening ability to understandanalyzeetc amp respond to the meaning of another person s verbal amp nonverbal language 0 While we may hear we may fail to listen 0 Our 1 communication process 0 Listening 4070 0 Speaking 2035 0 Reading 1020 0 Writing 510 0 l more time to listen and take time to respond Habit l something you do so frequently for so long that you no longer think about how amp why you do it o 3 components of an effective habit 0 knowledge 0 skills 0 desires o l pretend to listen 0 l avoid listening to someonesomething you don t like or agree with I pay less attention to content of than what they look like or how they speak listen to consider how to defensively respond or challenge 0 D interrupting l composed of 6 interrelated listening processes 0 Hearing understanding remembering interpreting evaluating responding Each component linked to appropriate listening attitudes relevant listening principles methods for improving listening skills 0 0 Types of listening l ability to make clear distinctions among sounds amp words 0 Hearing gateway to effective listening D comprehensive listening 0 Focus on grasping the message D ability to recall 0 Most people cannot recall 50 of what they hear immediately after headngit 0 Ability to remember effects how well we listen 0 If you re interested in what is being said you re more likely to remember 0 Stress negatively effects memory 0 Suggestions to improve 0 Repeat 0 Associate l associate idea with something that describes it o Visualize D empathetic listening ability to recognizerespond to emotional meanings o l beyond comprehending focuses on understanding situation feelings motives I analytical listening 0 Critical thinking to analyze what you hear Understand why you acceptreject an idea l more likely to react verbally amp nonverbally Verbal question support advice 0 Nonverbal frown shrug I ability to restate what has been said in a way that indicates you understand Content Depth sum up emotions connected to meaning Meaning Language use simple language to ensure accuracy 0 Shows you understand feelings amp underlying meanings 0 Form of feedback a listening test I effective listening engages your working memory Working memory used to comprehend remember etc what is going on around us Listeningstrategies amp skills 0 Thought speed speed in which we can think v speak 0 Poor listeners use extra thought speed to daydream o listen to others as you would have them listen to you 0 want to listen don t want to Annoying noises Uncomfortable environment Interruptions Someone speaking too softly rapidly slowly etc HdgeUng OOOOO o listen to nonverbal behavior 0 what s in it for me o If you can get something out of it you re more likely to pay attention 0 Listen before you leap l think before you speak 0 Take relevant notes robotically note taking prevents active listening Listening to differences 0 Men 0 Focus on content 0 Listen comprehensively amp analytically 0 Women 0 Focus relationship among speakers 0 Higher awareness of mood associated with communication 0 A group works better when they have both o lntrovert v extrovert Sensing v intuitive o Etc 0 International students see US students as less willing amp patient listeners 0 Ex English v Japanese 0 English speakingresponsible o Lowcontext 0 Believe Japanese speakers leave out important information 0 Japanese listenerresponsible o Highcontext culture rely on more nonverbal 0 They think English speakers overexplain 0 learn how to communicate with people of a lesser hearing ability ex older deaf Ethics selfcentered roles Goals are sel sh amp may be counterproductive amp unethical 0 Ethical listening is just as important as ethical speaking Con ict l disagreementdisharmony that occurs when members express differences regarding group goals Con ict in groung o Inevitable Constructive con ict is good Types of con ict o l ideas goals actions decisions 0 Individual v group goal 0 Hidden agendas l interpersonal disagreements personalities beliefs 0 Can occur when members don t feel appreciated or feel threatened by a struggle for power 0 A personal relationship affects the entire group when it turns sour l method amp process 0 Differences in preferences regarding process for accomplishing group goals 0 Moving on to the next topic voting etc l we make judgments about motivescharacteristics beyond what we actually see amp hear Snap judgments Selfserving bias l blame negative consequences on external forces amp attribute positive consequences on own behavior Constructive 8 Deconstructive con ict 0 l when members express disagreement in a way that values everyone s contributions amp promotes group goal 0 members create hostility amp prevent group from achieving goal Con ict styles l re ect tension between personal amp group goal 0 used when members unableunwilling to contribute to group amp individual goals 0 Often occurs out of lack of skill or discomfort in asserting themselves in the case of group goal 0 l give into other members at expense of own goals o Desire to get along with other members 0 members put own goals over group goals 0 Competitive members want to win 0 Inappropriate use utilizes personal attacks amp creates hostility 0 Appropriate when immediate action is needed the group is acting unethically or when you have strong beliefs o l middle ground approach 0 Works best when other methods don t work there s a lack of progress or there s a lack of time o search for solutions to achieve both individual goals of members amp group goals 0 Resolves dialectic tension between competition amp cooperation o Winwin solution 0 Drawbacks Requires lots of time amp energy Requires participation of all members o l con ict in virtual groups 0 Increased by time distance amp possible anonymity 0 Some groups feel less obligated to behave politely Con ict management strategies Wasinski s model 0 Collaboration amp positive intentionality 0 Every member must want to resolve con ict amp not play the quotblame gamequot o 5 steps A assume other person means well E express feelings I identify what you would like to happen Ooutcomes you expect are clear U understanding is achieved 0 Principled negotiation process of resolving con ict NOT a set of skills 4 elements that characterize a people a interests I options a criteria deadlock l inability to negotiate Thirdparty intervention l when groups seek services of an unbiased outsider to help resolve issues 0 2 kinds l for the purpose of guiding coaching and encouraging disputants during negotiation process a Good option if group cannot appropriate resolve con ict themselves amp everyone is willing to participate in the process of bringing in a 3rel party a Requirements for effective mediation l impartial mediator amp wellplanned mediation session a effective mediators utilize empathetic listening l decides how to resolve the con ict a Used if mediation fails Con ict 8 member diversity 0 Greatly effect comfort of individual members to participate o Collectivist cultures less likely to express disagreements 0 Less difference than what most expect People expect women to be nice amp supportive in con ict so when they use competitive con ict they are received negatively 0 Women avoid con ict or approach it privately Compete more in reaction to betrayal l mutual attraction that holds a group together amp commitment to group tasks 0 A cohesive group has O 0000 0 High interaction Friendly amp supportive communication climate Desire to conform to group Use of creativeproductive approaches to achieving goals Satis ed members 4 strategies establish group identity amp traditions emphasize teamwork recognize amp reward contributions respect group members 0 l middle ground between two ethical dialects ex cowardice v rashness courage o l studies show that homogeneous become cohesive quicker than diverse groups 0 l deterioration of mental ef ciency sense of reality and moral judgment as a result of group involvement 0 Homogeneous v heterogeneous dialect 0 Can make decisions easier but they are often misguided 0 Causes Groups are highly cohesive disagreement discouraged Structured aws speci c structure causes aws n Ex leadership roles can gain too much power Volatile situation l stress levels amp highstakes can cause a shut down of reasonable options lnvulnerability l overly con dent Rationalization l discounts warnings makes excuses Morality l ignores ethical amp moral consequences Stereotyping outsiders l doesn t consider opposition a threat Selfcensorship l doubts hisher reservations unwilling to disagree Pressure on dissent l pressures agreement Illusion of unanimity l assumes agreement Mindguarding l shields members from opposition Ask each member to serve as evaluator role Ask multiple members to work on the same problem independenUy Discuss group s progress with an outsider amp report feedback to the group Invite an expert to meetings periodically amp encourage constructive criticism Discuss negative consequences of a decision Follow formal decisionmaking process that encourages expression of disagreement amp opinions Ask questions offer reason behind positions demand justi cation from others Give time for members to express doubts before nalizing a decision Effects of listening Primacy amp recency effect Working memory theory Shortterm memory Working memory Longterm memory Hurrier model Listening lters affected by internalexternal factors Listen lessmore depending on situation Headng Understanding comprehensive listening Remembering Interpreting empathetic listening Evaluating analytical listening Responding
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