History 1312, Study Packet for Exam 2
History 1312, Study Packet for Exam 2 History 1312
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samer Hijjazi on Tuesday July 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Jonathan M Steplyk in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see in US History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 07/19/16
The Roaring Twenties - So much is going on during this period of time - One thing that defines the 20s is the passage prohibition (trying to prohibit alcohol) - The Temperance Movement (it gets a constitutional amendment gets passed) - Temperance had a huge political force behind it - It was cast in terms of moral reform th - 18 Amendment (also known as Dry Amendment) to the constitution allowed for congress to outlaw liquor manufacture and sale - A minimum of 36 states got the Amendment passed - The Amendment took effect from 1919 to 1933 - Enforcement of prohibition - Rumrunners, Bootleggers (illegally bringing In alcohol) and Speakeasies - Some used ships to smuggle alcohol in - Speakeasy (destined underground bar for drinking) - One of the myths of prohibition: people drank more - However, alcohol consumption dropped dramatically after the 18 th Amendment was put in place - One of the real backlashes against prohibition was the creation of an underground place to sell liquor - Crime occurred - One of the iconic aspects are the gangsters that profited off of prohibition - One of the famous gangsters included Al Capone - Another icon is the Thomson sub-machine gun (lightweight gun which was able to easily gun down an enemy trench) - St. Valentine’s day massacre - Capone was targeting a rival mob boss - Most aggressive gang hit that took place in the twenties - Woodrow Wilson’s term ended - Harding offered a “Return to Normalcy” - He said “The world needs to be reminded that all human ills are not curable by legislation.” - Harding takes a more laidback approach to practicing federal legislation - Harding died in office - Coolidge took his place - Andrew Mellon (V.P. of Coolidge, secretary of the treasury) - made his money off of banking - he adopted a laissez faire approach to the economy - Tax cuts: - Top rate: 73 to 25 percent - Bottom rate: 25 to 5 percent - 1926: 1.6% unemployment - The national debt was reduced by 1/3 - The federal budget was cut in half - Coolidge was remembered as “silent cal” (introverted) - However, in terms of speeches, he has a lot to say - He is a big believer of founding principles - This booming economy gave rise to consumer goods - These were popularized and easier to buy - Including radios, telephones, refrigerators, washing machines, vacuums, kitchen appliances - America’s love for automobiles jumped in the twenties - The emergence of Automobiles: The Ford Model T - Advertising began to become sophisticated in the twenties (explains the life with the item that is being advertised. Example: this car will make you happy, this product will make your life better) - Automobiles: General Motors - Offered a whole variety of cars with different prices - American auto industry took off in the 1920s - The twenties was remembered as the Jazz Age - Nightclubs and music - Jazz was a home-born form of music (American original) - African American musicians from the South - Great migration from south to north to get jobs - One very popular musician was Louis B. Armstrong - Jazz was edgy and new - Racial integration (white person watching a black performer) - Another iconic image from the twenties is the flapper - It was a new look and lifestyle for women - It was a sort of rebellion against the past - Flappers had Bobbed hair, concealed foreheads, flattened chests, hidden waists, their legs in plain sight - Not every young girl was a flapper, although flappers were a distinctive element of the twenties - Professional sports emerged - Athletes include Jim Thorpe and Babe Ruth - It was easily shared through radio - Hollywood took off in this time - Hollywood produced silent films (visually telling a story) - Animations include Walt Disney’s Mickey Mouse - Rudolph Valentino (sex symbol) - Al Jolson (first talk in movie) - Clash of Cultures (contrast between old and new culture) - Example: Religion (old culture) vs Science (new culture), production (old culture) vs consumption (new culture) (full chart on slides) - New culture did NOT replace old culture - The Rise-and Fall-of the 2 ndKKK - Inspired by a movie in 1913 called “The birth of a nation” - The clan got a boost in the twenties - Moved from south to north - They didn’t like black people or immigrants or Catholics - They liked whites protestants - Klan membership went down from 5 million in 1925 to 350,000 in 1927 - One element that worried many in the twenties was the rise of Communists and Anarchists - Wanted to destroy west pro governments - They were considered scary people - A court case involved two Italian anarchists - Sacco and Vanzetti case - The two were accused of murder and robbery in Massachusetts - They couldn’t get a fair trial (they were from a smaller group and were immigrants) - Highly sensationalized trial - They were found guilty and were convicted - Religion in the twenties - Marked by fundamentalism - A book series was released called “the Fundamentals” - Talked about Orthodox Christianity and Gospels - Billy Sunday (preacher, very physical, Fighting the Devil) - The Scopes Trial (1925), took place in Dayton, Tennessee - The issue in hand in this trial: concerned with the teachings of human origin - Against teaching evolution - Can’t teach that humans came from a lower order of creatures - Tennessee passed this law - Scopes taught about evolution in school - Defense of Scopes (Clarence Darrow) - Major attorney of prosecution (William Jennings Bryan) - Bryan looked at how evolution was being taught. He saw it as wrong, the bible didn’t teach it - Darrow got really mad during the trial (no one spoke on behalf of Darwin’s theories) - Scopes was found guilty, fined 100 dollars - Bryan paid for it out of his pocket - The law was overturned - Bryan died shortly after the trial - People wrote bad things about Bryan Election of 1928 - Most of the twenties saw Coolidge as president - Calvin Coolidge did not want a second term - Herbert Hoover decided to run (Republican) - Coolidge was mister small govt, do no harm, vetoing bad bills - Hoover was a more pro-active president, very progressive - Herbert Hoover Vs. Al Smith (Democratic) - Hoover made a name for himself by helping World War I refugees with food - The election was a referendum on prohibition (Hoover supported it) - Hoover wins the election, but things get rough for him - Less than a year into his presidency, the Market Crash of 1929 occurred (October 29, 1929: “Black Tuesday’) - People say The Market Crash caused the depression. It was a catalyst for the depression, as the depression itself was very complex - There were booms in the stock market - It didn’t rain stockbrokers on Wall Street - The depression took a while to happen - What helped worsen the economic downturn - New Deal Or Raw Deal (a book by Burton Folsom, discusses the depression) - One cause of the Depression is the Financial consequences of WWI (wars aren’t necessarily good for the country’s economy as a whole. War increases the demand for food supplies) - Another cause of the depression is Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930. This raised U.S tariffs on American goods) - Other countries disliked tariffs. As a result, there was less demand on American products - Last cause is the Federal Reserve’s failure to help U.S. Banks - Banks began losing money - (December 11, 1930: Bank of the United States fails) - Hoover tries to fight the depression - Before he became president, people thought he was awesome as he helped the people who were starving - However, he didn’t do much to help the economy as a president - He decided to fight the depression by: - 1. Smoot-Hawley Tariff - 2. The Federal government created the Federal Farm Board: $500 million subsidy for wheat and cotton - 3. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC): Provided $1.5 billion in loans to failing banks and industries - 4. Pursued Public Works (inject money in projects, gets the economy working again) - Election of 1932 - Hoover (Republican) Vs Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democratic) - Roosevelt came at a time when the Republican party was weak - Roosevelt won by a lot - Folsom addresses “The Roosevelt Legend” - New Deal is Roosevelt’s legislation packet to fight depression - Folsom’s book challenges these claims - Claims of the Roosevelt Legend: - 1. The 1920s were an economic disaster (people were spending too much, responsible for setting up the depression) - 2. The New Deal was a necessary correction on 1920s policy - 3. FDR was a popular and beloved president - 4. FDR was a good administrator and moral leader - Fireside Chats: - Roosevelt goes on the radio, speaking directly to the people - He knew how to charm people and was a great speaker - Fireside Chats were meant to be less formal - FDR’s New Deal - Keynesian Economics - National Recovery Administration (NRA) - Industries encouraged to collaborate on fixed minimum prices and wages - Intended to rise prices and wages, to create “codes of fair competition,” and to reduce “destructive competition” - Ruled unconstitutional by 9-0 Supreme Court Ruling in 1935 - Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) - Among the things the AAA does - Farmers paid not to plant portions of their land and to destroy crops and livestock - Crop prices set to 1910 levels (adjusted for inflation) - Taxes on millers and processors to pay for AAA - Ruled unconstitutional in 1936, revived by Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) - Many young men who need work - Hired several hundred thousand young men (27 and under) - Semi-military structure (military-styled discipline) - Worked on “shovel-ready” infrastructure projects - CCC didn’t have many critics - One potential pitfall was doing certain kinds of labor without modern equipment (not the most efficient) - FDR’s tax policy - Taxes are a big part of the new deal - Needed to raise revenue by taxing people - The policy maintained Hoover’s excise taxes - Excise taxes are considered regressive (tend to take money from the bottom) - This means people have less money in their pockets - Increased income tax rates: max. rate 79% - High corporate tax rates - Big business does not like the FDR new deal - National Labor Relations Act “Wagner Act” (1935) - Among the provisions of this act - 1. Employees granted right to unionize and to strike - 2. By a vote of 30%, workers in an industry could vote to unionize and select their exclusive union - 3. Employers could not legally stop a strike, hire replacement workers during a strike, or refuse to let workers back in after a strike - 4. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) created - Another new key agency was the Works Progress Administration (WPA) - It’s about public works (public projects) - Schools, airports, runways, dams, etc. - One criticism was if the money was spent efficiently - Another main part of the New Deal is Social Security - Meant to help people with a monthly check after the age of 65 to ensure a safe and secure life - One of the most controversial aspects of the New Deal was the “Court Packing” Plan - The FDR was getting frustrated - FDR didn’t get the chance to appoint any new justices - Roosevelt and his allies introduced a bill which allowed him to bring in more members in to the court - This plan called for “Allowing for the nomination of new justices for every justice who turned 65” - Many people were against it, as they believed he had way too much power - Court Packing Plan failed in Congress - IRS Targeting: All are FDR critics - Andrew Mellon (fought the IRS) - Jesse Owens (athlete, 1936 olympics) - Joe Lewis (boxer) - Huey Long (Louisiana politician, democrat, a member of FDR’s own party) - Hamilton Fish III (prominent republican, fought the IRS) - New Deal was basically trying to get the country out of depression - However, unemployment rates went up after the stock market crash - Henry Morgenthau Jr. (Secretary of the Treasury under FDR, both had a really strong bond) - One of the lasting results is FDR’s New Deal Coalition - One of things it does: wins over a lot of these constichuacies - Example: urban machines, organized labor, blacks (rest of detailed table on the slides) 1930s Totalitarian Regimes - Lots of stuff was happening in the 1930s around the world - Including the rise of Totalitarian regimes - Examples: - 1. Germany (Adolf Hitler, National Socialism) - 2. Soviet Union (Josef Stalin, Communism) - 3. Italy (Benito Mussolini, Fascism) - 4. Japan (Emperor Hirohito, Militarism) - Fascism comes from the Romans - Germany, Italy and Japan combine forces - Hitler has strong socialist roots - As the world got closer to World War, The U.S. passed many Neutrality Acts to prevent the U.S. from being involved in further more wars - These Acts: - 1. Banned U.S. sale of war supplies to belligerent nations - 2. Banned U.S. loans to belligerents - 3. Declared U.S. citizens sailed on belligerent vessels did so at their own risk - World War II Unfolds (background info) - August 23, 1939: Nazi Germany and Soviet Union sign non-aggression pact - September 1, 1939: Nazi Germany invades Poland, Britain and France declare war - September 17, 1939: Soviet Union invades Poland - June 25, 1940: France falls to Germany - July 10, October 31, 1940: Battle of Britain - June 22, 1941: Germany invades the Soviet Union - U.S. Aid to Britain and the Allies - 1939: Cash-and-Carry policy - It means selling war materials, but must pay cash, and must ship their own weapons back - Sept. 1940: “Bases-for-destroyers” deal - Britain need more destroyers - March 1941: Lend-Lease program - Start lending supplies to Britain - As more countries came into the Ally camp, Lend-Lease extended to the rest of the Allies - Helping Britain in the Battle of the Atlantic (The battle against Germany) - U.S. Navy “Neutrality Patrols” flying over the Atlantic looking for German U- boats, send the location to Britain so that they can sink the German U-boats - U.S. is now taking a more aggressive stand point - U.S. Marines occupy Iceland July 1941 - They put U.S. troops over there - August 1941, Atlantic Conference and Charter - Chance for the U.S. and British military to cooperate and act like allies - 1941: Tensions start to mount between the U.S. and Germans in the Atlantic - Sept 4: USS Greer trades shots with German U-Boat, FDR issues “shoot-on- sight” order - Sept 11-Oct 16: Several U.S. merchant ships sunk - Oct 17: USS Kearny torpedoed, 11 sailors killed - Oct 31: USS Reuben James torpedoed and sunk, 115 sailors lost, 44 survivors - Nov 13: Congress authorizes arming of U.S. merchant vessels - Germany was expanding into Southern Europe and parts of Africa - Imperial Japan made for good allies with the Germans - 1937: Japan invades China - August 1, 1941: U.S. imposes oil embargo on Japan - December 7, 1941: Attack on Pearl Harbor - Causes terrible causalities, ships sunk - Hitler pursued to declare war in the U.S. - Major focus was to defeat Nazi Germans - A contribution made by the U.S. to the World War was America’s Arsenal of Democracy - America was very good at making things - Supplying both the U.S. armies and the allies - U.S. production began to roar - U.S Production includes: 297,000 planes, 86,338 tanks, 17,400,000 small arms, 315,000 field guns and mortars, etc. - NOTE: Be familiar with the different operation codes - Priority is to win the war in Europe - Operation Torch - Invasion of North Africa - French vs Germans - America had to first face the French, then the Germans - Next move to invade Sicily - Operation Husky (Invasion of Sicily) - Patton is a legend in US history with a military mind - A race between the British and Americans - Operation Avalanche (Invasion of Italy) - A lot of people wanted to free france - The French want their country back from the Germans - Deception plays a huge role in WWII - America plays a more senior role in WWII - Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander Europe) - Operation Overload (D-Day) - Invasion of Normandy (region of France) - British, Americans and Canadians landing on the beaches - Most landings were successful - D-Day was successful - Operation Market Garden (devised by Bernard Montgomery) - His plan needs a lot of resources and lots of planning - By December 1944, The Allies are poised to invade Germany - Germany plans one last move to save themselves from defeat - Hitler’s Ardennes Offensive: The Battle of the Bulge - George S. Patton and Third Army relieve Bastogne - Eisenhower calls his generals together - The final stages of European theater - Fall of the Third Reich - May 8, 1945: V-E Day - The Air War over Germany - Strategic bombing The Pacific Theater - One of the opening moves to strike back at Japan - The Doolittle Raid - Col. Jimmy Doolittle - Japanese wanted to fight to the death - Surrender is dishonorable - Battle of Midway - Code breaking was common in the war - If you can break the enemy’s code, you know what his plan is - Japan vs United States - America wins - Japan had a lot more losses - The Battle of Guadalcanal (Island on the Pacific) - One of the major land battles - Captain Joe Foss (Governor of South Dakota) - Awarded the medal of honor - Island Hopping and Leapfrogging - Battle of Tarawa - It set the tone for the island hopping campaign - Fighting through jungles - Battle of Leyte Gulf (Allied victory) - Largest Naval Battle of WWII - U.S victory, Japan lost - Battle of Iwo Jima - Things begin to wind down - By Feb 1945, the end is in sight - The Yalta Conference - Agreed how to divide the Post war world - April 12 1945 - FDR dies - Harry S. Truman sworn in as president - War in Europe is over, War in pacific is still going on - Potsdam Conference (July-August 1945) - Stalin already knew about the secret atomic weapon the US had - Atomic Bombing of Japan - Two bombs ready to go - 1. Hiroshima: Aug 6, 1945 - 2. Nagasaki: Aug 9, 1945 - The decision to use bombs for Truman was a clear cut decision - V-J Day - Au 15, 1945: Japan’s surrender announced - Sept 2, 1945: Japan officially signs surrender aboard UAA Missouri - End of WWII - Celebrations
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