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TARRANT COUNTY COLLEGE / History / His 1302 / Why did many people move to urban areas in the 1800s?

Why did many people move to urban areas in the 1800s?

Why did many people move to urban areas in the 1800s?

Description

School: Tarrant County College
Department: History
Course: US History II Since 1867
Professor: Peter martinez
Term: Summer 2016
Tags: history and United
Cost: 50
Name: US History II since 1867
Description: Hey guys! I made a study guide that covers all that will be on the second exam.
Uploaded: 07/20/2016
12 Pages 58 Views 1 Unlocks
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Test 2 Study Guide


Why did many people move to urban areas in the 1800s?



KEY WORDS AND TERMS ARE UNDERLINED AND BOLDED 

Rise of the City and Agrarian Revolt

Migration to Cities During the Gilded Era

● In 1860, 20% of the population live in urban areas

● In 1900, 40% of the population live in urban areas

● In 1920, over 50% live in urban areas

● Rise in immigration

● African American migration

○ Moved North for job opportunities and for social reasons

○ White people have all the good jobs

○ There are more black women than black me

■ They have similar jobs to those that they had in the south, except with better pay and treatment

● Rise in immigration to major cities


What percentage of the population lived in urban areas in 1900?



○ Chicago, Detroit, Milwaukee, New York

○ Immigrant population is 70­80%

○ Usually poor

■ Especially from Ireland and Germany

○ Irish tend to stay in the northeast

○ A lot of southern and eastern Europeans

Nativism

● Nativists believe that America should stay homogenous

○ White, Protestant

● The American Protective Association 

○ Founded by Henry Bowers in 1887

○ Clinton, Iowa

○ Want to stop immigration

○ Partially founded because immigrants bring competition to the midwest ○ Anti­Catholic

○ Gets close to 500,000 members


What did immigrants bring to the united states?



We also discuss several other topics like What is an average total cost?

○ Dies out after Henry Bowers dies

● Immigration Restriction League 

○ Founded by Harvard graduates

○ Blamed housing issues and congested cities on immigrants

○ Wanted to screen immigrants through literacy tests and label immigrants as “desirable” and “undesirable”

○ Exclude immigrants based on race

○ Differenciate between “old stock” and “new stock” europeans

■ Old stock: English, French, Protestant

■ New stock: southeastern europeans

○ Starts in Massachusetts

○ Henry Cabot Lodge 

■ Congressman

■ Senate majority leader

■ A lot of clout

■ Huge supporter

■ Introduced the Literacy Test Bill

○ Has a lasting impact

Eugenics and Social Darwinism

● Eugenics

○ Breeding people together to eliminate or promote certain traits

○ Major player in social science and politics If you want to learn more check out What is truth according to the politics of america?
If you want to learn more check out What does chromatin mean?

○ Dies out in the US because of the rise of nazism

■ Nazis are huge supporters of eugenics and people want to distance themselves from nazis

○ Social Darwinism

■ The belief that the rich are rich and the poor are poor because of natural selection in society

Urban Housing in the Late 19th Century 

● Residential issues

○ Old Slave Quarters

■ People found themselves living in former slave quarters as they were to poor to afford housing

○ Triple Deckers

■ Massachusetts

■ Apartment like

■ Usually wooden

○ Row Houses

■ Philadelphia

■ Brick version of the triple decker

○ Tenements

■ New York

■ 2/3rds of the city live in these

■ Windowless

■ Little to know plumbing

Commercial Space(skyscrapers)

● The Home Insurance Building If you want to learn more check out An individual demand curve relates to what?
We also discuss several other topics like How are certain ingredients recognized?

○ 1884

○ Chicago

○ First official skyscraper

● Steel production makes skyscrapers feasible

● The Chicago Fire of 1871 

○ Blazed from 10/8­10/10

○ Killed over 300 people and caused over $2 million in damage

○ 17,000 buildings destroyed

○ 2/3rds of the city is homeless

○ The fire is started by a barn fire caused Catherine O’Leary and her cow ● Infrastructure issues

○ Plumbing

■ Very new, only really found on the outskirts of cities

● This is because cities grow outward If you want to learn more check out How many different types of molecules are present?

● outer=new and inner=old

○ Sanitation

○ Fire Danger

■ Fire spreads easily because of close quarters

Modes of Urban Transportation in Late 19th and Early 20th C​​enturies ● Elevated railway, 1870

○ Founded in New York

○ Not many cities get them early on

○ New York has the funds

○ Chicago follows suit

● Cable Cars

○ 1870s

○ San Francisco is best known for them

● Electric Trolleys

○ Late 1880s­1890s

○ Replaces cable cars

○ Used electricity instead of a cable

○ Leads to inner urban vehicles

■ Basically an electric car that can stop anywhere

● Subway

○ First built in Boston

○ 1897

● Suspension bridges

○ Brooklyn Bridge 

○ Opens 1893

○ John A. Roebling 

■ Designer

○ 14 years of construction

○ Longest bridge in the world for 20 years

Violence in the Late 19th Century 

● Southern violence

○ Race relations

● Old west

● Immigrant violence

● Increase in police

Urban Corruption

● Political Machines and Bosses

○ William “Boss” Tweed 

■ Becomes the organizing force in Tammany Hall

● Tammany Hall is the organizing force behind the Democratic Party

● If you have Tammany Hall behind you, then you can basically win

the presidential nomination

■ Took advantage of the funds

■ Put people on the payroll(policemen judges, govt workers, etc.) so that his illegal activity could remain secret

● The people on the payroll would be on his side

■ Stole over $200 million in government funds

■ Newspapers don’t report this

● Tweed controls everything basically

■ Thomas Nast 

● Muckraker cartoonist

● Produces political cartoons to educate the people on Tweed’s

activities

● Not everyone can read and there are language barriers, mainly

with immigrants, so cartoons are important in portraying

information

● Illustrates for Harper’s Weekly

● Helps bring down Tweed

■ Samuel J. Tilden 

● Attorney who helps bring down Tweed

Rise of the Middle Class

● Rise in wages and prestige

Rise in Department Stores

● Marshall Field’s(Chicago)

● Lord & Taylor(NYC)

Vaccines in the Late 19th and early 20th Century

● Medicine

○ Aspirin

○ X Ray machine

■ Invented in Germany

■ Wilhelm Rontgen­1895

■ Available in the US a year later

○ Germ Theory

■ 1870s

■ Theory that germs can spread from person to person

■ Rise in sanitation

■ Partially inspired by Louis Pasteur’s work in pasteurization

○ Vaccines

■ Cholera

■ Anthrax

■ Rabies

■ Typhoid

■ Smallpox vaccine had already been invented

Literature

● Mark Twain 

○ Most quoted

○ Criticized race and class relations

○ Anti Imperialist

○ Vice President of the Anti Imperialist League,​1901­1910

Education of Women

● Colleges for women emerge in the late 1800s

● Seven Sisters Colleges

● Sister colleges to the Ivy Leagues

● Provided quality education to women so that they could transfer to Ivy League schools for their graduate studies

○ Women are allowed to Ivy League schools for graduate studies

Agrarian Revolt

● The Agrarian Revolt

○ National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry 

■ Taught better, more scientific approaches to farming

■ Encouraged farmers to take political action against railroad companies and monopolies

■ 1867

○ Granger Laws 

■ Midwestern states

■ State laws that put limits on how much railways and warehouses could charge farmers

■ Only state laws, not federal

○ The Farmers’ Alliances 

■ Southern Alliance

■ Northwestern Alliance

■ The two groups group together to make a list of grievances and bring them to federal attention

■ Ocala Demands(1889)

● Abolish national banks and make state banks

● Loan money directly to the people

● Prohibit alien owned land

● Repossess all lands owned by aliens and foreign syndicates

● Government reclaim all excess land given to railway companies

● US senate elected by direct vote

○ People’s Party 

■ Formed by the Farmers’ Alliance in 1892

■ Have the strength to elect new senators and congressman

■ Generally support democrats

■ Don’t gain much national power, but do gain a lot of democratic power ● Able to nominate William Jennings Bryan

■ William Jennings Bryan 

■ The Great Commoner

■ Great speaker

■ Democratic candidate three times, but is never elected

● Ran on a different issue during every election

● 1896: ran against the gold standard

○ Gold standard only benefits the rich

○ Supports a silver based economy

● 1900: ran on anti­imperialism

● 1908: ran on trust busting

■ Becomes the secretary of state at some point

○ Panic of 1893 

■ Philadelphia and Reading Railroad go bankrupt

■ National Cordage Company

● Owned 90% of production of rope and twine

● Company goes under

■ Worst depression at the time

● 400 banks fail

● 800 businesses fail

● 1,000,000 unemployed

■ 1894, federal income tax is passed

● Meant to relieve the depression

● Declared unconstitutional

● 16th amendment is made to legalize federal income tax

Rise of an Empire and the Progressive Movement

Imperial Desires

● Empires are more based on people than on land

○ Taking over the use of people and their capital

○ Late 1800s

● Berlin Conference 

○ 1884­1885

○ European countries divide Africa among themselves

○ Germany is new and powerful

■ Britain and France don’t like that Germany is becoming a major player ○ US isn’t involved

■ Have been pretty stagnant since the 1850s

● Navy

○ America begins to build up their navy

■ Want to catch up to Britain and other european countries

○ 1900: America has the 3rd largest nation in the world

○ Secure bases globally

● Hawaii 

○ King Kamehameha the first 

■ Established dominance over the hawaiian islands in 1810

■ Opens up trade with the US

○ William Hooper 

■ First American to buy land in Hawaii

■ Starts sugar plantations

○ Americans want to turn Hawaiians into low paid laborers

■ Hawaiians don’t like that

○ Americans import foreign laborers to Hawaii

■ New disease are introduced

■ 50% of the indigenous population of Hawaii dies by 1840

○ Gerrit P. Judd 

■ Becomes prime minister(religious minister) in Hawaii

■ American with a lot of power in Hawaii

○ Pearl Harbor established in 1887

○ Americans continue to grow in power

○ Queen Liliuokalani 

■ Takes over as queen in 1891

■ Nationalist

■ Doesn’t like the American presence and power in Hawaii

■ Starts to take Americans out of power

■ The US sends in the Marines and take Liliuokalani out of power

○ Annexation: 1898

● Samoan Islands(1898)

○ US naval base established in 1872

■ Coal and fueling station

○ Going through civil wars

■ Americans+British backing one side and Germans back the other side ○ Tripartite Convention of 1899 

■ England is given compensation for the war effort

■ Germany and the US divide the islands among themselves

■ Samoans are recognized as nationals, not citizens

Spanish American War 

● Cuba and the Monroe Doctrine 

○ Cuba wants to be independent

○ The US hears of atrocities being done to the cubans by the Spanish ○ In reality, atrocities are being done by both sides

○ Enrique Dupuy de Lome

■ Spanish minister in Washington

■ Wrote a letter to someone in Cuba trashing President McKinley that got intercepted and exposed

● De Lome letter

○ USS Maine

■ Anchored in Havana

■ Blows up on February 15th

■ Yellow press happens

● Sensationalized news

■ Spanish blamed although there’s no proof

■ Actually exploded from a fire that erupted near the ammunition

○ USS Maine event and the De Lome letter makes America even more eager to join the war

■ America has been isolationist up until this point

○ War declared

■ Very short war

■ Troops are sent out May of 1898 and come back in August

■ About 460 K.I.A.

● Theodore Roosevelt 

○ Orders commodore George Dewey​to attack Manilla in the Philippines ■ Wants to cripple the spanish navy

■ Destroys the spanish fleet

■ US gets Puerto Rico and Guam

The Philippines

● US paid Spain $20 million for the Philippines

● What to do with the Philippines

○ Reasons to take over

■ US has a responsibility to spread Christianity and to educate

■ Philippines incapable of self­rule

■ If the US doesn’t take over, someone else will

○ Anti Imperialist reasons

■ Moral obligation to allow them their independence

■ Labor rights activists argue that low filipino wages will undercut American wages and eliminate jobs

■ Fear the Filipinos will come into the US

○ US decides to take over the Philippines

● Philippine American War 

○ Led by Emilio Aguinaldo 

○ Over 4000 American lives lost

○ Filipinos lose 20,000 military personnel and 200,000 civilians

○ Philippines gains independence in 1946

The Boxer Rebellion 

● China

● US is late to the imperialism

○ Japan plus other European countries are already their

● Open Door Notes 

○ US sends letters to ambassadors of other countries stating that everyone could share China

● Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists 

○ Group of young militant, vigilant men who were martial arts trained

○ Attacked and killed westerners

○ Laid siege

○ Believed that they could survive bullets

○ Took over Beijing

■ Qing Imperial Family​was in control and gave permission to be

conquered

○ Rebellion was put down

○ The Boxer Protocol

■ Qing emperor is forced to pay $333 million, because they didn’t do

enough to avoid invasion or put down the rebellion

■ Americans receive $24 million

● Return $11 million in 1908 to establish friendly relations

The Progressive Era

30 year period

● Changes in women’s roles

● Progress in racial equality

● Rise in labor rights

● Immigration addressed

Muckrakers 

● Reporters or journalists who expose corruption

● Term coined by Teddy Roosevelt

○ Inspired after reading A Pilgrim’s Progress

■ Written by John Bunyan

■ Late 1600s

■ There’s a muckraker in the book

■ Very evangelical

● Lincoln Steffens 

○ Wrote for McClure’s Magazine

○ Writes about machine politics in the cities

○ Travels from city to city to investigate corruption

○ Writes “Tweed Days in St. Louis”

● Ida Tarbell 

○ Attended college

○ Also wrote for McClure’s Magazine

○ Wrote “History of the Standard Oil Company”

○ Her father was in the oil business but was driven out because of Rockefeller’s shady business practices

○ Wrote “The Cleveland Massacre”

■ About the shady business practices with railway companies

■ Rockefeller

● Eventually own 22 of 26 oil businesses

■ Leads to anti­monopoly registration

● Upton Sinclair 

○ Socialist

○ Original goal was to expose bad working conditions and the negative effects of capitalism

○ Travels to meat packing plants

○ Ends up writing about the horrors of the meat packing business in his novel, “The Jungle”(1906)

■ People lost fingers and fingernails because of acid

■ A lot of rats

■ Lost appendages

■ Not beef items, body parts, and rats still being processed

■ Chemicals used to mask the smell of rotten beef

○ Roosevelt takes action the same year that “The Jungle” is published

■ Pure Food and Drug Act

● Makes proper food labeling a requirement

■ Federal Meat Inspection Act

■ Food and Drug Administration created

Social Gospel Movement 

● 3rd great awakening

● People using religion to establish organizations to help others

○ Salvation Army

■ Late 1800s

■ Make a name for themselves after their efforts in assisting the victims of the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake ● Galveston Hurricane of 1900 

○ 6000 people die

○ Worst weather related disaster in US history

● 1906 San Francisco Earthquake 

○ 2000­3000 people die

Settlement House Movement 

● Hull House

● Chicago, Illinois

● Established to help immigrants by providing housing, clothing, and food ● Founded by Jane Adams 

○ Helps to pass legislation against child labor in Illinois

○ Suffragist

○ Pacifist

○ First official social worker in US history

○ 2nd woman in history to win the Nobel Peace Prize

Women’s Suffrage

● 19th Amendment 

○ Gave women the right to vote

○ National American Woman Suffrage Association 

■ Susan B. Anthony 

● Leader

● Dies before the 19th amendment

■ Anna Howard Shaft and Carrie Chapman Catt

● Leadership is between the both of them after Anthony dies

■ Carrie Chapman Catt​forms the League of Women Voters

● 17th Amendment 

○ Senate is elected directly by the people

○ William Randolph Hearst 

■ Gets elected to the senate

■ Muckraker and yellow press journalist

● Brings in David Graham Phillips ​to sell papers by writing

exposeˊs on the senators

● “The Treason of Senate"

○ 18th Amendment 

■ Prohibition, 1920

■ Prohibited selling, manufacturing, and transporting alcohol

■ Women’s Christian Temperance Union 

● 1873

● Frances Willard 

○ Main person

● Blame alcohol for societal problems

● 370,000 members

● Carrie Nation 

○ Prominent member

○ Takes a ratchet and a Bible into bars and smashes alcohol

○ Mostly in Kansas

○ Alcohol has technically been illegal in Kansas since 50

years prior, so she isn’t really breaking any laws

○ Arrested a couple of times, but never really spends more

than a couple of hours in jail

○ Ex husband was an alcoholic and died from alcohol

poisoning about year after Nation had left him for not

changing his ways for her and their newborn

○ Dies before voting rights

Racial Strife

● National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1909 ○ W.E.B. Dubois 

■ Founding member

○ Part of the Niagara Movement

■ Called the Niagara Movement because they had to go all the way to Niagara to meet because of a lack of desegregated hotels

■ Leads to the formation of the National Negro Committee

● 50ish white people and 7­8 black people

● Springfield Race Riot of 1908 

○ White Clergyman wakes up to find a black man in his daughter’s bedroom, tries to kill the man, and ends up stabbed

○ Black man accused of raping a white woman

○ White people go crazy and start to form mobs, lynch black people, and destroy businesses

○ Causes the National Negro Committee to become the NAACP

Immigration

● The Dillingham Commission 

○ Study that concluded that immigration is polluting the racial stock

○ Believe that their needs to be a crackdown on immigration

○ William P. Dillingham (VT)

○ Causes the 1924 National Origins Act

McKinley Assassination

● Done by anarchist, Leon Czologosz

● Current VP, Teddy Roosevelt, became president

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