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PHIS 206 EXAM 2 Study Guide Sample

by: Jasmine Notetaker

PHIS 206 EXAM 2 Study Guide Sample PHIS206

Marketplace > Virginia Commonwealth University > Physiology > PHIS206 > PHIS 206 EXAM 2 Study Guide Sample
Jasmine Notetaker
Virginia Commonwealth University

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These notes cover the 2nd exam information for Physiology with Dr. Ramzi
Human Physiology
Dr. Ramzi
Study Guide
Physiology, Human
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Notetaker on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIS206 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Dr. Ramzi in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Physiology at Virginia Commonwealth University.

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Date Created: 07/20/16
Exam 2 Study Guide  Central Nervous System: Afferent & Efferent Division o Afferent: sensory portion that delivers information o Efferent: motor portion that receives commands  3 Types of Neurons o Afferent: transmit sensory information from PNS --> CNS o Efferent: transmits signals away from CNS --> PNS o Interneuron: within the CNS  Glial Cells: support interneurons physically, metabolically, & functionally  Astrocyte: holding neurons together & guiding them through development. o Blood Brain barrier o Repairs brain injuries o Takes up extra K+ form brain ECF  Oligodendrocyte: forms myelin sheaths around axons in CNS  Microglia: immune defense of CNS o Scavengers  Ependymal: line internal cavities of the CNS  CNS Protection o Cranium protects the brain & vertebral column encloses the spine  Wraps around several meninges: outer dura mater, middle arachnoid, & innermost pia matter o Blood Brain Barrier limits access of blood-borne substances to brain  Highly selective series of capillaries that regulate the exchange b/w blood & brain  Needs constant input of O 2glucose from the blood o CSF around the brain  …produced by choroid plexuses inside the ventricles  Arachnoid villi is the space where CSF is drained into the blood  Basal Nuclei o Inhibition of muscle tone throughout the body o Coordination of slow, sustained movements o Selecting & maintaining purposeful muscle activity while inhibiting useless movement o : inhibitory role in motor control  Thalamus o Relay station for all synaptic input o : synaptic integrating center for processing sensory input on its way to cerebral cortex o Some degree of consciousness o Role in motor control o Chide awareness of sensation  Hypothalamus o Regulation of many homeostatic functions  Controlling temperature, thirst, urine production, food intake, hormone secretion, milk ejection  Producing hormones  ANS coordinating center  Plays a role in emotions and behavior patterns o Link b/w nervous & endocrine systems o Extensive involvement w/ emotion & basic behavioral patterns  Cerebellum o Maintenance of balance o Enhancement of muscle tone o Coordinating & planning of skilled voluntary muscle activity o Functions  Vestibulocerebellum: maintains balance & controls body movement  Spinocerebellum: enhances muscle tone & coordinated skilled, voluntary movements  Cerebrocerebellum: plays a role in planning/initiating voluntary movement  Brain Stem o : Continuous with spinal cord, it controls life sustaining processes while maintaining balance, enhances muscle tone & coordinated and plan skilled voluntary muscle activity o Origin of majority of peripheral cranial nerves o Cardio, respiratory& digestive control centers o Regulation of muscle reflexes involved with equilibrium & posture o Reception & Integration of synaptic input o Role in sleep –wake cycle o Vital link between spinal cord & higher brain regions  Most cranial nerves are connected here  Contains centers that control heart, blood vessel function, and sleep  Roles in modulating sense of pain & muscle reflexes regulation o Diencephalon: top of brain stem  Hypothalamus: homeostatic function  Thalamus: primitive sensory processing  Cerebrum: top of lower brain regions with 6 well defined layers o Cerebral Cortex is highly convoluted  Grey Matter (unmylated): outer layer  White matter (mylated): inner layer  Functions  Sensory Perception  Voluntary Movement  Language  Personality traits  Sophisticated Mental Events  Lobes  Occipital: processing visual input  Temporal: Processing of sensory input  Parietal: soma sensory processing; receives most input from opposite body side  Frontal: voluntary motor activity, speaking ability & elaboration of thought  Motor Control o Primary Motor Cortex o Premotor Cortex: lies on lateral surface of each hemisphere anterior to PMC o Supplementary Motor Cortex: Medial surface of each hemisphere anterior to PMC o Posterior Parietal Cortex: posterior to primary somatosensory cortex  Somatotopic o Varies b/w individuals & is a dynamic steady state o Area are influenced by use-dependent competition o Modified by experience o Plasticity of brain can be remodeled in response to varying demands  Language o …is controlled by different cortical areas  Broca’s area: responsible for speaking ability  Wernicke’s area: functions for language comprehension o Various language disorders are localized in different regions of cerebral cortex.  Cerebral Cortex Cont’d (association) o Pre-frontal association cortex: planning for voluntary activity, decision-making, creativity & developing personality traits o Parietal- temporal- occipital association cortex: integrates somatic, auditory & visual sensations from 3 lobes o Limbic Association Cortex: Involvement with motivation, emotion & memory  Hemispheres o Left”: logical, analytical, sequential, verbal tasks o Right”: Spatial perception, artistic & musical talents  Electroencephalogram o : record post-synaptic activity of cortical neurons  use for cerebral dysfunction Dx  distinguish sleep stages  legal determination of brain death  Limbic System o : functions with higher cortex o Emotion o Works with higher cortex to control behavioral patterns o includes reward + punishment centers o neurotransmitters in pathways for emotions:  dopamine  serotonin  non-repinephrine  Memory o : storage of acquired knowledge for later recall o memory trace: neural change responsible for retention or storage of knowledge  Long/ short term  Hippocampus: short term  Cerebellum: procedural memories  Pre-frontal cortex functions for working memory  Sleep o :active process consisting of alternating periods of slow waves and paradoxical sleep o states of alertness in decreasing level of arousal  Maximum alertness  Wakefulness  Sleep  Coma o …has distinct EEG patterns and behavioral patterns o sleep-wake cycle controlled by interactions among 3 neural systems o Function of sleep is unclear  Spinal Cord o :extends through vertebral canal o cord ranges vertically from a large hole at base of skull o 31 pairs of spinal nerves are connected to it:  8 cervical  12 thoracic  5 lumbar  5 sacral  1 cocygeal  White matter o :consists of tracts for vertical relay (spinal cord)  These tracts are ascending& descending  Ascending: from cord to brain  Descending: from brain to cord  Gray Matter: 3 pairs of horns (spinal cord) o Contains internuncial neurons in spinal cord gray is to integrate basic reflexes  Apart of research arc  : neural pathway that produces reflexes  Reflex Components 1. Receptor 2.Afferent pathway 3.Integrating Center 4.Efferent Pathway 5.Effector o Receptor detects stimulus o Effector makes response to stimulus (reflex) o Integrating center within gray matter of spinal cord connects given input to proper output


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