PHIS 206 EXAM 2 Study Guide Sample
PHIS 206 EXAM 2 Study Guide Sample PHIS206
Virginia Commonwealth University
Popular in Human Physiology
verified elite notetaker
HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Physiology
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Notetaker on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIS206 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Dr. Ramzi in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Physiology at Virginia Commonwealth University.
Reviews for PHIS 206 EXAM 2 Study Guide Sample
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 07/20/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Central Nervous System: Afferent & Efferent Division o Afferent: sensory portion that delivers information o Efferent: motor portion that receives commands 3 Types of Neurons o Afferent: transmit sensory information from PNS --> CNS o Efferent: transmits signals away from CNS --> PNS o Interneuron: within the CNS Glial Cells: support interneurons physically, metabolically, & functionally Astrocyte: holding neurons together & guiding them through development. o Blood Brain barrier o Repairs brain injuries o Takes up extra K+ form brain ECF Oligodendrocyte: forms myelin sheaths around axons in CNS Microglia: immune defense of CNS o Scavengers Ependymal: line internal cavities of the CNS CNS Protection o Cranium protects the brain & vertebral column encloses the spine Wraps around several meninges: outer dura mater, middle arachnoid, & innermost pia matter o Blood Brain Barrier limits access of blood-borne substances to brain Highly selective series of capillaries that regulate the exchange b/w blood & brain Needs constant input of O 2glucose from the blood o CSF around the brain …produced by choroid plexuses inside the ventricles Arachnoid villi is the space where CSF is drained into the blood Basal Nuclei o Inhibition of muscle tone throughout the body o Coordination of slow, sustained movements o Selecting & maintaining purposeful muscle activity while inhibiting useless movement o : inhibitory role in motor control Thalamus o Relay station for all synaptic input o : synaptic integrating center for processing sensory input on its way to cerebral cortex o Some degree of consciousness o Role in motor control o Chide awareness of sensation Hypothalamus o Regulation of many homeostatic functions Controlling temperature, thirst, urine production, food intake, hormone secretion, milk ejection Producing hormones ANS coordinating center Plays a role in emotions and behavior patterns o Link b/w nervous & endocrine systems o Extensive involvement w/ emotion & basic behavioral patterns Cerebellum o Maintenance of balance o Enhancement of muscle tone o Coordinating & planning of skilled voluntary muscle activity o Functions Vestibulocerebellum: maintains balance & controls body movement Spinocerebellum: enhances muscle tone & coordinated skilled, voluntary movements Cerebrocerebellum: plays a role in planning/initiating voluntary movement Brain Stem o : Continuous with spinal cord, it controls life sustaining processes while maintaining balance, enhances muscle tone & coordinated and plan skilled voluntary muscle activity o Origin of majority of peripheral cranial nerves o Cardio, respiratory& digestive control centers o Regulation of muscle reflexes involved with equilibrium & posture o Reception & Integration of synaptic input o Role in sleep –wake cycle o Vital link between spinal cord & higher brain regions Most cranial nerves are connected here Contains centers that control heart, blood vessel function, and sleep Roles in modulating sense of pain & muscle reflexes regulation o Diencephalon: top of brain stem Hypothalamus: homeostatic function Thalamus: primitive sensory processing Cerebrum: top of lower brain regions with 6 well defined layers o Cerebral Cortex is highly convoluted Grey Matter (unmylated): outer layer White matter (mylated): inner layer Functions Sensory Perception Voluntary Movement Language Personality traits Sophisticated Mental Events Lobes Occipital: processing visual input Temporal: Processing of sensory input Parietal: soma sensory processing; receives most input from opposite body side Frontal: voluntary motor activity, speaking ability & elaboration of thought Motor Control o Primary Motor Cortex o Premotor Cortex: lies on lateral surface of each hemisphere anterior to PMC o Supplementary Motor Cortex: Medial surface of each hemisphere anterior to PMC o Posterior Parietal Cortex: posterior to primary somatosensory cortex Somatotopic o Varies b/w individuals & is a dynamic steady state o Area are influenced by use-dependent competition o Modified by experience o Plasticity of brain can be remodeled in response to varying demands Language o …is controlled by different cortical areas Broca’s area: responsible for speaking ability Wernicke’s area: functions for language comprehension o Various language disorders are localized in different regions of cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex Cont’d (association) o Pre-frontal association cortex: planning for voluntary activity, decision-making, creativity & developing personality traits o Parietal- temporal- occipital association cortex: integrates somatic, auditory & visual sensations from 3 lobes o Limbic Association Cortex: Involvement with motivation, emotion & memory Hemispheres o Left”: logical, analytical, sequential, verbal tasks o Right”: Spatial perception, artistic & musical talents Electroencephalogram o : record post-synaptic activity of cortical neurons use for cerebral dysfunction Dx distinguish sleep stages legal determination of brain death Limbic System o : functions with higher cortex o Emotion o Works with higher cortex to control behavioral patterns o includes reward + punishment centers o neurotransmitters in pathways for emotions: dopamine serotonin non-repinephrine Memory o : storage of acquired knowledge for later recall o memory trace: neural change responsible for retention or storage of knowledge Long/ short term Hippocampus: short term Cerebellum: procedural memories Pre-frontal cortex functions for working memory Sleep o :active process consisting of alternating periods of slow waves and paradoxical sleep o states of alertness in decreasing level of arousal Maximum alertness Wakefulness Sleep Coma o …has distinct EEG patterns and behavioral patterns o sleep-wake cycle controlled by interactions among 3 neural systems o Function of sleep is unclear Spinal Cord o :extends through vertebral canal o cord ranges vertically from a large hole at base of skull o 31 pairs of spinal nerves are connected to it: 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 cocygeal White matter o :consists of tracts for vertical relay (spinal cord) These tracts are ascending& descending Ascending: from cord to brain Descending: from brain to cord Gray Matter: 3 pairs of horns (spinal cord) o Contains internuncial neurons in spinal cord gray is to integrate basic reflexes Apart of research arc : neural pathway that produces reflexes Reflex Components 1. Receptor 2.Afferent pathway 3.Integrating Center 4.Efferent Pathway 5.Effector o Receptor detects stimulus o Effector makes response to stimulus (reflex) o Integrating center within gray matter of spinal cord connects given input to proper output
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'