Week 11: Technology
Week 11: Technology COMM 2010
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Mason on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2010 at Clemson University taught by Marilyn Pugh in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communications Studies in Communication at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 07/20/16
Week 11: Technology Chapter 13 concurrent media use: use of two or more media systems simultaneously Perceptions of Technology and Media o When a new technology is introduced in a society, it is generally framed both as something that will save the world and as something that is intrusive and threatening. o The emergence of any new communication technology has historically elicited choruses of concern and anxiety, surprisingly similar in nature. o Relational: The one constant among all technologies, from cave drawings to the Internet to whatever technologies arise next, is that they are inherently relational in their understanding and use. There are three primary views associated with the impact of technology: o technological determinism: belief that technologies determine social structure, cultural values, and even how people think o social construction of technology: belief that people determine the development of technology and ultimately determine social structure and cultural value o social shaping of technology: belief that both people and technologies exert influence on social structure and cultural values The Relational Uses of Technology and Media o Individuals do not use technology and media. Rather, relators use technology and media. o The use of technology and media as a shared relational activity enables people to accomplish certain relational needs. o The Four Relational Needs and the Shared Use of Technology and Media: Promoting Interaction Technology and media enable interactions to take place. Even in technology- and media-rich households with multiple television sets, computers, and other technology and media systems, families often use technology and consume media together, which provides an opportunity for interactions to occur. Gantz (2013), for example, found that television sports are often viewed with others, and watching sports is an activity that can maintain and enhance existing relationships. Withdrawing From Interactions Technology and media also allow people to withdraw from social interaction. Texting and accessing materials using cell phones and digital tablets allow people to disengage from others when desired. People sometimes even pretend to use their cell phones in order to avoid interactions (Baron & Campbell, 2012). Differentiating Relationships The shared use of technology and media has even been shown to distinguish particular relationships from others. Over 30 years ago, it was discovered that watching television was the most frequent activity shared by spouses (Argyle & Furnham, 1982). More recently, Padilla-Walker, Coyne, and Fraser (2012) found cell phones and watching television and movies to be among the most common media shared by families. Enacting and Evaluating Roles The shared use of technology and media also enables people to establish and enact specific relational roles, expectations, and boundaries (Lull, 1980). For instance, relational boundaries must be evaluated when parents and children “friend” one another on Facebook o People base their understanding of relationships and their actions within relationships in part on media representations. Books, magazines, newspapers, the Internet, movies, songs, and television programs feature both fictional and real social and personal relationships. o Media representations of relationships provide information about relational roles and demographic characteristics. Essentially, people can learn about what relationships look like and what to expect from them based on media depictions. o Relationships depicted on television and through other technologies are not always realistic, however. socialization impact of media: depictions of relationships in media provide models of behavior that inform people about how to engage in relationships o Technology and media provide many of the same uses and provide many of the same benefits as personal relationships. Needs and desires gained from personal relationships, such as companionship, information, support, control, intimacy, and entertainment, can be gained from media with the same level of satisfaction and fulfillment. o The relational and social satisfaction derived from technology and media comes in part from their actual use and position within the home. Some people may actually prefer the companionship provided by technology to that provided by those in their social network. Certainly, on some occasions people would rather search the Internet, listen to music, or watch a movie than be with other people. media equation: people use the same social rules and expectations when interacting with technology as they do with other people Media Equation Research Findings: o Personality When it comes to being dominant or submissive, people generally prefer to be around and interact with people who are similar to them rather than people who are different. It turns out people can not only perceive computers as having dominant or submissive personalities, through prompts and other means, but also prefer computers whose personality is similar to their own. o Flattery People like other people who compliment them, and the same evaluative response holds true for computers. People, it was discovered, like computers who offer them praise more than computers that offer no evaluation. o Politeness When someone asks for your feedback on a project he or she has completed or asks about his or her performance on a task, you generally provide him or her with a positive response. If someone else asked you about that person’s performance, your response would be more negative than if that person asked you directly. Not necessarily deceitful, you are just not being as negative as you could be because you do not want to hurt his or her feelings. The same patterns of interaction were found to take place with computers. When asked to evaluate a computer while using the same computer to type their responses, people responded much more positively than when typing their responses on a different computer. o parasocial relationships: “relationships” established with media characters and personalities Parasocial relationship research findings: • Similar to other relationships, people are often attracted to media characters and personalities with whom they perceive a certain degree of similarity (Turner, 1993). • People use similar cognitive processes when developing parasocial relationships and other relationships (Perse & Rubin, 1989). • People follow the same attachment styles used in physical relationships in their other relationships (Cole & Leets, 1999). • Tweeting increasingly enables public figures to establish both parasocial and social relationships with followers (Frederick, Lim, Clavio, Pedersen, & Burch, 2012). • Parasocial and other relationships provide similar levels of satisfaction (Kanazawa, 2002). • As with facetoface contact, parasocial contact has been shown to lower levels of prejudice (Schiappa, Gregg, & Hewes, 2005). • Parasocial relationships are measured using similar criteria to those used to evaluate other relationships (Koenig & Lessan, 1985). • Parasocial relationships impact the body images of both men and women (Young, Gabriel, & Hollar, 2013; Young, Gabriel, & Sechrist, 2012). • Parasocial relationships and relationships with people in physical social networks have been found to follow similar patterns of development, maintenance, and dissolution. When parasocial relationships end (e.g., when a television character “dies”), people experience this loss in much the same manner as they do losing a close friend (Cohen, 2003). media literacy: the learned ability to access, interpret, and evaluate media products technology and media profile: a compilation of your technology and media preferences and general use of technology and media; informs others about who you are as a person or at least the persona you are trying to project Creating Your Technology and Media Profile 1. Do you like watching television? If so, what are some of your favorite programs? 2. Do you like listening to music? If so, what are some of your favorite artists and songs? 3. Do you like watching movies? If so, what are some of your favorite movies? 4. Do you like to read? If so, what are some of your favorite books, newspapers, and magazines? 5. Do you like playing video games? If so, what are some of your favorite games? 6. Do you like using the Internet? If so, what are some of the sites you visit most often? 7. What television programs, music, movies, print material, video games, and Internet sites do you dislike? 8. Do you access television programs, music, movies, and books/newspapers/magazines through the Internet or your cell phone? 9. How often do you use email? To whom are you most likely to send an email message? 10. How often do you use your cell phone to call or text someone? To whom are you most likely to contact through voice or text? 11. Do you use a social networking site? If so, what are your primary reasons for using it, and how often do you use it? Cell Phones: Constructing Identities and Relationships o relational technologies: such technologies as cell phones, iPods, and PDAs whose use has relational functions and implications in society and within specific groups o technology and media generations: those differentiated by unique technology grammar and consciousness based on the technological and media environment in which they are born o microcoordination: the unique management of social interaction made possible through cell phones Ling’s Three Varieties of Microordination o Cell phones position people as being constantly connected and constantly available to others. o Giving or denying someone access to your cell phone number establishes both the boundaries and the degree of closeness desired and expected within the relationship. o We can discuss shared experience derived from the use of cell phones in two ways: First, more than simply transmitting information, the act of sending and receiving text messages both announces and establishes shared membership and acceptance into a group. Cell phones also enable people to engage in shared experience even when physically separated. The immediate transmission of voice, picture, sound, and video provides people with the sense of experiencing an event or occasion together. Constructing Identities and Maintaining Relationships Online o It has been discovered that the physical attractiveness of friends influences perceptions of the user’s physical and social attractiveness o The majority of users indicate that these photographs help them express who they are to other users. o core ties: people with whom you have a very close relationship and are in frequent contact; a person often discusses important matters in life with these people and often seeks their assistance in times of need o significant ties: people who are more than mere acquaintances but with whom a strong connection does not exist; a person is not overly likely to talk with these people or seek help from these people, but they are still there when needed o synchronous communication: communication in which people interact in real time and can at once both send and receive messages o asynchronous communication: communication in which there is a slight or prolonged delay between the message and the response; the interactants must alternate between sending and receiving messages o emoticons: textbased symbols used to express emotions online, often to alleviate problems associated with a lack of nonverbal cues
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