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Exam 2 Review guide- the biological profile

by: Janaki Padmakumar

Exam 2 Review guide- the biological profile ANT3520

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Janaki Padmakumar

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These notes have a lot of information condensed into charts for you to memorize for different aspects of the biological profile. I highly recommend that you study this material in advance as there ...
Skeleton Keys: Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
Amanda Friend
Study Guide
Anthropology, forensics, stature, sexualdimorphism
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janaki Padmakumar on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT3520 at University of Florida taught by Amanda Friend in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views.


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Date Created: 07/20/16
Exam 2 Review guide The biological profile is composed of three aspects that help determine the deceased’s identity: 1. Sex 2. Ancestry 3. Stature The primary purposes of these three components is to rule out and exclude other people who could fit the match for the decedent Sexual dimorphism: Biological sexes usually display dimorphism, i.e. differences in form- this is noted especially in other mammalian species like chimpanzees and gorillas, where there’s a clear difference between males and females (size, stature and robustness). Reasons for dimorphism include: - different energetic concerns due to pregnancy for females, thus smaller size (lactation, nutrients for children); size decreases as gestation period increases - Males have intrasex competition for females- size is beneficial for competition/reproduction - Sexual selection- females choose larger partners Humans are not as dimorphic, but there are notable skeletal variations that occur after puberty, which can help differentiate between male and females. Males: - Develop larger, robust skeleton - More pronounced features (mandible, brow ridges) and robust muscle attachment sites - Elongated bones with more joint surface area Females by comparison are much smaller and more gracile. Determining sex in children is difficult since most skeletal dimorphisms can only be noted after puberty. Pelvic traits (non metric) Traits Males Females efficient for bipedalism and Pelvis Efficent for bipedalism childbirth Subpubic angle Narrow V shape Wide U shape Greater sciatic notch narrow wide i pelvic inlet large (to accommodate a /outlet small babies) t i Ventral arch absent present b subpubic cavity convex concave p ischiopubic broad and flat narrow with a slight crest ramus pubic shape rectangular triangular Sacrum (ala long and narrow; . short and rounded; . ratio) 25:.5:.25 33:.33:.33 Ischiopubic ramus: area where the ischium and pubis meet to fuse The female pelvis: efficient for childbirth and bipedalism; the birth canal must be wide enough for the child’s head to fit through; this leads to the obstetric dilemma- wide pelvises efficient for childbirth are not as efficient for bipedalism. skull traits (non metric) traits males females prominent robust skull features small and gracile larger, pronounced browridges glabella smaller, reduced glabella orbital margins blunt orbits sharper orbits marked area for muscle nuchal area attachments gracile larger, pronounced mastoids glabella small mandible squared chins pointed chins forehead sloped vertical costal cartilage marginal ossification central ossification Metric skull measurements - Done 28 different ways - Uses Giles and Elliot’s formula developed in 1963 - Now FORDISC 3.1 is popularized (Jantz and Ousley 2005)- use of a discriminant function analysis Metric measurements Articular surfaces males females vertical diameter of humeral more than less than head 47mm 42mm more than less than Femoral head max. distance 47.5mm 42.5mm The difference between race and ancestry: Race is a social construct; it is not recognized as a valid biological entity. It’s a spectrum without distinct groups, and no racial groups are universally defined. Social race (ethnicity) is defined by oneself, peers, and community. It can be defined by appearance, genetic heritage, geographic origin, culture and language; you have the freedom to identify your social race (like Spanish speakers being able to identify as Hispanic) Early ideologies grouped race into discrete groups, and these groups were static. They were used to reinforce social ranking. Race at the time was phenotypically determined, and applied to behavior and moral character (phenotype=physical expression of genetics, genotype= alleles (dominant allele determines phenotypic expression) Race is currently interpreted as a gradient of human variation, with differences found within groups rather than between different groups *focus turns to ancestry* Clinal variation- variety that is caused by environmental differences; natural selection, genetic drift and flow of genes in a population determines patterns of ancestry Race is primarily used in forensic anthropology as a way to interact with laypersons - Information is provided within a social construct - Scopes of antemortem searches can be reduced if a racial identity is established Ancestry groups within the United States: 1. Asian (includes native populations) 2. European 3. African Metric and nonmetric criteria are used to determine ancestry; primary examinations are done on the skull which has the most morphological differences between ancestry groups Ancestry groups and variations Traits African Asian European interorbital breadth broad intermediate narrow orbit shape rectangular rounded sloping nasal aperature wide medium narrow nasal bone steepled/tower shape small nasal spine tented bones bones midface alveolar prognathism prognathism none no prognathism zygomatic flaring receding structure vertical zygomatics zygomatics rectangular shovel shaped dentition palate incisors parabolic palate suture formation simple suture complex suture simple suture mandible flat face prominent chin overall skull form long headed round headed long headed palate shape rectangular round parabolic wide and ascending ramus slanted vertical pinched Non metric trait comparisons Trait Scoring inferior nasal guttering, incipent guttering, straight nasal sill, partial aperature sill, complete sill nasal shape round, oval, plateau, vaulted, steepled zygomaticomaxillar y suture angled, smooth, S- shaped, obliterated nasal aperature width wide, medium or narrow interorbital breadth broad, intermediate or narrow Recall that the non-metric traits are a gradient; they vary based on the person being studied Disadvantages of non-metric analysis - Inter-observer error - Lacks clarity in definitions - Subjective assessment - Rudimentary statistics for simple trait frequencies Metric analysis methods: Metric analysis of ancestry have a standardized set of measurements that are validated by statistics - 1962 Giles and Eliot cranial measurements - University of Tennessee forensic databank - FORDISC: o Measurement of remains entered into program o Compares likelihood of a skeleton belonging to a particular ancestry group o Other reference samples are used to compare ancestry Stature and variations in stature: Stature is defined as a person’s standing height. This part of the biological profile is fairly predictable since there’s a clear relationship between limb length and stature. Factors that can affect stature are age, biological sex and geography (ancestry) Age- stature increases until adulthood, and decreases as people age due to vertebral compression and bone diseases such as osteoporosis. There is no standardized growth rate as one ages. Sexual dimorphism is noticeable in stature- males generally tend to be taller, with differently proportioned limbs (stature can be calculated more accurately if sex is determined first) Geography- ecological factors determine stature since clinal distributions occur with different ancestries - Bergmann and Allen’s rules- homeostasis maintained in different environments by variations in body types (stature); explains why hotter climates have larger stature to accommodate more surface area Hot climates cold climates Bergman n smaller volume larger volume Allen longer appendages shorter appendages Age variations and height estimation accuracy Age range Accuracy 0- birth very accurate; constrained fetal growth Birth- fairly accurate; compensate for fetal growth; weaning time 2yrs variations 2-12 year accurate; fairly consistent growth patterns Teenager less accurate; onset of sexual dimorphism; growth occurs s at different times adults very accurate; fixed stature Variations in living vs forensic stature estimations - Self-reporting is oftentimes inaccurate due to overestimation, especially with men; causes discrepancies in public records like drivers licenses - Age causes height decrease as adulthood progresses due to vertebral compression; can be fixed by adding a margin of error to height estimation - Time of day- gravity causes height decrease over the course of the day of about 2 inches - Human error and measurement errors - Secular change - Cadaver stature (decomposition causing stature changes) Stature determination methods Fully 1956- height equation developed using white males who died in WWII (n=102); had issues since it studied only a select group, subjects were from concentration camps(poor nutrition affecting stature); calculation requires a nearly complete skeleton Linear regression- long bone measurement has regression formula applied to it; done after determining ancestry and sex, produces strong correlation between long bones and height (Trotter and Glesser’s work as basis) FORDISC 3.1 Idiosyncratic variations and personal identification Personal ID- cultural factors  Group affiliation  Religious denomination  Socioeconomic status Biological identification  Demographic characteristics- sex, age, stature and ancestry  Idiosyncratic biochemistry and morphology  Unique life history- broken bones, surgical implants, dental work Idiosyncratic biochemistry:  Sometimes can extract from bone  Doesn’t work well for fossilized, cremated or inorganic bone  Robust cortical bone works best  Teeth not as good for DNA  Can work for sex and ancestry Idiosyncratic morphology:  Structures that vary in size and morphology o Clavicle o Rib 12 morphology o Frontal sinuses- extreme variations  Found in 95% of population  Stable pattern in adulthood, unique to each individual  Radiographic comparisons o Mandibular tori o Sternal foramen o Extra or transitional vertebra o Supernumerated teeth and extra digits  Skeletal anomalies  Missing/extra skeletal elements  Accessory foramens Unique life history markers  Broken bones  Pathology- joseph merrick elephant man  Dental work  Surgical devices or implants o 1993 safe medical devices act required practitioners to record lot and serial number of devices in surgical record of each patietn o Vendor, lot and serial number can be used for ID o Help with time of death o Artificial devices- breast implants *Individual unique variations increase the probative value of evidence! Forensic artwork Forensic artwork applies art to a medicolegal context- the primary purpose is to create leads and identify the decedent. However, this is NOT a positive identification; artwork creates presumptive evidence. Artists need a knowledge of anatomy, skull structure and tissue composition- but also need the creativity recreate a model (by using information from the biological profile) Common methods of identity reconstruction Method description Superimpositio skull image overlaid on an antemortem image; osteometric n landmarks are used to align video superimpositio digital imaging and computers used to superimpose remains to n antemortem images facial 2D or 3D; done with a computer or freehand; approximation reconstruction made based on biological profile (artistic reproduction) tissue depth markers placed on cast, then has clay sculpted over it; based on cadaver studies or ultrasounds/CTs for tissue depth; Tissue depth standards system with normative data basis Anatomical non normative methods; artist creates muscles, cartilage and method glands; not a commonly used method Artists rely on estimated parameters and personal details (eye color, jewelry, hairstyle etc) to reproduce estimations of the decedent Issues with forensic art: - Last resort method if the biological profile doesn’t give a missing persons match - Cannot be used as a positive identification, results vary on the artists skill/experience - No standardized method- can cause measurement and reproduction errors - Cannot account for secular changes over time Skeletal pathologies Pathology indicates that a tissue or organ is functioning improperly, or is compromised, and not simply an anomaly. There are only a few diseases that can impact the skeleton, and these impacts vary from one person to the next. Such impacts are abnormal bone formation, destruction, density, shape and size. Four primary effects on the bone- lytic and blastic/sclerotic lesions, osteomyelitis and periosteal reactions. Lytic lesions cause abnormal destruction of cells, while blastic lesions cause abnormal growth. Periosteal reactions lead to new bone formation as a result to injury or stimulation of the periosteum surrounding the bone. Causes include tumors, metabolic disorders, infections or drug reactions Osteomyelitis is any infection affecting bone tissue- it can cause enlargments (involucrum), cloacae to drain pus, and sequestra (dead bone areas) infectous diseases Disease effect on bone teritary syphilis causes lytic lesions in the skull (caries sicca), saber tibia (usually in congnetial cases), and periosteal formations on bones closest to the skin (frontal, nasal aperature, tibia, sternum, syphilis ribs) Tuberculos lytic lesions on vertebral bodies, spinal collapse; very little/no new is bone formation rhinomaxillary syndrome (alveolus and inferior nasal aperature leprosy change) and concentric phalangeal bone loss metabolic diseases Rickets Leg bowing caused by vitamin D deficiency Osteoporo decreased bone density, vertebral and hip fractures, kyphosis, sis reduced trabeculae visible on x-rays chronic bone remodeling increase-lytic to sclerotic (weak bone Paget's deposits that form quickly; cortical thickening causes puffed up effect disease on bone; spine, femora, skull and sternum commonly affected developmental pathology dwarfism caused by endochondrial ossification defects; achondroplas proportionally large head with large forehead (bossing), short ia limbs and lumbar lordosis excess HGH creates massive bones (occurs before ephipyseal gigantism fusion) growth initiated after fusion; results in proportionally large body acromegaly parts, large browridges and mandibular prognathism partial/incomplete palatine bone and hard palate fusion; common cleft palate in Asian ancestries spina bfidia occulta incomplete lower lumbar/sacral fusion in the spinous process lateral spine curvature resulting in vertebral rotation- hump scoliosis created in the chest as ribs are pushed to one side Bone Tumors Primary tumors benign bone overgrowth found on any bone (frontal most osteomas common); no clinical significance osteochondro ma area of extra bone growht Malignant tumor found on femur, tibia or humerus; mix of lysis and sclerosis, and periosteal reaction. Large masses of osteosarcoma spiculated bone (sunburst); amputations to stop spread malignant primary tumor; cortical erosion with rapid periosteal Ewing's reaction; common in femur, pelvis ad tibia; causes pathological sarcoma fractures multiple red marrow plasma cell malignancy; osteolytic lesions on myeloma skeleton, most noticeable on skull Secondary tumors Metastatic Breast, lung, thyroid, kidney, prostate (sclerotic growth); lytic cancer lesions produced w/undercut edges that don't heal Degenerative disease Osteoarthri general wear over time resulting in joint degeneration; joint surface tis pitting, contour alterations and eburnation Rheumatoi Autoimmune; causes joint surface erosion on hands, feet, knees and d arthritis ankles Type of degenerative arthritis; vertebral body fusion, bony spur DISH formation on ossified ligaments Dental diseases Carious lesions or cavities formed by enamel erosion by bacteria, Caries then dentin Periodontal tissue surrounding teeth infected; alveolar margins eroded by disease bacteria


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