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UF / Religion / REL 3520 / What is ischiopubic ramus?

What is ischiopubic ramus?

What is ischiopubic ramus?

Description

School: University of Florida
Department: Religion
Course: Skeleton Keys: Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
Professor: Amanda friend
Term: Summer 2016
Tags: Anthropology, forensics, stature, and sexualdimorphism
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Review guide- the biological profile
Description: These notes have a lot of information condensed into charts for you to memorize for different aspects of the biological profile. I highly recommend that you study this material in advance as there is a lot of content to cover! The second document has information up to Friday's lecture, Happy studying :)
Uploaded: 07/21/2016
10 Pages 49 Views 6 Unlocks
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Exam 2 Review guide


What is ischiopubic ramus?



The biological profile is composed of three aspects that help determine the  deceased’s identity:

1. Sex

2. Ancestry

3. Stature

The primary purposes of these three components is to rule out and exclude other  people who could fit the match for the decedent

Sexual dimorphism:

Biological sexes usually display dimorphism, i.e. differences in form- this is noted  especially in other mammalian species like chimpanzees and gorillas, where there’s  a clear difference between males and females (size, stature and robustness).  Reasons for dimorphism include:

- different energetic concerns due to pregnancy for females, thus smaller size  (lactation, nutrients for children); size decreases as gestation period  increases


What are the difference between race and ancestry?



Don't forget about the age old question of Describe how hydrogen bonds form between neighboring water molecules. which phase change of water are all hydrogen bonds broken?

- Males have intrasex competition for females- size is beneficial for  competition/reproduction We also discuss several other topics like What is hydrogen halide?

- Sexual selection- females choose larger partners

Humans are not as dimorphic, but there are notable skeletal variations that occur  after puberty, which can help differentiate between male and females.

Males:

- Develop larger, robust skeleton Don't forget about the age old question of What is the dehydration of alcohol?

- More pronounced features (mandible, brow ridges) and robust muscle  attachment sites

- Elongated bones with more joint surface area

Females by comparison are much smaller and more gracile. Determining sex in  children is difficult since most skeletal dimorphisms can only be noted after puberty.

Pelvic traits (non metric)

Traits

Males

Females

Pelvis

Efficent for bipedalism

efficient for bipedalism and  childbirth

Subpubic angle

Narrow V shape

Wide U shape

Greater sciatic  notch

narrow

wide

s

t

i

a

r

t

s

i

b

u

p

pelvic inlet  

/outlet

small

large (to accommodate  

babies)

Ventral arch

absent

present

subpubic cavity

convex

concave

ischiopubic  

ramus

broad and flat

narrow with a slight crest


What are the difference between race and ancestry?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is the domain of the function?

pubic shape

rectangular

triangular

Sacrum (ala  

ratio)

long and narrow; .

25:.5:.25

short and rounded; .

33:.33:.33

Ischiopubic ramus: area where the ischium and pubis meet to fuse

The female pelvis: efficient for childbirth and bipedalism; the birth canal must be  wide enough for the child’s head to fit through; this leads to the obstetric dilemma wide pelvises efficient for childbirth are not as efficient for bipedalism.

skull traits (non metric)

traits

males

females

skull

prominent robust  

features

small and gracile

browridges

larger, pronounced  

glabella

smaller, reduced glabella

orbital  

margins

blunt orbits

sharper orbits

nuchal area

marked area for muscle  attachments

gracile

mastoids

larger, pronounced  

glabella

small

mandible

squared chins

pointed chins

forehead

sloped

vertical

costal  

cartilage

marginal ossification

central ossification

Don't forget about the age old question of How does psychological stress influence health?
If you want to learn more check out What is human capital?

Metric skull measurements

- Done 28 different ways

- Uses Giles and Elliot’s formula developed in 1963

- Now FORDISC 3.1 is popularized (Jantz and Ousley 2005)- use of a  discriminant function analysis

Metric measurements

Articular surfaces

males

females

vertical diameter of humeral  head

more than  

47mm

less than  

42mm

Femoral head max. distance

more than  

47.5mm

less than  

42.5mm

The difference between race and ancestry:

Race is a social construct; it is not recognized as a valid biological entity. It’s a  spectrum without distinct groups, and no racial groups are universally defined.

Social race (ethnicity) is defined by oneself, peers, and community. It can be defined by appearance, genetic heritage, geographic origin, culture and language; you have the freedom to identify your social race (like Spanish speakers being able to identify as Hispanic)

Early ideologies grouped race into discrete groups, and these groups were static.  They were used to reinforce social ranking. Race at the time was phenotypically  determined, and applied to behavior and moral character (phenotype=physical  expression of genetics, genotype= alleles (dominant allele determines phenotypic  expression)

Race is currently interpreted as a gradient of human variation, with differences  found within groups rather than between different groups *focus turns to ancestry*

Clinal variation- variety that is caused by environmental differences; natural  selection, genetic drift and flow of genes in a population determines patterns of  ancestry

Race is primarily used in forensic anthropology as a way to interact with laypersons  

- Information is provided within a social construct

- Scopes of antemortem searches can be reduced if a racial identity is  established

Ancestry groups within the United States:

1. Asian (includes native populations)

2. European

3. African

Metric and nonmetric criteria are used to determine ancestry; primary examinations are done on the skull which has the most morphological differences between  ancestry groups

Ancestry groups and variations

Traits

African

Asian

European

interorbital  

breadth

broad

intermediate

narrow

orbit shape

rectangular

rounded

sloping

nasal aperature

wide

medium

narrow

nasal bone  

shape

small nasal spine

tented bones

steepled/tower  

bones

midface  

prognathism

alveolar  

prognathism

none

no prognathism

zygomatic  

structure

vertical

flaring  

zygomatics

receding  

zygomatics

dentition

rectangular  

palate

shovel shaped  incisors

parabolic palate

suture formation

simple suture

complex suture

simple suture

mandible

flat face

prominent chin

overall skull form

long headed

round headed

long headed

palate shape

rectangular

round

parabolic

ascending ramus

slanted

wide and  

vertical

pinched

Non metric trait comparisons

Trait

Scoring

inferior nasal  

aperature

guttering, incipent guttering, straight nasal sill, partial  sill, complete sill

nasal shape

round, oval, plateau, vaulted, steepled

zygomaticomaxillar y suture

angled, smooth, S- shaped, obliterated

nasal aperature  

width

wide, medium or narrow

interorbital breadth

broad, intermediate or narrow

Recall that the non-metric traits are a gradient; they vary based on the person being studied

Disadvantages of non-metric analysis

- Inter-observer error

- Lacks clarity in definitions

- Subjective assessment

- Rudimentary statistics for simple trait frequencies

Metric analysis methods:

Metric analysis of ancestry have a standardized set of measurements that are  validated by statistics

- 1962 Giles and Eliot cranial measurements

- University of Tennessee forensic databank  

- FORDISC:

o Measurement of remains entered into program

o Compares likelihood of a skeleton belonging to a particular ancestry  group

o Other reference samples are used to compare ancestry

Stature and variations in stature:

Stature is defined as a person’s standing height. This part of the biological profile is  fairly predictable since there’s a clear relationship between limb length and stature.  Factors that can affect stature are age, biological sex and geography (ancestry)

Age- stature increases until adulthood, and decreases as people age due to  vertebral compression and bone diseases such as osteoporosis. There is no  standardized growth rate as one ages.

Sexual dimorphism is noticeable in stature- males generally tend to be taller, with  differently proportioned limbs (stature can be calculated more accurately if sex is  determined first)

Geography- ecological factors determine stature since clinal distributions occur with different ancestries

- Bergmann and Allen’s rules- homeostasis maintained in different  environments by variations in body types (stature); explains why hotter  climates have larger stature to accommodate more surface area

Hot climates

cold climates

Bergman n

smaller volume

larger volume

Allen

longer appendages

shorter appendages

Age variations and height estimation accuracy

Age  

range

Accuracy

0- birth

very accurate; constrained fetal growth

Birth

2yrs

fairly accurate; compensate for fetal growth; weaning time variations

2-12 year

accurate; fairly consistent growth patterns

Teenager s

less accurate; onset of sexual dimorphism; growth occurs  at different times

adults

very accurate; fixed stature

 Variations in living vs forensic stature estimations

- Self-reporting is oftentimes inaccurate due to overestimation, especially with  men; causes discrepancies in public records like drivers licenses  - Age causes height decrease as adulthood progresses due to vertebral  compression; can be fixed by adding a margin of error to height estimation - Time of day- gravity causes height decrease over the course of the day of  about 2 inches

- Human error and measurement errors

- Secular change

- Cadaver stature (decomposition causing stature changes)

Stature determination methods

Fully 1956- height equation developed using white males who died in WWII (n=102); had issues since it studied only a select group, subjects were from concentration  camps(poor nutrition affecting stature); calculation requires a nearly complete  skeleton

Linear regression- long bone measurement has regression formula applied to it;  done after determining ancestry and sex, produces strong correlation between long  bones and height (Trotter and Glesser’s work as basis)

FORDISC 3.1

Idiosyncratic variations and personal identification

Personal ID- cultural factors

∙ Group affiliation

∙ Religious denomination

∙ Socioeconomic status

Biological identification

∙ Demographic characteristics- sex, age, stature and ancestry ∙ Idiosyncratic biochemistry and morphology

∙ Unique life history- broken bones, surgical implants, dental work Idiosyncratic biochemistry:

∙ Sometimes can extract from bone

∙ Doesn’t work well for fossilized, cremated or inorganic bone ∙ Robust cortical bone works best

∙ Teeth not as good for DNA

∙ Can work for sex and ancestry

Idiosyncratic morphology:

∙ Structures that vary in size and morphology

o Clavicle

o Rib 12 morphology

o Frontal sinuses- extreme variations

∙ Found in 95% of population

∙ Stable pattern in adulthood, unique to each individual ∙ Radiographic comparisons

o Mandibular tori  

o Sternal foramen

o Extra or transitional vertebra

o Supernumerated teeth and extra digits

∙ Skeletal anomalies

∙ Missing/extra skeletal elements

∙ Accessory foramens

Unique life history markers

∙ Broken bones

∙ Pathology- joseph merrick elephant man

∙ Dental work

∙ Surgical devices or implants

o 1993 safe medical devices act required practitioners to record lot and  serial number of devices in surgical record of each patietn

o Vendor, lot and serial number can be used for ID

o Help with time of death

o Artificial devices- breast implants

*Individual unique variations increase the probative value of evidence!

Forensic artwork  

Forensic artwork applies art to a medicolegal context- the primary purpose is to  create leads and identify the decedent. However, this is NOT a positive  identification; artwork creates presumptive evidence.  

Artists need a knowledge of anatomy, skull structure and tissue composition- but  also need the creativity recreate a model (by using information from the biological  profile)

Common methods of identity reconstruction

Method

description

Superimpositio n

skull image overlaid on an antemortem image; osteometric  landmarks are used to align

video  

superimpositio n

digital imaging and computers used to superimpose remains to  antemortem images

facial  

reconstruction

2D or 3D; done with a computer or freehand; approximation  made based on biological profile (artistic reproduction)

Tissue depth

tissue depth markers placed on cast, then has clay sculpted over it; based on cadaver studies or ultrasounds/CTs for tissue depth;  standards system with normative data basis

Anatomical  

method

non normative methods; artist creates muscles, cartilage and  glands; not a commonly used method

Artists rely on estimated parameters and personal details (eye color, jewelry,  hairstyle etc) to reproduce estimations of the decedent  

Issues with forensic art:

- Last resort method if the biological profile doesn’t give a missing persons  match

- Cannot be used as a positive identification, results vary on the artists  skill/experience

- No standardized method- can cause measurement and reproduction errors - Cannot account for secular changes over time

Skeletal pathologies  

Pathology indicates that a tissue or organ is functioning improperly, or is  compromised, and not simply an anomaly. There are only a few diseases that can  impact the skeleton, and these impacts vary from one person to the next. Such  impacts are abnormal bone formation, destruction, density, shape and size.

Four primary effects on the bone- lytic and blastic/sclerotic lesions, osteomyelitis  and periosteal reactions.

 Lytic lesions cause abnormal destruction of cells, while blastic lesions cause  abnormal growth.

Periosteal reactions lead to new bone formation as a result to injury or stimulation of the periosteum surrounding the bone. Causes include tumors, metabolic disorders,  infections or drug reactions

Osteomyelitis is any infection affecting bone tissue- it can cause enlargments  (involucrum), cloacae to drain pus, and sequestra (dead bone areas)

infectous diseases

Disease

effect on bone

syphilis

teritary syphilis causes lytic lesions in the skull (caries sicca), saber  tibia (usually in congnetial cases), and periosteal formations on  bones closest to the skin (frontal, nasal aperature, tibia, sternum,  ribs)

Tuberculos is

lytic lesions on vertebral bodies, spinal collapse; very little/no new  bone formation

leprosy

rhinomaxillary syndrome (alveolus and inferior nasal aperature  change) and concentric phalangeal bone loss

metabolic diseases

Rickets

Leg bowing caused by vitamin D deficiency

Osteoporo sis

decreased bone density, vertebral and hip fractures, kyphosis,  reduced trabeculae visible on x-rays

Paget's  

disease

chronic bone remodeling increase-lytic to sclerotic (weak bone  deposits that form quickly; cortical thickening causes puffed up effect on bone; spine, femora, skull and sternum commonly affected

developmental pathology

achondroplas ia

dwarfism caused by endochondrial ossification defects;  proportionally large head with large forehead (bossing), short  limbs and lumbar lordosis

gigantism

excess HGH creates massive bones (occurs before ephipyseal  fusion)

acromegaly

growth initiated after fusion; results in proportionally large body  parts, large browridges and mandibular prognathism

cleft palate

partial/incomplete palatine bone and hard palate fusion; common  in Asian ancestries

spina bfidia  occulta

incomplete lower lumbar/sacral fusion in the spinous process

scoliosis

lateral spine curvature resulting in vertebral rotation- hump  created in the chest as ribs are pushed to one side

Bone Tumors

Primary tumors

osteomas

benign bone overgrowth found on any bone (frontal most  common); no clinical significance

osteochondro ma

area of extra bone growht

osteosarcoma

Malignant tumor found on femur, tibia or humerus; mix of lysis  and sclerosis, and periosteal reaction. Large masses of  spiculated bone (sunburst); amputations to stop spread

Ewing's  

sarcoma

malignant primary tumor; cortical erosion with rapid periosteal  reaction; common in femur, pelvis ad tibia; causes pathological  fractures

multiple  

myeloma

red marrow plasma cell malignancy; osteolytic lesions on  skeleton, most noticeable on skull

Secondary tumors

Metastatic  

cancer

Breast, lung, thyroid, kidney, prostate (sclerotic growth); lytic  lesions produced w/undercut edges that don't heal

Degenerative disease

Osteoarthri tis

general wear over time resulting in joint degeneration; joint surface  pitting, contour alterations and eburnation

Rheumatoi d arthritis

Autoimmune; causes joint surface erosion on hands, feet, knees and  ankles

DISH

Type of degenerative arthritis; vertebral body fusion, bony spur  formation on ossified ligaments

Dental diseases

Caries

Carious lesions or cavities formed by enamel erosion by bacteria,  then dentin

Periodontal  

disease

tissue surrounding teeth infected; alveolar margins eroded by  bacteria

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