Psychology Chapter 5 notes
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Date Created: 07/21/16
Chapter 5 – Online Assignment Module 5.1: 1. Give an example of an assimilation a child would use during development. Be sure to use your own example and clearly explain how this is an example of assimilation. - An infant trying to put a toy shaped as a circle into the correct opening. The infant is assimilating the object to her existing shapes scheme. 2. Give an example of an accommodation a child would use during development. Be sure to use your own example and clearly explain how this is an example of accommodation. 1. - A child calls a whale a fish. The child processes the information into his schema that a whale is a fish. When the child takes in information, he examines the features of a fish compared to a whale, for example, calling a whale a big fish with a hole on its head. When the child comes to the conclusion that it’s a whale, the child has processed this information. 3. Give an example of a limitation in cognition that is specific to each of Piaget’s stages. If using terms from the chapter, be sure to define them in your own words to demonstrate your understanding! Sensorimotor Stage – (egocentric)a baby throws a toy on the ground from her highchair, the baby doesn’t put into thought that someone could trip or fall on the toy the baby threw. Preoperational Stage – (conservation)Seeing mom’s car keys and not putting the thought together or understanding that it means a car ride. Concrete Operational Stage –(centration)Having two different glasses of water filled to the top and thinking they both contain the same amount of what in them. Formal Operational Stage –(centration) Not being able to have the skill to think abstractly (out of the box) to the question “What determines the speed at which a clock moves? Module 5.2: 1. Summarize, in your own words, each of the main criticisms of Piaget’s study. Timing of mastery of object permanence. - Infants are unable to accomplish the concept of object permanence (memory of things) until they are at least a year old. Researchers say Piaget has underestimated children that some develop cognitive ability before the expect time of 7 year olds. Children’s understanding of numbers. - Piaget as well has underestimated that preschoolers have little understanding of numbers and to grab understanding that something can be reversed and returned back to normal. Researchers discovered that young children can easily tell the difference between rows of how many animals are in them regardless of what the animal is. Older children can can tell which number is larger and the understanding of adding and subtracting numbers. Conservation. - Piaget believed that children don’t understand conversations and can make conversations until the end of the preoperational period. When in fact if children are trained the right way with the right technique they can answer conversation tasks/questions/ commands etc. correctly Cultural issues. - Piaget believed that children in Western countries developed things earlier and better than those in non-Western countries. Evidence show that cognitive skills emerge differently for children living in non-Western cultures than those living in the U.S. and Europe. Researchers did a study with a non- western and western country, as Piaget said the children in the western culture develop things earlier and better than children in non-western countries, but this study showed that the non-western countries developed things at a similar pace. It takes proper training to gain the right skills. 2. Which statement do you agree with more? Briefly explain your answer. - I agree with the second statement more because every theory Piaget tested researchers always seem to discover that Piaget were underestimating children and his theories weren’t proving anything as kids learn at a different pace during a certain time period, depending how they are taught. a. Piaget’s theory is still relevant today, given the comprehensive descriptions it provides about cognitive development. b. Piaget’s theory is no longer relevant, given the numerous criticisms it continues to receive. Module 5.3: 1. Explain the zone of proximal development in your own words. - The zone of proximal development is the level is which children can almost perform a task independently, but need an assistance from a person more advanced than them to learn the task being asked. 2. How would a teacher help a child learn to add numbers using the zone of proximal development? Be sure to give a specific example that involves adding numbers - A teacher would help a child learn to add numbers using the zone of proximal development by breaking it down step by step of what they know by themselves about numbers and then assisting them through the rest of the way of adding numbers. 3. Describe, in your own words, one criticism of Vygotsky’s theory? - One criticism of Vygotsky’s theory was that his theory was incomplete. He wasn’t spending enough time focusing on individual intelligence, instead he was focusing more on group concepts. 4. Describe, in your own words, how an adult might help a child learn how to ride a bike using scaffolding. - An adult might help a child learn how to ride a bike using scaffolding would be to take it step by step on how to ride a bike, and if the child gets discouraged or frustrated if they aren’t getting it right away they would encourage them to keep going and not give up and that they are getting it, and use problem solving skills to get over the frustration.
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