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Study Guide- Midterm 1

by: Dillon Quinn

Study Guide- Midterm 1 NS 4000

Dillon Quinn

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Use these materials to prepare for your midterm.
Fundamentals of Human Health Behavior Change
Dr. Martin Binks
Study Guide
Self-Efficacy, modeling, b.f. skinner, Reinforcement-Theory, Redical-Theory, Ivan, #Learning #Classical #Operant #conditioning #Stimulus #IvanPavlov #BFSKinner #Reinforcement, motivation, Mastery, Positive, reinforcement, NegaticeReinforcement, JohnB.Watson, CognitiveDisorder, AllorNothingThinking, Generalization, DisqualifingThePositive, RationalEmotiveTherapy, ShouldStatements, lifestyle, LifeCoaching, Goalsetting, ExperiementalDesign
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dillon Quinn on Friday July 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NS 4000 at Texas Tech University taught by Dr. Martin Binks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Human Health Behavior Change in Natural Sciences at Texas Tech University.


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Date Created: 07/22/16
Understanding Self Efficacy  Things that contribute to high and low self efficacy o High:  Initiate task, persist during tasks  View challenging problems as tasks to be mastered.  Develop deeper interest in the activities in which they participate.  Form a stronger sense of commitment to their interests and activities.  Recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments. o Low:  Avoid challenging tasks.  Believe that difficult tasks and situations are beyond their capabilities.  Focus on personal failings and negative outcomes.  Quickly lose confidence in personal abilities.  Part of the theory is modeling o "Seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort raises observers' beliefs that they too possess the capabilities master comparable activities…" Types of Reinforcement  Skinner o B.F. Skinner (1904 - 1990) is best known for developing the theory of Operant Conditioning, which uses reinforcers or consequences to change behavior. o According to this theory, the rate at which a certain behavior occurs is determined not by what precedes it, but by the consequence that follows it. For example, when a child puts away his toys, he gets praised by his parent. This positive consequence of the child's behavior will increase the likelihood that he will put away his toys after playing with them. o The key element to Skinner's theory is the reinforcer, which may be positive or negative. A positive reinforcer is one whose presence increases the likelihood of the response. A reward like food, money, or verbal praise are considered positive reinforcers. A negative reinforcer is one whose absence increases the likelihood of the response.  Reinforcement theory o Reinforcement is an Operant Conditioning term that refers to a process by which the likelihood of a behavior occurring is increased either by giving a pleasant stimulus (positive reinforcement) or removing an unpleasant stimulus (negative reinforcement). o Imagine I want to teach my dog to sit on command. When I tell him to sit and he does, I give him a treat. Giving the treat increases the probability that he will sit the next time I tell him to sit.  Radical theory o Radical Behaviorism is the school of thought pioneered by B. F. Skinner that argues that behavior, rather than mental states, should be the focus of study in psychology. o Skinner’s science of behavior emphasizes the importance of reinforcement and the relationships between observable stimuli and responses. Behaviors do not depend on thoughts, feelings, or other internal processes; rather, they are natural events that occur as a result of other events in the environment. Benefits and consequences of a behavior either increase or decrease the probability of that behavior occurring in the future. For example, if Sarah bites her nails, she does so not as a conscious or unconscious decision to relieve anxiety but because the behavior is rewarding in some way.  Pavlov o Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936) is best known for his work describing the psychological phenomenon of Classical Conditioning. From his work studying digestion in dogs, he observed that the dogs would salivate at the mere sight of food. o Pavlov originally discovered the idea of conditioning by accident - he noticed that dogs began to salivate even before they were presented with food. He later tested the concept using what became his most famous experiment. In that experiment he conditioning dogs to salivate in response to the sound of a bell. He did this by ringing a bell as he presented food, at which the dogs would respond by salivating. After several trials of the bell and food presented together, Pavlov rang the bell alone without presenting food and the dogs gave the usual salivary response. Salivation in response to the ringing of the bell is known as a "conditioned response" What are some ways to motivate people?  Providing rewards  Watching someone get rewards o Social learning theory Mastery  Performance goals seek to demonstrate ability to others. Positive reinforcement  A stimulus which increases the frequency of a particular behavior using pleasant rewards. A doggy treat can pleasantly coerce your new puppy to sit (positive reinforcement) just as a pull to the choke collar can achieve the same affect (negative reinforcement). The difference is that the positive reinforcer is pleasant, but make sure you understand that both increase the frequency of the behavior! Negative Reinforcement  With negative reinforcement the occurrence of a behavior is increased by removing an unpleasant stimulus. For example, your dog can avoid being spanked when it sits in response to your command. If the dog has been getting spanked, not getting spanked is rewarding (removal of unpleasant stimulus) so the frequency of the behavior will increase. People confuse negative reinforcement with punishment--just remember that with reinforcement you increase the occurrence of the behavior but punishment Watson  John Watson (1878 - 1958) is often called the Father of Behaviorism, which emphasizes objective and observable data such as people's behavior and reactions, as opposed to internal process that cannot be observed like mental states, or thought processes.  Watson outlined that major features of Behaviorism in an article entitled "Psychology As The Behaviorist Views It," often referred to as the Behaviorist Manifesto.  Watson's most famous and controversial experiment is known as the Little Albert Experiment. Little Albert was an 11-month boy who was trained to fear a white rat by pairing it with a loud sound. In time, the child began to cry and show signs of distress upon seeing the white rat even without the accompanying sound. This fear was generalized to other furry objects like a rabbit, a dog, and a Santa Claus mask. Cognitive Distortions  All or nothing thinking o Is the failure in a person's thinking to bring together both positive and negative qualities of the self and others into a cohesive, realistic whole.  Generalization o Refers to a process within operant and classical conditioning, where a conditioned response (CR) starts occurring in response to the presentation of other, similar stimuli, not just the conditioned stimulus (CS). For example, a dog is trained to sit (CR) when you give the command, "sit" (CS). Soon after that, the dog might sit when you say "hit", "bit", and "kick". In this case, the CR (sitting) is not only done to the CS (the command, "sit") but also to commands that are similar. o You see a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat.  Disqualifying the positive o You reject positive experiences by insisting they "don't count" for some reason or other. You maintain a negative belief that is contradicted by your everyday experiences.  Should statements o You try to motivate yourself with shoulds and shouldn'ts, as if you had to be whipped and punished before you could be expected to do anything. "Musts" and "oughts" are also offenders. The emotional consequence is guilt. When you direct should statements toward others, you feel anger, frustration, and resentment. Concepts of rational and irrational beliefs  Attached to Ellis Albert  Rational Emotive Theory/ Therapy o A – Activating Event: Something happens in the environment around you. o B – Beliefs: You hold a belief about the event or situation. o C – Consequence: You have an emotional response to your belief.  Leaned more towards Cognitive Therapy in class Goal Setting  Lifestyle change What is the most powerful tool to empower clients?  Questions Experimental Design Goal setting using the matrix Approach Avoid –Focus on mastering  –Focus on  Mastery task, learning,  avoiding  Orientation understanding misunderstanding –Use of standards of  –Use of standards of not  self­ improvement,  being wrong, not doing it progress, deep  incorrectly understanding –Focus  on  being –Focus on avoiding  Performanc e superior, besting others, inferiority, not  Orientation being the smartest looking stupid or  –Use of normative standards dumb in comparison  such as getting the highest to others grade, being top performer –Use of normative standards  of not being lowest performer


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