Pre-Modern China Study Guide with Essay Questions
Pre-Modern China Study Guide with Essay Questions
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elena V. on Friday July 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Allegheny College taught by Professor Wu in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Pre-Modern China in History at Allegheny College.
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Date Created: 07/22/16
HIST 165 Review sheet #1 （For the first exam in September 21（ Identification Yangshao Culture: (50004000 BCE) and 3000 BCE with the end of the warm climate and the moist climate in which the extended from the yellow river yangshao culture. Spread into the central valley up to the eastern portions of plains. modern Qinghai and Gansu coincides with the climatic optimum Deterioration of health from yangshao to of the Holocene longshan periods; they had shorter stature Agriculturalists and greater incidence of dental caries and of diet was dominated by millet anemia. Decline of civilization could be metal did not play a significant role attributed to high density population and in the economy lack of sanitation. slash and burn agriculture, the Development of lots of rival states villages were not permanent o changed settlements as the during this period. fertility of the fields declined settlements were surrounded by some evidence of shamanistic moats and rammedearth walls practices family unit was most likely nuclear pottery: distinctively red with black division of labor between men and designs women symbols used are one of the sources had a burial system of the chinese writing system kin based social structure Practiced scapulimancy: which is an Longshan Culture: (30002000 BCE) indentation made in the shoulder blade of a mammal and a heated Centered in the Shangdong province object is thrust into the indentation, Pottery: unpainted gray, and later black, thereby creating a crack on the other elevated by a circular base or tripod legs. side, a diviner then interprets the crack. Rituals: bird and animals motifs in art, the Evidence that there may have been a use of jade ritual objects, mammal scapulae writing system, no evidence that for divination, practice of institutional provides any information about violence, both warfare and human sacrifice beliefs or the lives of the shan people The rise of the longshan empire coincides with an environmental shift between 4000 Huang Di (the Yellow Emperor): a Mandate of Heaven:The concept of the mythical ruler who supposedly ruled for one Mandate of Heaven is related both to the hundred years beginning in 2697 BCE. correlative thought and to the idea of Described as heroic character who defeated constant change. Roots go back to the shang a number of enemies and absorbed their diety Di. Source of human nature and territories. Supposedly invented portents, and a process of constant and bureaucracy, writing, sericulture, medicine, (usually) orderly change. The Zhou used this boats, and wheeled vehicles. belief to justify their overthrow of the shang and legitimize their position as rulers. “descendants of the yellow emperor” The Shi: (hereditary elite warrior ruling Oracle Bone Inscriptions: class) Provided the foundation to the Decline of other elite classes allowed chinese language for the rise of the shi Shang dynasty The shi rose to power as officials and Earliest written record of chinese advisors to rulers, not rulers in their civilization own right Trained in the arts of war and civility: ritual, music, archery, Duke of Zhou: (Zhou Dynasty) king wu’s brother, who stood as regent for his nephew, charioteering, writing, and who was the new king after wu, but mathematics Managed the agricultural economy, debatedly the king may not have needed a regent. His arrogant assumption of the arts of war, the agricultural economy throne almost caused the collapse of the was crucial to supporting all aspects of life, military and civil. zhou empire. Some of the duke’s brothers joined the shang empire rebellion against Confucianism/Confucius: him; it took the duke two years to defeat the rebel forces in a fratricidal civil war that A man of Lu, a shi of the eastern raged across the eastern regions from hebei zhou empire, and like many of the in the north to the huai valley in the south. other shi he travelled and offered his advice to many rulers “kinship feudalism” Bad career as a bureaucrat, great zhou went down as a heroic and moral career as a teacher After his death many of his students founder of a new dynasty compiled his writings and model of government, society, culture conversations into the analects oral and written records (contrasted with the lack of such from shang dynasty) Teachings: ritual, filial piety, Emphasis on simplicity, naturalness, reciprocity, benevolence, and a yielding to the everchanging rectification of names. and incomprehensible Way Ritual was needed in order to All things are constantly in a process moderate the natural human appetites of transformation and thus to maintain peace and Ideal society is one in which the orderliness in the world people are few and satisfied Humans find their purpose in their Legalism: relationships to others Five basic relationships: ruler— Was pragmatic and strongly oriented minister, father—son, husband— toward the present and the future wife, elder brother—younger Rational analysis of problems and brother, and friend—friend innovative, realistic solutions. Respect, care for, and show Policies strengthened the state obedience towards one superior Rewards and punishments Mozi: Private ownership of land Rely on laws not men Severe punishments even for minor Fifth to early fourth century Critic of confucius offenses Three themes: utility, conformity to o Use punishments to make punishing obsolete the will of superiors, and concern for everyone (universal love) Encouraged agriculture and war Said Confucians wasted too much Han Feizi: time on rituals, music, and dance Also said Confucianism encouraged (281233 BCE) selfishness creator of legalism Everyone should emulate heaven’s legalism was influenced a bit by concern for everybody Daoism Good government: a centralized human nature is evil bureaucracy in which people were emphasis on power and coercion appointed according to merit more than moral persuasion, (meritocracy) informed by sheng yang and shen Experts at defensive warfare buhai impersonal bureaucracy and ruling Daoism: (Dao de jing) techniques state vs filial piety vision of the universe and human life state “ism” as a process of constant change “the way” Key Issues What are the main characteristics of ancient Chinese civilization? Government o Mandate of heaven o Dynastic rule Unique chinese writing system o “oracle bone inscriptions” o inscriptions on shang dynasty pottery Religion o Confucianism o Daoism o “The Way” Philosophy o The hundred schools of thought o Military “Art of war” Role of military invasions in the formation of the dynasties and overall civilization o How was the Shang state organized and what was it belief? Powerful urban state Aggressive expansion Its writing system King owned all the land, and controlled all the farms Bureaucratic government o Many different capitals o “a soft state” People could be mobilized into large work forces Technologically stagnant agricultural system Bronze Religion o “Di” or “Shang di” o consulted spirits o gods, spirits, and ancestors could affect a multitude of things o belief in the spirits of dead o sacrificial rituals (human and animal) Military o Military power o Many wars led to the collapse of the shang o Warred with many of their neighbors o Eventually defeated by the zhou How did the Western Zhou feudal system work? Vast kingdom It was a feudal kingdom consisting of a number of states and rulers who followed the zhou king o Coalition of around seventy or more separate states Nobles were granted land so that they would support the royal authority Kinship feudalism o Power was bestowed upon loyal families and then passed down the family line Later power was usually attained through a system of meritocracy, came with the decline of the power of the nobility The mandate of heaven also led to a further decline of the power of the nobility How did Chinese society, technology, and culture change during the Eastern Zhou? Spread of education and philosophy o End of the monopoly on knowledge Antiaristocratic reforms Rise of the shi o Initially an elite warrior class Became advisors spread out amongst the chinese states o Advisors and administrators of the zhou kingdom With the dispersement of the zhou led to an end of the monopoly of knowledge that the government had Maintained the cultural unity of china Innovations o Iron tools and weapons o Charioteers infantry o Irrigation o Crop rotation o Invention of acupuncture o Private land ownership Please compare the similarities and differences of the main intellectual schools in the Eastern Zhou, and consider which for you was the most relevant and meaningful one.
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