CLT 3378, Final Exam Study Guide
CLT 3378, Final Exam Study Guide CLT 3378
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tara on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLT 3378 at Florida State University taught by Sarah Craft in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 07/23/16
Mythology Final Exam Study Guide Monomyth- all myths follow the same pattern, despite infinite variety of setting and incident Apotheosis: Apo (from) + Theon (to deify, make a god from) Atonement: Making the father figure as villain pay for supposed mistreatment of the hero Ninsun: Mother of Gilgamesh; “Mistress of the Cows”; Goddess Lugalbanda: Gilgamesh’s Father Mashu: “Twin Peaks” mountains at the edge of the world (Guarded by half-human, half- scorpion couple) ; Gilgamesh travels here to find Utnapishtim Scorpion Men: Common concept of guardians between earth and sky Siduri: Goddess of Brewing and wisdom Utnapishtim: only human known to have achieved immortality (after the flood) -Gilgamesh’s ancestor Etymology: origin and development of a word Hera: Queen of Olympus Hesiod: Raised by Hera to combat Herakles Katabasis: Descent into the underworld Cerberos- A three-headed dog guarding the entrance to Hades Joseph Campbell: -Took the theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung to come up with a structure of hero myths Norse Mythology Sigurd Volsung: Norse Warrior descended from Odin Sigmund: Son of Volsung; Father of Sigurd Sigurd: The Dragon Slayer (Hero) -Roasting the Dragons Heart, licks his fingers with the slimy heart juice -Sigurd gains speech of birds -Heroic Sword -Shape shifter -Gains power from Fafnir (Serpent/ Dragon) and steals his treasure -Downfall: Odin’s displeasure and the curse of Otter’s gold Regin: Sigurd’s foster father -Sigurd kills Regin in his sleep -Regin had 2 other brothers: -Regin -Otter (Otters gold) -Fafnir (Dragon) to guard his gold (stole otters gold) Tripartite Framework: Separation or Departure (Retreat from the world to the unknown realm of the unconscious ; Resolutions of conflicts and fears) Call to Adventure -Inspired (ex. Sigurd) -Voluntary (ex. Beowulf) -Forced (ex. Herakles) -Accidental (ex. Gilgamesh) Refusal of the Call Supernatural Aid -Protective Figure (ex. Ninsun and Shamash) Crossing the First Threshold -Gates of the Unknown (ex. Mashu) -Encounters a threshold guardian (ex. Scorpion-Men) -Represents the challenge of the unknown -Sometimes helpful, sometimes dangerous In the Belly of the Whale -Disappear, be magically transported, or even die -Rite of passage as form of death (before retuning to society) Trials and Victories of Initiation (The hero proves his merit ; is tempted by evil ; learns the secrets of the gods) Road of Trials -Series of Tasks: tests or ordeals demonstrate the heroes worthiness Meeting with the Goddess -Represents goddess who nourishes and protects the world -OR can be destructible, representing an absent or unattainable mother -Hero’s expression of maturity; union with the Goddess Woman as the Temptress -Hinders quest -Sometimes, woman portrayed as evil temptress -Hero’s goal: resisting the call of the seductress Ex. Gilgamesh resisting Ishtar Atonement with the Father -Represents initiatory priests or guise who prepares the hero to return to the transformed world -Tests the hero’s worthiness -Doesn’t have to be actual father (or even human) -Atonement: Making the father figure as villain pay for supposed mistreatment of the hero Apotheosis -Illumination and understanding: Change in view of the world -Apotheosis: Apo (from) + Theon (to deify, make a god from) Ex. Herakles Ultimate Boon -Boon: Something helpful or beneficial -Elixir or magic Ex. Gilgamesh (plant of immortality: found then lost) Return (Hero returns, transformed, from trials ; most likely to be minimal or omitted from story altogether) Refusal of the Return Magic Flight Ex. Buluqiya’s return from the Seventh Isle Rescue from Without Crossing the Return Threshold Ex. Gilgamesh’s view of Uruk from the city wall Master of Two Worlds Ex. Hermes: between Underworld and human realm; between human realm and Olympus Freedom to Live Ex. Gilgamesh’s return to rule Uruk and take up his kingly duties once again Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic of Gilgamesh: “the oldest story in the world” -Written in Akkadian -Epic: long narrative poem with heroic content Episodes: Tablets I – VII: -Prologue (into to Gilgamesh) -Meeting Gilgamesh -The hero and his journey -His Semi-Divine Origin explained: -Son of Lugalbanda -2/3 Divine because of his mother, the goddess Ninsun, “Mistress of the Cows” -Taming of Enkidu -Gilgamesh and the Cedar (Pine*) Forest -Kill Humbaba (guards the forest) with help from Shamash (sun god) -Cut down forbidden trees -Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven -On his journey home from the cedar (pine) forest, Ishtar (the goddess of love) falls in love with Gilgamesh -When Gilgamesh rejects her she becomes angry and asks her father (Anu- God of the sky) to send the bull of heaven to punish him -The bull comes down from the sky and they fight. Gilgamesh and Enkidu kill it, and the gods determine that one of them must die for there actions. They decide Enkidu will die from illness Tablets VIII – XII: -Journey of the Flood Hero Utnapishtim - Gilgamesh hopes that Utnapishtim can tell him how he might avoid death too. Gilgamesh’s journey takes him to the twin-peaked mountain called Mashu - Utnapishtim lives beyond the mountain, but the two scorpion monsters that guard its entrance refuse to allow Gilgamesh into the tunnel that passes through it. Gilgamesh pleads with them, and they relent. -Story of the Flood - Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh the story of the flood—how the gods met in council and decided to destroy humankind. - When Gilgamesh insists that he be allowed to live forever, Utnapishtim gives him a test. If you think you can stay alive for eternity, he says, surely you can stay awake for a week. Gilgamesh tries and immediately fails. -Return - Utnapishtim orders him to clean himself up, put on his royal garments again, and return to Uruk where he belongs. Just as Gilgamesh is departing, however, Utnapishtim’s wife convinces him to tell Gilgamesh about a miraculous plant that restores youth. Gilgamesh finds the plant and takes it with him, planning to share it with the elders of Uruk. But a snake steals the plant one night while they are camping. As the serpent slithers away, it sheds its skin and becomes young again. -Conclusion - Gilgamesh returns to Uruk, he is empty-handed but reconciled at last to his mortality New Fragment of Gilgamesh Epic -Tablet V: Slaying the forest demon Humbaba -Landscape: forest as an exotic and noisy jungle -Gilgamesh’s feat of strength = Eternal Fame Themes in Gilgamesh: -The human condition -Individual’s human predicaments -(Unsuccessful) Search for immortality -Desire for fame -Horror of death -Nature vs. civilization -Friendship -Relationship between god, kings, and mortals -Misuse of power Uruk: -Legendary wall built by Gilgamesh (King of Uruk) -Eanna Temple (of Inanna) -“House of Heaven” -Primary cult center of Eanna -1/3 temple, 1/3 garden, 1/3 house Enkidu: -The creation of Enkidu was the god’s response to people of Uruk’s complaints about Gilgamesh -Gilgameshs counterpart -Nature vs. Civilization Gilgamesh and Enkidu: -First Dream: Enkidu as mentor -Seconds Dream: Enkidu as axe -Physical protector -Gilgamesh and Enkidu fight at Uruk and become friends (as the gods planned) -Gilgamesh proposes an expedition to the Cedar (pine) Forest -Enkidu has first hand knowledge of Humbaba (forest demon/ giant) -They visit Ninsun, who ‘adopts’ Enkidu -Slaying of Humbaba -Travel for three days to the Cedar (pine) Forest -Humbaba: Forest demon/ giant -“His teeth are knife-sharp, they tick out like tusks, his face, blood-smeared, is a lions face” -Enkidu cuts off Humbaba’s head -Humbaba curse them: “Gilgamesh and Enkidu shall never become old men” Bull of Heaven: -Gilgamesh dedicates the horns of the dead bull to the memory of his father, the former king Lugalbanda -On his journey home from the cedar (pine) forest, Ishtar (the goddess of love) falls in love with Gilgamesh -When Gilgamesh rejects her she becomes angry and asks her father (Anu- God of the sky) to send the bull of heaven to punish him -The bull comes down from the sky and they fight. Gilgamesh and Enkidu kill it, and the gods determine that one of them must die for their actions. They decide Enkidu will die from illness Death of Enkidu: -Death sentence for Enkidu: -Slaying Humbaba and destroying the forest -Killing the Bull of Heaven -12 days of illness before death -Enkidu’s second dream: dragged captive to the underworld (Erkalla) Mashu: “Twin Peaks” mountains at the edge of the world -Guarded by half-human, half-scorpion couple -Scorpion Men: Common concept of guardians between earth and sky Siduri: Goddess of Brewing and wisdom -Siduir- “Seek Urshanabi” Utnapishtim: only human known to have achieved immortality (after the flood) -Gilgamesh’s ancestor Gilgamesh’s return to Uruk: -Relationship between sleep and death: symptoms of mortality -Idea that if you avoid sleep, you can also avoid death Gilgamesh as Hero: -Journeys far from home -Pine forest -Mashu: beyond the edge of the world -Seeking Utnapishtim -Defeats Humbaba -Loses best friend: Enkidu -Fails to achieve mortality -Falls asleep Greek Mythology Herakles Herakles: ‘famous because of Hera’ -Illegitimate Son of Zeus (God) and Alkmene (mortal) -Semi-divine -Kelos = Greek for ‘glory’ or ‘fame’ -Herakles (Greek) ; Hercules (Latin) Hera: Queen of Olympus Etymology: origin and development of a word Why Twelve Labors?: -Herakles killed is wife (Megara) and children, then condemned himself to exile because of his crimes -Hera spurred him to do it because she hated him -Consulted the Oracle at Delphi -Pythia: Priestess of Apollo who transmitted the oracles -The Oracle tells him that he has to submit himself to be the servant of King Eurystheus of Argos. -Settled in Tiryns, to serve King Eurystheus -12 years, 10 labors Herakles early life: -Born Zeus’ and Alkmene (mortal) son - Hera (Zeus’s wife) hated the great hero Heracles since he was the son of her husband Zeus and a mortal woman. When he was still an infant, she sent snakes to attack him in his crib. -Hero Element: persecuted by Hera and not a father figure -Defeated a Cithaironian Lion -After killing the lion, he wore its skin and used its jaw as a helmet -Early indication of his heroic prowess Herakles First Marriage: -Megara -Herakles killed his wife (Megara) and children, then condemned himself to exile because of his crimes -Hera spurred him to do it because she hated him Hesiod: Raised by Hera to combat Herakles The Twelve labors: First Labor: The Nemean Lion -Could not be killed by a weapon -Herakles used his bare hands to strangle it -Semi-Divine: Special powers (almost always incredible strength) Second Labor: The Lernaean Hydra -Hydra: A water Serpent -9 heads (1 immortal, 8 mortal) -Had assistance from Iolaos -Eurystheus: didn’t count this as one of Herakles 10 labors because he had help Third Labor: The Cerynitian Hind -Hind: deer ; captured and brought back to King Eurystheus -Sacred to Artemis (goddess of hunting) Fourth Labor: The Erymanthian Boar -Centaurs: half man, half horse -Most were wild and barbaric Fifth Labor: Cattle of Augeias -Augeias: King of Elis -Owned many herds of cattle -A deal was made that if Herakles could clean out the stables in one day, he could have 1/10 of the cattle -Eurystheus didn’t accept as a labor because it was done for pay Sixth Labor: The Stymphalian Birds -Man eating birds -Help from Athena: She made loud noise with bronze castanets - Noise frightened them away, Herakles shot the bird as they flew away Seventh Labor: The Cretan Bull -Captured the Bull from the Temple of Zeus at Olympia -Herakles first journey outside the Pelopennses -Released afterwards Eighth Labor: The Mares of Diomedes -Man-eating mares -Captured -Released afterwards Ninth Labor: The belt of Hippolyte -Hippolyte was queen of the Amazons, a tribe of women warriors. -Herakles labor was the bring Eurystheus, Hippolyes belt, that was given to her by the god of war (Ares) - Eurystheus wanted the belt to give to his daughter as a present Tenth Labor: Cattle of Geryon - Hercules had to journey to the end of the world. Eurystheus ordered the hero to bring him the cattle of the monster Geryon. Eleventh Labor: The apples of the Hesperides -Eurystheus commanded Hercules to bring him golden apples, which belonged to Zeus, king of the gods. Hera had given these apples to Zeus as a wedding gift. - These apples were kept in a garden at the northern edge of the world, and they were guarded not only by a hundred-headed dragon, named Ladon, but also by the Hesperides, nymphs who were daughters of Atlas, the titan who held the sky and the earth upon his shoulders. - Atlas returned with the golden apples, he told Hercules he would take them to Eurystheus himself, and asked Hercules to stay there and hold the heavy load for the rest of time. Hercules slyly agreed, but asked Atlas whether he could take it back again, just for a moment, while the hero put some soft padding on his shoulders to help him bear the weight of the sky and the earth. Atlas put the apples on the ground, and lifted the burden onto his own shoulders. And so Hercules picked up the apples and quickly ran off, carrying them back, uneventfully, to Eurystheus. -Herakles tricked Atlas into taking the sky back (frees Prometheus from holding the sky) (Atlas and Prometheus are brothers) Twelfth labor: Capture of Kerberos - The most dangerous labor of all was the twelfth and final one. Eurystheus ordered Hercules to go to the Underworld and kidnap the beast called Kerberos. - The lord of the Underworld told Hercules could indeed take Cerberus with him, but only if he overpowered the beast with nothing more than his own brute strength. (No weapons) After the Labors: -Heracles marries a smoking hot girl named Deianira -As Nessus is dying, he tells Deianira that his blood is a magical love potion. He assures her that she can use it to make sure that Heracles is always faithful to her. -For some unknown reason, Deianira believes the nasty centaur and takes some of his blood in a little bottle. -A few years later, another young lady named Iole catches the eye of Heracles. Afraid that she is going to lose her husband to the new girl, Deianira pours the blood of Nessus onto a shirt and gives it to Heracles. -Herakles begins dying, and sets his body on fire -Fire: separates the mortal from the immortal -Sacrifice -Herakles Apotheosis - Deianira feel awful and commits suicide Q. Where did Herakles descend into the underworld? A. Cape Tainaron (Laconia) -Cerberos- A three-headed dog guarding the entrance to Hades - Cave of Hades Herakles In Greece: (Important Locations) Nemea -First Labor: Nemean Lion Lerna -Second Labor: The Lernaean Hydra Ceryneai -Third Labor: Cerynitian Hind Psophis - Fourth Labor: Erymanthian Boar Elis - Fifth Labor: Cattle of Augeias Symphalos in Arcadia - Sixth Labor: Stymphalian Birds Laconia (Cape Tainaron) - Twelfth labor: Capture of Kerberos (Cerberos) Tiryns -Home of King Eurystheus - Eurystheus ordered Herakles on each of his labors Thebes: -Home of King Amphitryon - Son of Alcaeus, king of Tiryns Peloponnese: Peninsula in Southern Greece - Seventh labor: The Cretan Bull - Herakles first journey outside the Pelopennses Anglo-Saxon Beowulf Beowulf the Story: -References to Christianity -Grendel and his mother as the descendants of Cain - Cain according to the Book of Genesis was one of the two sons of Adam and Ev Location: -Beowulf from Geatland (Sweden) -King of Geatland: Hygelac Feasting and Fighting: -Fighting always followed by feast and reward of gifts -Mead Hall: Symbol of social unity -Failure at the end of the epic: No feast, no rewards Heroic Feats of Beowulf: -In Denmark: -Defeat of Grendel at Heorot -Defeat of Grendel’s Mother in the mere (lake or pond) -In Geatland (Sweden) -Defeat of and death by the dragon at Earnaness Monsters of Grendel: Symbolize the threat of disaster, death, and the forces of evil Beowulf as a Hero: -Beowulf maturity grew from gallant warrior to wise leader Hygelac: King of Geatland -Kings were seen as ‘ring-givers’ as the distributed wealth after battles Movie Notes: “Clash of the Gods” episode • Beowulf’s status as a hero required that he be willing to lay down his life for honor and glory o Lof: Old English for “glory” • The one person that Grendel cannot harm is the Danish King Hrothgar because he has the power of God on his side • Hrothgars’s hall, which Grendle attacked, is called Heorot o Heorot: Hall of the Stag • Archaeologists at the site of Sutton Hoo in England, say that the horrific deaths of groups of criminals were the rulers strategy for keeping the population in line o Sutton Hoo § Burial grounds in England where burial boats were unearthed § These boats follow the Norse funeral practices as seen by Baldr’s funeral at sea in the Prose Edda Islamic World Heroes Sindbad: The Sailor -Late addition to 1001 nights -Cyclical Travels -Adventure, tragedy, joyful, homecoming -Counterparts: courageous adventurer and cautious homebody -Sailor vs. Landsman -Sindbad has “two faces” 1. Brave adventurous sailor 2. Homebody -Development of spiritual maturity -Exposure to adventures and hardships (the ‘marvelous’) Thousand and One Nights -These tales had their own genre -Aja’ib : ‘Marvelous” -Transformation of the soul -Collection of cross-cultural tale -Many stories told in coffee houses during this time -Shahrazad and her stories -2 Kings: King Shahrayar and King Shahzman -Search for non cheating woman, but cannot find -Decide to marry women for one night and kill her the next morning -The woman he marries starts telling a story but she isn’t finished by the morning so he lets her finish the story -Story lasts 1000 and 1 nights; she has 3 children over the course of the story telling -Over the course of the tales, he decides to keep his wife and not kill her Sindbad Voyages: -First Voyage -Occurs on the back of a very large fish -Sindbad doesn’t make it back to the ship -Makes it to another island -Recovers his goods before making it back home to Bagdad -Second Voyage -Falls asleep and is abandoned on an island -Rukh: Giant mythical bird (big enough to block the sun) -Sindbad uses the bird, to be flown to a new place -Eventually makes his way home -Third Voyage -Parallels between Homer Odyssey episode with Cyclopes -Monster find Sindbads crew; eats some of them -Get away after blinding the Cyclopes (Giant) -Monster throws rocks and sinks their ship as they try to escape -Sindbad survives; gets on a ship with the goods that he lost -Goes home happy -Forth Voyage -Sindbad is ship wreaked on an island with Cannibals -Sindbad doesn’t eat the food that the Cannibals poison so he doesn’t get fat and they lose interest -Finds a new city; marries women; gets buried alive when his wife dies (in this city when one spouse dies the other is buried alive with them) -Eventually makes his way back a rich and happy man to Bagdad -Fifth Voyage -The Old man Of the Sea -Convinces Sindbad to pick him up and gets on his shoulders -Wouldn’t get Down; Sindbad got him drunk until he passed out and fell - Eventually makes his way back a rich and happy man to Bagdad -Sixth Voyage -Ends up on Serendib= Sri Lanka -King of Serendib sends gifts back with Sindbad to Bagdad -Premise for his final voyage -Seventh Voyage -King of Bagdad tells Sindbad he must go back and bring King of Serendib gifts (since he gave them gifts) Themes of Sindbad’s Travels: -Desires to travel and trade -Tragedy/ abandonment -Survival -Help from Natives -Success in native town -Return of goods by chance -Return to Basra, the Baghdad -Joyful homecoming with family/ friends Underworld: -Valhalla: Hall of the Dead Heroes -Battles every morning -Goat that produces beer -Niflheim: land of the dead rules over by hel -Dead from disease or old age -Egypt: -Strong emphasis on the afterlife -Book of the dead -Main player: Osiris (resurrection god) -Holds positive connotations -The red land: Desheret (desert) -Where the dead were buried
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