M211FinalStudyGuide.pdf SPH M211
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Popular in Sports management
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lydia Knoll on Sunday July 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPH M211 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Erin McNary in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sports Management in Sports management at Indiana University.
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Intro to Sports Management Final Study Guide Ch. 9 Professional Sports labor collective group of athletes in team sports who unionize so that they can bargain collectively with the league owners, represented by union head in negotiations with management management collective group of ownership that is negotiating with the players or labor, represented by league commissioner who is agent for the owners Unique Aspects of Professional Sport: Interdependence, structure and governance, labor management relations, role of electronic and new media, emerging sources of media coverage league think teams recognize importance of their competition and share revenues to ensure that their competitors remain strong Ch. 10 Sports Management and Marketing Agencies client sport related person, brand, property, media company, or concept represented by a sport management and marketing agency venue facility or site where a special event or sport activity takes place Four main client groups: Talent, Property, Corporate Brand, Media Company Major functions of agencies: Strategic planning, sponsorship and licensing solicitation, event creation/management/marketing, contract negotiation, marketing activation, content development, financial or investment planning, research and evaluation Entitlement associating the name of a sponsor with the name of an event or facility in exchange for cash or other considerations (ex. the AT&T Cotton Bowl Classic) Inventory the assets that a sport property has to sell including not only its quantity but also its characteristics and traits grassroots programs programs targeted to people at the primary level of involvement, usually participants rather than spectators downsizing becoming a smaller organization by reducing personnel or departments, often because of a change in the mission or direction of the organization value added perception, by the consumer, of added or augmented product or service benefits solicitation requesting support or assistance on behalf of a sport property from a potential sponsor Full Service agencies: client management, event management and marketing, corporate marketing, media, future of IMG General agencies falls between expansive scope of work performed by full service and narrow scope of work by specialty agencies turnkey program or product that the vendor executes without further involvement from client Specialty agencies one that specializes in specific type of service or caters to a specific stakeholder clientele InHouse groups Ch. 11 Sports Tourism seasonality the variable patterns of tourist visitation throughout the year at a destination. Most destination have three seasons. The peak season, the shoulder season, and an off season destination image the impression that people have of a certain location synergy the interaction between two components such as tourism and sport leverage using strategies to optimize the benefits of outcomes associated with an event Convention and Visitors Bureau (CVB) a community agency funded by the vet tax, the local taxes paid for stays and commercial lodging facilities such as hotels. A CVB provides tourism in the community and acts as a centralized source of information about events, accommodations, and other visitor related information sports commission local or state agency responsible for attracting and organizing sport events to help communities capitalize on the potential benefits of sport tourism psychic income the pride that people have in their community generated by hosting a sport event time switchers visitors who have been planning to visit the destination and then switch their visit to coincide with the event. Their spending cannot be attributed to the event casuals people who happened to be visiting the destination and chose to attend the event instead of doing something else. Their attendance at the event was not their prime reason for visiting the destination displacement effect the process whereby potential tourists are discouraged from visiting a destination because of perceptions of what such hassles as crowding, construction, or fear of terrorism Ch. 12 Sport Marketing sport marketing the process of designing and implementing activities for the production, pricing, promotion, and distribution of a sport product or sport business product to satisfy the needs or desires of consumers and to achieve the company’s objectives marketing plans comprehensive strategic and tactical frameworks for identifying and achieving a sport organization’s marketing goals and objectives marketing mix the elements of product, price, place, and promotion, which sport marketers alter, modify, or manipulate to achieve marketing goals and objectives Steps to developing marketing plan (four P’s): 1. Purpose 2. Product product life cycle the lifespan stages of a sport product include introduction, growth, maturity, and decline 3. Projection 4. Positioning internal factors factors insides a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (players, owners, management, staff) external factors factors outside of a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (media, sponsors, agents, advertisers, spectators, geography, culture) SWOT analysis a management technique available to sport marketers to help them assess the strengths and weaknesses of an organization and the opportunities and threats that it faces. branding the process of using a name, design, symbol, or any combination of the three to help differentiate a sport product from competition 5. Players market segmentation the process of identifying smaller and viable clusters of sport consumers who may exhibit similar wants, needs, and interests regarding sport 6. Packaging sport sponsorship the acquisition of rights to affiliate or associate with a sports product or sport event in order to derive benefits from the affiliation or association promotions mix the collection of integrated activities that seek to communicate, inform, and ultimately persuade consumers to participate in the sport consumption activity, experience, or event 7. Pricing Four factors of price strategy: Consumer, Competitor, Company, Climate 8. Promotions Key elements: open and honest communication with public, images and messages that are socially responsible, cooperation with the public and response to their interests, good faith relationships with the public Promotional mix: advertising, publicity, activities and inducements, public relations (media and community), personal selling, sponsorship 9. Place place comprehensive manner in which sport is distributed to consumers 10. Promise marketing research systematic process of obtaining, analyzing, and interpreting data and information to evaluate and improve marketing practices Ch. 13 Sport Consumer Behavior market segment a portion of the population that is distinctive in terms of its needs, characteristics, or behavior target market market segment(s) identified as the focus of an organizations marketing efforts Understanding consumer: needs & motives, perception, attitudes Consumer motives: Participant motivation extrinsic rewards rewards given to a person by someone else intrinsic rewards rewards received by a person from the experience itself Spectator motivation diversion distraction from a course or activity Eustress positive levels of arousal provided to sport spectators Model of attitude formation: overall attitude ——> cognitive (beliefs), affective (feelings), behavioral (actions) aspirational reference group a group to which an individual wishes to belong Ex. Gatorade’s “Be like Mike” campaign with Michael Jordan consumer socialization Situational Influence the influence arising from factors that are particular to a specific time and place and are independent of individual customers’ characteristics Model of the decision process internal, situational, external need recognition perception of a difference between a desired state and the actual situation; the first stage of the decisionmaking process cognitive dissonance feelings of anxiety or doubt that can occur after an important decision has been made Challenges and Issues: Meaning and emotion of sport consumption globalization of sport Virtual consumption Compulsive consumption Ch. 14 Communication in the Sport Industry social media webbased applications that enable people to share content such as information, opinions, and experiences sport communication process by which people in sport, in a sport setting or through a sport endeavor share symbols as they create meaning through interaction Theoretical Framework, five keys: Genres, context, process, elements, effects Lasswell model: sender, message, channel, receiver effects varied results of communication in regard to its effect on audience members and society in general Theories: Uses and Gratifications Agenda Setting Innovation Diffusion of information Modeling Cultivation SSCM Strategic sport communication model depicting the dynamics of communication and the various settings in which communication occurs in sports Component 1: Personal and Organizational Personal intra, within, internal, private(blogs); inter, between 2 people, exchange Organizational intra, within org; inter, between organizations or outside people Component 2: Communication Skills Print Communication through printed publications including sport sections in newspapers, magazines, and books Electronic communication by electronic media, including sports broadcasting on television, sports radio, sport film, and sport photography New Media through nontraditional media platforms, most of them internet based and ranging from traditional websites to mobile applications to ecommerce systems Component 3: Sport Communication Services and Support sport public relations managerial communicationbased function designed to identify a sport organization key publics, evaluate its relationships with those publics, and foster desirable relationships between sport organization and key publics oneway model of public relations comm model focusing exclusively on the flow of information from the sport organization to its publics twoway model of public relations comm model focusing on communication give and take between a sport organization and its key publics Media Relations Specialists: Writing News Releases Planning News Conferences Managing Game Services Careers in Media Relations intense competition community relations often focuses on the promotion of charitable initiatives affiliated with the sport organization and the development of opportunities for facetoface contact with sport organization stakeholders Public Relations positions: corporate communications, employee and volunteer relations, digital media manager Ch. 15 Finance and Economics in the Sport Industry revenue sharing attempts to equalize differences in team revenues, share revenues from TV rights and merchandise sales college athletics including D1, most do not produce enough revenue to cover their costs only 19% of D1 football bowl subdivision (FBS) athletics produced revenues > costs scarcity people want more of the product than is feely available for consumption economic interaction exchange of one product of value for another product of value demand price of product and about of product that consumers are willing to buy law of demand consumers will demand less of a product as its price increases and more of product as its price falls supply relationship between price of a product and the amount of the product that suppliers are willing to produce and sell law of supply suppliers will increase production as the price of product increases and decrease production as price falls market equilibrium price at which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied market surplus price at which quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded market shortage price at which quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied sport economic impact studies analyses of how expenditures on sport teams, events, or facilities economically affect a specific geographic region Questions to ask when seeing economic impact study: Who conducted research and how was it conducted Financial statements: balance sheet, income statement Revenue: concessions, seat licenses, suites, donations, media rights, sponsorships, merchandise *price of attendance is often greater than cost of a ticket Expenses: facilities, salaries Ch. 16 Sport Facility and event management types: single purpose softball couple, bowling alley, large stadiums single purpose, specialized ice rink arenas multipurpose large stadium, high school field house nontraditional skate park, convertible indoor/outdoor facility privatization moving the management of facilities from the public sector to the private companies or organizations facility management facility director (manager) responsibility for overall facility operations manager responsible for personnel, procedures, and activities in facility; reports to facility director event coordinator responsible for managing individual events, reports to facility director event management executive director responsible for overall administration of event operations division manager responsible for personnel, procedure, activities contained in operations division (registration, lodging, medical, communications, awards, transportations) public relations, marketing, and hospitality division manager works at direction of executive director in PR, marketing, hospitality (ceremonies, protocol, sponsorship, media) Preevent tasks: 1. Scheduling event booking securing and contracting one specific sport or entertainment event 2. Negotiating the event boilerplate generic document that uses standard language and a fillintheblank format to outline expectations between parties split prearranged negotiated percentage used to divide various sources of revenue between promoter and facility 3. Coordinating the event cost analysis systematic process used to provide an estimation of the revenues and expenses of an event work order detailed document that illustrates all requirements of the event Staging Event: Seating Customer service Alcohol policies Crowd management staff training, emergency planning, ensuring accessibility for spectators with disabilities, procedure for ejecting people, efficient communication system, effective signage inhouse services provided by facility staff Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) legislation that protects people with disabilities from discrimination, specific to sport facilities law states that managers must provide reasonable accommodations Postevent Tasks: event cleanup, evaluating the event settlement reconciling the expenses and revenues of an event and dividing the profits according to contracted arrangement documentation detailed records that describe the event Ch. 17 Legal Considerations in sport management constituencies any people influenced or effected by a particular decision statutes enactments made by legislature and expressed informal document precedent legal case establishing principle or rule that a court may need to adopt when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts. stare decisis literally means to stand by things decided. expresses notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents according to case law and followed accordingly Black’s Law Dictionary useful resource in law research Sources of Law: US Constitution: supreme law in US, greatest source of individual rights to American citizens due process 5th and 14th amendments, ensures that a law shall not be unreasonable, arbitrary, or capricious, selected for enforcing a law shall have a reasonable and substantial relation to objective of gov. Federal Legislation empowered by Congress in variety of subject areas (copyright, patents, made and commerce, taxation) Ex. ADA, Title IX State legal systems each state responsible for enacting laws to govern its citizens in matters were fed leg is silent tort laws civil wrong or injury for which the law permits a recovery, typically the wrong or injury is either a negligent act or an intentional act by one person that causes injury to another person or property negligence failure to act as another reasonably prudent person would proximate cause cause that directly produces an event and without which the event would not have occurred Contracts law of private agreements, between two or more private parties restatements secondary legal research sources that seek to restate the legal rules that constitute the common law in particular area such as contracts, property, foreign relations, liability common law the body of law derived from the judgments and decrees of the courts rather than those laws created by legislatures Ch. 18 Sociological Aspects of Sport sport sociology the scientific investigation of relationships, social interactions and culture that are created, maintained, changed and contested in and through sport Benefits of sport: sport as a socializing agent, socialization process by which people learn and develop through social interactions and come to know environment around them sport as unifier Dark side of sport: Sexism in sport, Title IX federal leg. passed in 1972 amended 1964 Civil Rights Act to prohibit sex discrimination female patterns of sport participation resources allocated to female collegiate athletes women in positions of leadership in sport empirical knowledge based on experimental method and observation versus theory or supposition gender roles set of perceived behavioral norms associated particular w males or females in given social group or system role learning social process by which children learn various roles, and characteristics associated with them such as neighbor, friend, daughter, sibling media coverage of female athletes homophobia fear or intolerance toward homosexuals heterosexism ideology and behavior that promote privilege for dominant groups (the “norm”, better) race logic attributional pattern of athletic success in which black athletes successes ar attitude to natural athletic ability and genetics, white attributed to hard work, intelligence stacking disproportionate allocation of athletes to central (“thinking position”) and non central positions due to race or ethnicity
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