Exam # 2 study guide Microcomputer applications for business
Exam # 2 study guide Microcomputer applications for business CGS2100
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gianna Molinare on Sunday July 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CGS2100 at Florida State University taught by Jack Winston in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 305 views.
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Date Created: 07/24/16
Exam #2Study Guide Includes: Chapters 11, 13, 7, 9, 12, Ethics, and Careers. Theexamis not cumulative to Exam#1 topics. Networking fundamentals o Computer network Resource sharing benefits: High-speedinternet connection Peripheral devices Files Common communications o Node Basic unitused in computer science Devices or data points on larger network like: Computer Peripheral Network device Network architectures o Classifiedby: Distance How managed Rules to exchangedata Communications medium used Network components o Transmissionmedia Communications channel b/w nodes: wireless networks & wired networks UTP (unshielded twisted pair)cable Types of UTP cables:Cat5E, Cat6,Cat 6a o Network software Operating software for P2P (peer to peer) networking Client/server network Communicate through centralized server Specialized network operating system (NOS)software Connecting to the Internet o Home network Share internet connection o Must purchase internet access fromISP Specialized providers Companies that provide other services o Broadband Satellitebroadband Mobile broadband 4g LTE(less thanequivalent, soit’s really3G) o Dial-up o Wired broadband internet connections Cableinternet Coaxial cable,similarto cableTVwire DSL (digital subscriberline) Fiber optic service o Wireless internet access Wireless @home WiFi hotspot Wireless in-flightinternet Mobile broadband 3G or 4G Installing &configuring Home Networks o Connecting devices to a router Routers for Windows computer (802.11n) o Network-Attached storage devices o Specialized Home-Networking Devices New digital pic frames Access network & online photos, receives pics via email Security A databaseis a collection ofrelated data,which canbe: o Stored, sorted, organized, queried Databases makedata more useful Advantages of using databases: o Canmanage largeamounts of data efficiently o Make info sharing possible o Promote data integrity Disadvantages: o Canbe more time-consuming &expensive to setup o Careis needed for it to fully function o Administrator is responsiblefor designing,constructing &maintaining How data tables are created: o Step 1: Input unique fieldnames o Step 2: define data type o Step 3: seta max fieldsize o Step 4: seta default value o Repeat for each fieldin table Databasetypes o Relational Most commonly used Organizes data in table format Common fieldin 1 table(primary key) linked to common field (foreign key) in 2 table Need to keep data inrelated tables synchronized o Object-oriented Store data in objects rather than tables Contain methods for processing/manipulating data Canstore more types of data than relational databases Canaccess data faster o Multidimensional Databases thatare setup to facilitatedrilling down to retrieving data Databasefunctions o Populate databaseby creating records o Allow users to extract subsets ofdata from database o Output data in meaningful format that can be presented How businesses usedatabases o Databasewarehousing &storage Large-scalecollectionofdata Contains & organizes data in 1 place Data comes from multiple databases Consolidates info from various systems Presents enterprise-wide view of operations o Business intelligencesystems Software-based solutions to gather & analyzeinfo Deliver up-to-the-min data Integral bc they store functional info All perform similarfunctions o Officesupport systems (OSS) Designedto improve o Transaction-processing systems Batch processing data is accumulated, then several transactions are processed @ once appropriate for activities that aren’t time-sensitive often more efficient o Management info system (MIS) Provides timely &accurate info Enables managers to make critical decisions Directs outgrowth of TPS Powerful iforganized & outputted in useful form Often included as feature of TPS Cangenerate various reports o Decisionsupport system (DSS) Designedto help managers develop solutions for specific issues Uses infofrom database&data warehouses Users canadd own insights &experiences to solution Ethics &data o Databasemanagers (b4 social media)were usedto collectcustomer data & make it into coherent format to provide managers w/ data-driven decision options o Early methods included collecting business cards &transcribe data o Riseofsocial media provided treasure trove of customer &consumer data Knowledge Discovery& Data Mining o 1 factor that drives data mining= evolution of affordable high-performance computers that are ableto slice&dicepetabyte sizedatabases o there are highlycomplex methods of data mining Major classes ofdata mining o Anomaly detection Looks for data out of defined range o Associationrule learning Dependency modeling o Clustering Histogram analytics o Classification Sorting data by known characteristics o Regression Modeling w/ leasterrors (Chi) o Summarizing Data compaction w/ analysis, displayconclusions inbriefmanner Data analytics o Science ofexamining raw data to conclude info o Different from data mining by scope,purpose, & focus of analysis o Focuses on inference, process of deriving conclusion basedsolelyon what is already known by researcher o Exploratory data analysis New features in data arediscovered o Confirmatory data analysis Existing hypotheses areproven true or false Data for sale o Harvested data are processed& stored in data warehouses o Metadata are used to facilitatesearch&retrieval of data of interest o Predictive model markup lang=ex of methods usedfor data analysis Management of the Internet o Internet society Professional membership societythat provides leadership for orderly growth & development of internet o Internet Engineering TaskForce (IETF) A subgroup of Internet Society that researches new Internet tech to improve its capabilities &keepinfrastructure functioning smoothly o Internet Architecture Board (IAB) Technical advisory group to Internet Society & an IETF Circuit switching o Not usedto connect to computers Inefficient when applied to compute Computers transmit data in a group or burst Processor works on next task&ceases tocommunicate until ready to transmit next burst Circuit would have to remain open, therefore unavailableto other systems Data transmission &protocols TC/IP o Protocol the internet uses for transmitting data Main suiteof protocols is TCP/IP Consists ofmany interrelated protocols IP addresses &domain names o Eachdevice connected to internet required to have unique number Aka IP address o Domain names = word-based IP addresses o How computer gets IPaddresses Static IP address never changes Assignedby network administrator or ISP Dynamic IP address is temporary Assignedfrom pool of addresses More common Assignedfor duration of session Business ethics-studyof standards of business behavior o How we actas individuals inbusiness,how we structure our business organizations & the way they work, how we structure our business society,our laws affecting business Ethics=about how we behave, about standards we hold ourselves to Not justfeelings/conscience,religion,justfollowing the law,following “what everybody does” How we actas individuals,how we structure our organizations &their work, how we structure our society How to think ethically o Analyze whether proposed behavior promotes greatest good o Identify legitrights of individuals affected o Analyze whether all parts are treated equally o Analyze whether proposed behavior is consistent w/ recognized virtues Modern schools of ethical philosophy o Deontological philosophies:duty &rules based Immanuel Kant: to act morally, one must act from a senseof duty Moral absolutism: certain actions are absolutelyright/wrong w/out regard to intentions behind actions or considering outcome DivineCommandment: moral obligations ariseout of word of God o Utilitarianism: actions that maximize the greatestgood are the proper course Reflects ChristianGolden Rule Moral worth ofaction is adjudged by outcome Basis forpolitical socialism Widest practiced philosophy Open doors to little white lie o Naturalism or Natural Ethics Basedon idea that all facts arenatural facts,independent of human opinion Acknowledges that are people have a moral framework & must make decisions basedon their perception of truth Topics that are pushing boundaries of ethics o Bioethics governing advances medicine &bioengineering o New forms of media & mass communication How private should your data be? o International law, especiallylaws ofthe sea Global warming o Capital punishment Client/server applications of the Internet o A web browser (clientsoftware) requests a Web page from a Web server; the web server returns the requested fileor files toclient o Data port +IP address=data socket TCP/IP suiteof protocols o How a clientaddresses a server application on another computer o How protocols in TCP/IP suiteare used inintranets &internet to support client/server applications Using IP &Port Addresses to identify services o Eachserver running on a computer is addresses bya unique port # TCP/IP protocol layers o Applications protocols Make an API call to the OS o TCP/IP protocols usedby OSfor network communication o Network protocols used by hardware Included infirmware &drivers on singleNIC Protocol useddepends on type of physical network data is travelling on o TCP Guarantees packet delivery Connection-oriented protocol o UDP Doesn’t guarantee delivery Connectionless protocol o IP Breaks up &reassembles data into packets;routes them to their destination o ARP Locates host on a local network o RARP Discovers internet address f host on local network o ICMP Communicates problems w/ transmission Ways to connect to internet o Standard dial-up modem o DSL o Cablemodem Implementing a Firewall o Filters data packets, ports, applications & info o Hardware firewalls o Software firewalls Ensuring privacy b/w web server & browser o Using secureHTTP, a web server &browser encrypt data using public key before data is transmitted
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