Exam 2 Study Guide - Cultural Anthro
Exam 2 Study Guide - Cultural Anthro ANTH 0780
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Chapter 4 Reproduction and Human Development 1 To have or not have children If yes how many If not why not Question is Cultural deeply cultural questions because they point our attention to the values attitudes and beliefs concerning what a good life entails cross culturally SocialPolitical ideas regarding offspring are always part of a social context abortion debate is example of politics involved EconomicEcological These questions can t be addressed by demographers should be looked at through anthropological demography II Anthropological Demography studies the cultural social political and economic underpinnings of fertility patterns from a crosscultural perspective Why is the ideal family size in one society so different from other societies Why is it in some context males are preferred and not females III Seeking Patterns Modes of Reproduction an assemblage or system of cultural socialpolitical and economicecological conditions that underpin or sustain fertility patterns These interact with the modes of livelihood 9 hunting gathering societies have different modes of reproduction than agricultural or industrial societies not a coincidence The dominant pattern of population change through the combined effect of fertility birth rate and mortality death rate Modes of Reproduction Foraging adaptive to certain environments and sustainable over time Agricultural associated with the highest birth rates 0 Pronatalism attitude or policy that encourages childbearing prevalent among farm families crossculturally Industrial nformatic reproduction declines to the point of either 0 Replacementlevel fertility number of births number of deaths leading to maintenance of the current population size 0 Belowreplacementlevel fertility number of births is less than number of deaths leading to population decline 0 Population changes that take place in this mode correspond to demographic transition process where the agricultural pattern of high fertility and high mortality becomes the industrial pattern of low fertility and low mortality I First phase mortality declines bc or improved nutrition and health population growth increases I Second phase fertility also declines so low rates of population growth occur to the extent that many industrialinformatics countries have belowreplacement fertility Japan Canada US 0 Strati ed reproduction middleclass and upperclass people have few children with high survival rates while poor people have high fertility and mortality rates Brazil has most extreme income inequality and extremely stratified reproduction 0 Population aging when proportion of older people increases relative to younger people 0 High level of involvement of scientific technology in all aspects of pregnancy becoming preventing and terminating pregnancy accompanied by increasing levels of specialization in providing the new services IV Examples of anthropological demography Fertility and the Body Sobo The Jamaican Body 0 Healthy body 9 equalized 9 neither too hot nor too cold 0 How does a body become too hot or cold ie unhealthy I Through work physical activity and sexual intercourse A lot of work 9 body too cold Too little work 9 body too hot Lots of sex 9 body too cold Too little sex 9 body too hot I Fertility is highly prized and a sign of good health that the body is working correctly I From a cultural perspective a reason for the lower fertility rates in the culture would be the Jamaican beliefs regarding a healthy body and sex Egypt and Gender Inhorn Infertility and Patriarchy o Demography Family Planning and Population Concerns 0 Failure of Family Planning Overlooking Women and Gender I Resistance to Family Planning U Value of children for women enhances identity and status as women femininity D No real family without children I Value of children for men tied to notions of virility and masculinity China s One Child Policy and the State Culture and Fertility Culture shapes human fertility Sexual Intercourse Involves private sometimes secret beliefs and behaviors Menarche onset of menstruation Menopause cessation of menstruation both defines the time span within which a female is fertile Common assumption that people in cultures with high fertility rates have sexual intercourse frequently Ex Indians have intercourse less frequently than EuroAmericans Fertility decision making Governments plan their overall population target on the basis of fertility goals that are sometimes pronatalist and sometimes antinatalist opposed to many births Family level children s labor value childrens value as oldage support for parents infant and child mortality rates and economic costs of children all shape the desire for children State level state governments form policies that affect rates of population growth within their boundaries jobemployment levels public services lling ranks of military dealing with population aging Global level global power structure pharmaceutical companies and religious leaders in uence country and individuallevel decision making Fertility Control Indigenous methods most used for increasing fertility some as contraceptives and a few to induce abortion herbs made into tea pills and inhalable vapors studied in Afghanistan Induced abortion practice in around 400 societies studied 0 Ex taking drugs starving oneself jumping lifting heavy objects doing hard work hitting the abdomen 0 Related to economic and social factors New reproductive technologies methods that seek to bypass biology to offer options for childbearing to infertile couples 0 In vitro fertilization egg cells are fertilized outside the womb popular among infertile couples Infanticide deliberate killing of offspring Widely practiced crossculturally Direct death of an infant or child resulting from actions like beating smothering poisoning and drowning Indirect more subtle may involve prolonged practices like food deprivation failure to take a sick infant to a clinic failure to provide warm clothing in winter Most frequent motive is because the infant was deformed or very ill and others include the infant s sex adulterous conception unwed mother birth of twins or too many children in the family Personality and Life Cycle Personality individual s patterned and characteristic way of behaving thinking and feeling 0 Formed through enculturation socialization learning of culture through informal and formal processes The birth context the cultural context of birth affects and infant s psychological development 0 Brigitte Jordan studied birth practices in Mexico Sweden Netherlands and US studying birth setting location types of attendants and their roles birth event and postpartum period and discovered it s different among cultures Bonding preinfant contact and bonding at time of birth is crucial for setting in motion parental attachment to the infant if bonding isn t established at birth it won t develop later Nancy ScheperHughes questioned this theory Gender in infancy difference between sex something everyone s born with and gender cultural construction highly variable across cultures o Proving existence of innate gender characteristics is difficult because I It s impossible to collect data on infants before they re subject to cultural treatment I It s difficult to study and interpret behavior of infants to try and ascertain what is natural and what is cultural without introducing biases from the observers common stereotypes assessed U Infant males are more aggressive than females U Infant females are more social than males U Infant males are more independent than females 0 Anthropologists say that if gender differences are innate it s odd that cultures go to so much trouble to enculturate offspring into a particular gender and they should be the same throughout history and across all cultures which they re not Socialization During Childhood Six Cultures Study classic crosscultural research project designed to provide comparative data on how children s activities and tasks shape their personalities o Nurturant responsible personality caring and sharing acts toward others 0 Dependentdominant personality fewer acts of caregiving more that assert dominance over others and more need for care by adults 0 Narcissistic personality constantly seeking selfattention and self affirmation no concern for other people s needs 0 Key underlying factor of how different modes of livelihood in uence child personality is women s work roles Adolescence and Identity Transition from childhood to adulthood involves biological and cultural events that shape the transition to adulthood Puberty time in human life cycle that occurs universally and involves a set of biological markers Adolescence culturally def1ned period of maturation from around time of puberty until attainment of adulthood marked by becoming a parent getting married of becoming economically selfsufficient Adolescence is culturally constructed variable impossible to explain on biological levels only Coming of Age and Gender Identity Coming of age can refer to the period of adolescence or specifically to a ceremony or set of ceremonies that marks the boundaries of adolescence Female genital cutting female circumcision rang of practices involving total or partial removal or the clitoris and labia o Practiced along with in bulation stitching together of vaginal entry leaving small aperture for drainage of menstrual blood 0 Performed on girls between ages 7 and 15 Gender patterns of culturally constructed and learned behaviors and ideas attributed to males females or sometimes a blended or third gender Miller p 18 Sexuality the crosscultural shaping of erotic desires and practices toward others The Interrelatedness of Gender and Sexuality Gender 69 Identity 6 Sexuality Biology or Culture or the NatureNurture debate yet once again The Human Genome Project HGP an international scienti c research project with the goal of determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up human DNA and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint Biology and Sexuality as Biopolitics intersectional field between biology and politics The Anthropological Position Vast variability in human gender and sexual identities and practices are mainly culturally and not genetically imprinted Should distinguish between behavior and meaning Sexual Identity and Gender Pluralism Cultural constructionist emphasizes socialization and childhood experiences as more powerful than biology in shaping sexual orientation Example xanith Gulf State of Oman man who becomes more like a woman wears female clothing and has sex with other men then returns to a standard male role Berdache American Indian genitally correct male who chooses to wear female clothing has sex with male or female and performs female roles Amazon person who is biologically female but takes on a male gender role Hijira India blurred gender role where a person usually biologically male takes on female dress and behavior Muxe Mexican Zapotec males who have felt themselves drawn to living as a woman anticipating roles set out for them by the community New Guinea Ritualized Homosexuality Gender pluralism existence within a culture of multiple categories of femininity masculinity and blurred genders that are tolerated and legitimate Asexuality lack of sexual attraction or interest in sexual activity Adulthood In EuroAmerican culture a woman becomes a mother when she gives birth Matrescence cultural process of becoming a mother occurs in context of supportive family members for some cultures Patrescence cultural process of becoming a father less marked than matrescence o Couvade beliefs and customs applying to a father during his wife s pregnancy and delivery 40 Syndrome feelings of restlessness rebelliousness and unhappiness that often lead to family breakups Menopause cessation of menstruation middle age for women Crosscultural comparisons say that the status of elderly people is higher and their welfare more secure in contexts where they continue to live with their families but this is more common in nonindustrial societies People are active participants in their death rather than passive victims 218 Film China s Lost Girls Due to overpopulation government placed rule on how many children families can have Families are limited to 1 child so girls tend to be abandoned or aborted Most families want boys to keep family name going provide labor etc Boys stay with the family whereas a girl will grow up to marry and leave About 100000 baby girls are abandoned every year in China many of which end up in orphanages l in 4 kids in orphanages in US are abandoned Chinese girls Most abandoned girls end up in America like Atlanta GA Now number of boys is rising outnumbering girls and getting worse If couples have more kids than the restricted 1 they would pay a fine You are looked down upon if you don t have a son Baby girls are even left in boxes in the streets Imbalance between girls and boys in China is becoming a serious problem and is only getting worse On average 28 out of 39 kids in a classroom are boys 13 million more boys than girls Without enough girls boys won t be able to nd a woman to marry and establish a family 9 serious social problem In 2020 it s expected that 40 million marriageage men who have no one to marry This triggers a major threat to China which could lead to prostitution forced marriage and abuse to women Many women are kidnapped and sold as wives to men in other poor provinces where they are treated inhumanely There are clinics that teach families about family planning and birth control 225 Living with Kin Kinship Marriage and Family Ch 6 Living With Kin Most members of most societies have been raised in a context in which most people of whom they ve interacted have been with kin Most members of most societies have been born and raised in which their well being and survival are dependent on kin It s these kinds of societies that cultural anthropologist have studied Kinship system predominant form of kin relationships in a culture and the kinds of behavior involved Kinship is linked with modes of livelihood and reproduction most important organizing principle in nonindustrial nonstate cultures Kinship group ensures continuity of the group by arranging marriages maintaining social order by setting moral rules and punishing offenders and providing for the basic needs of members by regulating production consumption and distribution Kinship Diagram schematic way of presenting the kinship relationships of an individual ego using a set of symbols to depict all the kin relations of ego Depicts ego s relatives Symbols used are characters relationships and kin abbreviations Genealogy schematic way of presenting a family tree constructed by beginning with the earliest ancestors that can be traced then working down to the present Kinship terminology words people use to refer to kin cousin aunt grandfather Descent and Descent Groups Did the Iroquois know who their mother was 0 O In Canada a young Iroquois woman was asked by a Frenchman Who is your mother The woman points to another woman and says She is my mother who then points to another woman sister of her biological mother and says She is my mother Frenchman is confused how can that woman have 2 mothers He also thinks this culture is not intelligent as they don t know who their mothers are She was making a statement in her society that Iroquois was a society based on matrilineal descent The idea of Descent and Descent Group O 0000 O The intergenerational transmission of lifelong rights and obligations including but not restricted to group membership Descent which group within a society one belongs at birth the kinds of tiesrelationships one has with certain categories of people thought as kin and members of that certain group tracing of kinship relationships through parentage Descent group category of people organized along descent lines Bilineal descent tracing of descent through both parents Unilineal descent tracing of descent through one parent Matrilineal descent descent system that highlights the importance of women by tracing descent through the female line factoring marital residence with or near the bride s family and providing for property to be inherited through the female line I Matrilocality marital residence withnear wife s family Patrilineal descent descent system that highlights the importance of men in tracing descent determining marital residence with or near the groom s family and providing for inheritance of property through the male line I Patrilocality marital residence withnear husband s family Neolocality marital residence in a place different from either bride or groom s family common in Western industrialized society Descent groups as Corporations of Relatives 0 One belongs to a corporation when one is hired one belongs to a descent group when one is born 0 One leaves a corporation when one is fired one leaves a descent group when one dies 0 Obligations to the people with whom we work 0 Corporation of relatives into which members are born and require rights and obligations as members of that groupcorporation 0 Social group comprised of categories of kin who can trace their relationships to each other through one individual and ancestor of some sort 0 Functioning as one social unit Unilineal Descent Matrilineal vs Patrilineal Descent Matrilineages Men and women related to each other through women Sister and brother members of mother s matrilineage but only sister passes membership to her children Patrilineages Men and women are related to each other through men Sister and brother members of father s patrilineage but only brother passes this membership to his children page 121 in a patrilineal system only male children are considered members of the kinship lineage MISTAKE all offspring of a father in a patrilineal society are members of his group Why were and are corporate descent groups important Corporate descent groups fulfill certain functions provide services that in our own society are provided by the state schools courts police social service agencies Provide and have provided their members with a very broadbased security blanket Provide an example of how different historical and social contexts what we expect from the state in other societies people get from being members of a corporate descent group Descent groups marriage and divorce The Kanuri of Nigeria 0 Divorce in this society allows us to shed light on our own society and understand that divorce and marital instability need not be based in what we attribute it to in our society 0 The possibility that in a society like The Kanuri these groups may act as a buffer protecting women from the high costs of marital instability o The Kanuri are organized into descent groups 0 Relationships that women have in their descent groups are strong especially with the kinds of relationships they have with their matrilineal kin o Divorced women have plenty of places to go mothers sisters 0 Woman maintains independent access to resources she is entitled to as a woman of the matrilineal descent group Understanding Current Con icts o Descent groups emerged prior to appearance of States 0 Descent membership as adaptive strategy Sharing Marriage I Access to resources and security only members I Acting as one as single body jurally militarily and morally I Primary allegiance to one s descent group D Attack on one member of a group translates to an attack on the entire group I Varieties of descent groups tribes clans lineages ethnic groups Where would the idea of descent descent groups be important in understanding contemporary con icts o Afghanistan s Tribal Structure I Landscape divided into a variety of ethnic groups I Ethnic group large descent group of some time in which people have allegiance to each other Kinship through food sharing Adoption formal and permanent form of child transfer 0 Closed adopted child receives new birth certi cate and birth parent ceases to have any relationship with the child 0 Open adoptees and birth parents have information about each other s identity and are free to interact Fostering similar to formal adoption done to enhance child s chances for formal education or so child will learn a skill Ritually defmed ties between adults and children born to other people 0 Relationships between godparents and godchildren Some concept of marriage exists in all cultures Marriage union usually between 2 people likely to be coresident sexually involved with each other and procreative Rules of exclusion specifying whom one shouldn t marry Rules of inclusion specifying who is a preferred marriage partner Incest taboo rule prohibiting marriage or sexual intercourse between certain kinship relations Endogamy marriage within certain group of locality 0 Parallel cousin offspring of either one s father s brother or one s mother s sister 0 Crosscousin offspring of either one s father s sister or one s mother s brother Exogamy marriage outside certain group or locality Hypergyny marriage where bride s status is lower than groom s common in India Hypogyny marriage where bride has higher status than groom Isogamy marriage between partners who are status equals Arranged marriages are formed on the basis of parents considerations of what constitutes a good match between the families of the bride and groom Marriage Gifts Dowry transfer of cash and goods from bride s family to newly married couple 0 Household goods aka groompiece because much of the goods and money pass to groom s family Bridepriee bridewealth transfer of cash and goods from groom s family to bride s family and bride 0 Common in horticultural and pastoralist cultures 0 Brideservice groom works for fatherinlaw for certain length of time before returning home with bride Forms of Marriage Monogamy marriage between 2 people Polygamy marriage involving multiple spouses o Polygyny marriage of one husband with more than one wife 0 Polyandry marriage of one wife with more than one husband Households and Domestic Life Family group of people who consider themselves related through kinship Household either a person is living alone or one or more persons who occupy a shared living space and who may or may not be related by kinship Nuclear household domestic unit containing one adult couple with or without kids Extended household coresidential group that comprises more than one parentchild unit 0 Couples may be patrilineal matrilineal or collateral brothers sisters Complex households domestic units where one spouse lives with or near multiple partners and their children Intrahousehold Dynamics Spousepartner relationships studies marital satisfaction and sexual activity over life course 0 Marital satisfaction declines over time greatest for wives in arranged marriages and least for husbands in arranged marriages o In lovematch marriages satisfaction dropped dramatically for both 0 Sex is more frequent among those who are cohabiting but not married those who cohabited before marriage and those who are in their second or later marriage Domestic violence is found in almost all cultures Homelessness reasons poverty warfare and con ict natural disasters mental illness and other disabilities substance abuse and domestic violence Changing Kinship and Household Dynamics Marriage and household patterns are changing either rooted in colonialism or caused by globalization Matrilineal descent is declining worldwide Many details of marriage are changing courtship marriage ceremony and marital relationships Age at rst marriage is rising mostly explained by desire to get an education f1rst Marriages between different ethnicities and nations are rising Marriage crisis cultural situation where many people who want to marry can t for some reason 0 More frequent often due to unemployment Frequency of extended households will decline with industrialization and urbanization and the frequency of nuclear households will rise lntemational migration is a major cause of change in household formation and internal relationships Three kinds of households were common in the recent past couples in first marriage singleparent and remarriage but another category is multigenerational household where an adult child or boomerang kid lives with his or her parents 32 Religion and Magic Religion a cultural universal centered on the supernatural All societies have a religion or religious system Fundamental part of culture shared by all societies regardless of technology environment language history etc There are many definitions of religion That part of culture centered on beliefs and behavior related to supernatural beings and forces Related to people s worldview way of understanding how the world came to be But why is religion a cultural universal Examples Makes sense of the senseless or arbitrary comfort ourselves Fulfills social and not merely individual purposesneeds Experiencing anguishdespair loss etc are human conditions that need to be grappled with tum to religion Helps provide justification for why and how society came to be as it is Myths of origin all societies have these 0 How and why society appeared religious roots Has political functions religion has served as an ideological underpinning of political behavior Religion vs Magic Magic attempt to compel supernatural forces and beings to act in certain ways Sir Edward Taylor said magic religion and science are alike because they explain physical world and events in it but considered science to be superior Sir James Frazer contrasted magic and religion 0 The law of similarity basis of imitative magic assumes that if personitem X is like personitem Y then actions done to personitem X will affect personitem Y I Ex voodoo doll 0 Law of contagion basis of contagious magic says personsthings once in contact with a person can still have an effect on that person I Ex person s hair trimmings nail clippings teeth Religious Beliefs Religions comprise beliefs and behavior Beliefs are expressed and transferred over the generations in 2 main forms 0 Myth stories about supernatural forces or beings I Narrative with a plot conveys messages oral tradition help people deal with conceptual contradictions between things like life and death or good and evil 0 Doctrine direct statements about religious beliefs I Explicitly defmes supematurals the world and how it came to be and people s roles in relation to supematurals and other humans I Written formal close to law because it links incorrect beliefs and behaviors with punishments I Can change Supernaturals impersonal forces or human form either supreme and all powerful creators or smallerscale annoying spirits that reside in people through possession Animatism belief system where supernatural is conceived of as an impersonal power 0 Ex Mana concept widespread throughout South Paci c region force outside nature that works automatically neither spirit nor deity manifests itself in people and objects 0 Zoomorphic deities in shape of animals 0 Anthropomorphic supematurals deities in form of humans have emotions o Pantheons collectivities of deities Ritual Practices Ritual patterned behavior that has to do with the supernatural realm 0 Sacred rituals enactment of beliefs expressed in myth and doctrine o Secular rituals no connection to supernatural realm sorority fraternity initiations 0 Periodic rituals regularly performed rituals o Nonperiodic rituals occur irregularly at unpredictable times in response to unscheduled events like droughts or oods or to mark events in person s life Lifecycle ritual ritual that marks a change in status from one life stage to another rite of passage 0 Phase 1 initiate is separated physically socially or symbolically from normal life 0 Phase 2 transition liminal person is no longer in previous status but not yet member of next stage I Liminality learning of specialized skills that ll equip the person for the new status 0 Phase 3 reintegration initiate emerges and is welcomed by community as an individual occupying the new status Pilgrimage roundtrip travel to a sacred place for purposes of religious devotion or ritual 0 Life cycle of pilgrimage pilgrim rst separates from everyday life then enters liminal stage during actual pilgrimage and nally returns to be reintegrated into society in a transformed stage Ritual of inversion normal social roles and relations are temporarily inverted 0 Allow for social pressure to be released 0 Carnival ritual of inversion with roots in northern Mediterranean region ends on Mardi Gras Sacrifice offering of something for transfer to the supematurals one of the oldest forms of ritual o Killingoffering animals human offerings offerings of vegetables fruits grains owers etc o Aztecs publicly sacri ced humans and other animals to please gods Religious Specialists Religious specialists someone with extensive formal training two categories 0 Shaman religious specialist who has direct relationship with supematurals often by being called 0 Priest fulltime religious specialists whose position is based mainly on abilities gained through formal training Other specialists o Diviners specialists able to discover the will and wishes of the supematurals through techniques such as reading and animal entrails palm and tarot card readers 0 Prophets specialists who convey divine revelations usually gained through visions or dreams 0 Witches use psychic powers and affect people through emotion and thought Witchcraft Crucial part of religious beliefs in many societies Illustrates some social functions of religion Illustrates how religious beliefs intertwined with rest of culture What should we know about witchcraft Witchcraft Oracles and Magic Among the Azande by EvansPritchard Individuals posses powers to in ict harm Provides explanation for unforeseenunpredictable events Explains not how but why events happen Is predominantly a social affairmatter Implications Witchcraft is ubiquitous it s in uence is plainly stamped on law and oracles etiquette and religion it is prominent in technology and language if a woman labors and is not rewarded it is because of witchcraft World Religion and Local Variations World religion term coined in 19th cent to refer to a religion based on written sources has many followers is regionally widespread and is concerned with salvation 0 Christianity Islam Buddhism at rst and then expanded to Judaism Hinduism Confucianism Taoism and Shintoism Religious pluralism condition where one or more religions coexist either as complementary to each other or as competing systems Religious syncretism blending of features of 2 or more religions Proselytizing seeking converts emphasized by Christianity and Islam con ict between these 2 religions leading to desctruction 1 Hinduism 15 of world s population Hindu is born a Hindu Two most widely known stories are Mahabharata story of war between 2 patrilineages where Krishna plays an important role and Ramayana story of King Rama and his devoted wife Sita Offers rich polytheism and philosophical tradition that reduces multiplicity of deities into oneness Darshan act of seeing the deity The matrilineal Nayars of Kerala South India perform a nonperiodic ritual as a remedy for the curse of the serpent deities who cause infertility in women Karma destiny or fate determined at birth on basis of previous life and how it was conducted basic concept of Hinduism 2 Buddhism Born in India by Buddha or the Awakened One Diversity of doctrine and practice rose as protest against Hinduism but kept some concepts like karma Everyone has potential through good deeds to achieve a better rebirth with each incarnation until release from samsara cycle of birth reincarnation death rebirth etc Compassion towards others is a key virtue Nats capricious spirits that can cause bad things to happen believed by indigenous supernaturalism 3 Judaism Pentateuch early writings that established the theme of exile and return as a paradigm for Judaism that endures today Belief in the Torah as the revelation of God s truth through Israel Key feature is identi cation of what s wrong with the present and how to escape or overcome that situation Monotheistic Sidur prayer book literary formulas used on truth telling in life Kotel most sacred place 4 Christianity Tie between Christianity and Judaism is the biblical teaching of the coming savior the messiah anointed one 5 Islam Largest of world religions Based on teachings of prophet Muhammed and is the youngest of the world s religions Submission to the will of the one god Allah Five Pillars of Islam profession of faith in Allah daily prayer fasting contributing alms for the poor and Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca 6 African Religions Myths about a rupture that once occurred between the creator deity and humans Pantheon including a high god and many secondary supernaturals ranging from powerful gods to lesser spirits Elaborate initiation rituals Rituals involving animal sacrifices and other offerings meals and dances Altars within shrines as focal places where humans and deities meet Close links with healing Ras Tafari AfroCaribbean religion with roots in Jamaica protest religion that only shares a few features of the African religions Directions of Religious Change Revitalization socioreligious movements that seek to bring about positive change through reestablishing a religion that s been threatened by outside forces or through adopting new practices and beliefs 0 Often arise in context of rapid cultural change and represent a way for people to try to make sense of their changing world and their place in it Cargo cults type of revitalization movement that emerged throughout Melanesia in response to Western in uences o Emphasized acquisition of Western trade goods or cargo Contested sacred sites such as con ict in Jerusalem where many religions compete for control of sacred terrain According to a United Nations Declaration freedom from a religions persecution is a universal human right yet violations of this right are common Chapter 10 Communication Language and Verbal Communication Communication process of sending and receiving meaningful messages Language form of communication based on a systematic set of learned symbols and signs shared among a group and passed on from generation to generation 0 Spoken handsigned written body movements hairstyles dress Two features of human language 0 Productivity ability to create an infinite range of understandable expressions from a finite set of rules I Result of symbols and signs used by humans I Call system form of oral communication with a set repertoire of meaningful sounds generated in response to environmental factors nonhuman primates rely on this 0 Displacement ability to refer to events and issues beyond the immediate present I Past and future are displaced domains reference to people and events that may never exist at all as in fantasy or fiction 0 Piraha of Brazil don t express productivity or displacement just 3 pronouns Human language can be analyzed in terms of its formal properties sounds vocabulary and syntax o Phonemes sounds that make a difference for meaning in a spoken language 0 Phonetics study of phonemes Every language has a vocabulary or lexicon which consists of all of the language s meaningful words Semantics study of the meaning of words phrases and sentences Ethnosemantics study of the meaning of words phrases and sentences in particular cultural contexts 0 Research in this reveals how people define the world and their place in it how they organize their social lives and what s of value to them Focal vocabularies clusters of words that refer to important features of a particular culture Syntax grammar patterns and rules by which words are organized to make sense in a sentence Narratives stories path to healing Nonverbal Language and Embodied Communication Based on symbols and sounds Sign language uses mainly hand movements to convey messages 0 Gestures movements usually of the hands that convey meanings mostly culturally specif1c Silence use is related to social status 0 Important form of communication among American Indian cultures Body language human communication involves the body in sending and receiving messages 0 Posture eye movements walking style way one stands sits cultural inscriptions on the body tattoos accessories 0 Follows a pattern of rules some are more touchoriented some use facial expressions more covering parts of the body color of clothing Communicating with Media and Information Technology Media anthropology crosscultural study of communication through electronic media such as radio TV film recorded music Internet and print media Critical media anthropology asks to what degree access to media is liberating or controlling and whose interests the media serve o Examines power issues in areas like journalism TV movies and advertising Politics of Journalism critical media anthropologist reveals important role of the news agency that pays their salary Advertising for Latinos in US individualism is emphasized in Latino culture by promoting a monolithic image of Latino culture media messages may be contributing to identity change toward a more monolithic pattern Language Diversity and Inequality Two Theories of Language and Culture SapirWhorf Hypothesis perspective that says that people s language affects how they think 0 Ex if a language has many words for variations for snow then someone who speaks English can think about snow in more ways than someone can whose language has fewer snow terms 0 A language constitutes a thought world and people who speak different languages inhabit different thought worlds 0 Linguistic determinism theory that language determines consciousness of the world and behavior Sociolinguistics perspective that emphasizes how people s cultural and social context shapes their language and its meanings sociolinguists are cultural constructionists Critical Discourse Analysis Gender and Race Discourse culturally patterned verbal language use including varieties of speech participation and meaning Critical discourse analysis approach within linguistic anthropology that examines how power and social inequality are re ected in and reproduced through verbal language Most languages contain gender differences in word choice grammar intonation content and style Characteristics of female speech politeness rising intonation at end of sentences and tag questions questions seeking affirmation and placed at end of sentences Gender registers in spoken Japanese re ect gender differences Kogals young Japanese women between 14 and 22 known for female centered coolness have distinct language Bahasa Indonesia national language of Indonesia 0 Bahasa gay gay language distinct vocabulary African American English has different grammar o Linguistic conservatives who master American Mainstream English see AAE as an ungrammatical form of English that needs to be corrected 0 Ebonics AAE primary language of African American students established by Oakland School Board in CA 0 Ebonics controversy Language Change No one knows how verbal language began it s assumed that it formed when early modern humans achieved physical and mental capacity for symbolic thinking and verbal communication Historical linguistics study of language change through history 0 Relies on many specialized methods that compare shifts over time and across space in aspects of language phonetics syntax and meaning 0 Originated by Sir William Jones when he studied Sanskrit a classical language if India Language family groups of languages descended from a parent language Protolanguage original parent language ProtoIndoEuropean hypothetical model of protolanguage of most Eurasian languages Evidence of earliest written languages comes from Mesopotamia Egypt and China 0 Logographs signs that indicate a word syllable or sound used by all early writing systems 0 Emergence of writing is associated with the development of the state 0 Khipu cords of knotted strings of different colors used for keeping accounts and recording events in Inca empire 0 Two interpretations of early writing system I Early writing was mainly for ceremonial purposes I Early writing was mainly for secular use in government recordkeeping and trade European colonialism was a major force of language change 0 Bilingualism competence in a language other than one s birth language prominent effect of colonialism o Pidgin language that blends elements of at least two parent languages and that emerges when two different cultures with different languages come in contact and must communicate I Second language I Creole language descended from a pidgin which has its own native speakers with a richer vocabulary than a pidgin and more developed grammar developed from pidgin Nationalist policies of cultural assimilation of minorities have led to the suppression and loss of local dialects and extinction of many indigenous and minority languages throughout the world 0 Direct policies of linguistic assimilation are the declaration of a standard language and rules about the language of instruction in public schools Global languages language spoken widely throughout the world and in diverse cultural contexts often replacing indigenous languages 0 8 most spoken languages are Mandarin Spanish English Bengali Hindi Portuguese Russian and Japanese 0 Textese new and emerging variant of English and other languages associated with cell phone communications and involving abbreviations and slang 0 English Language Family American English Spanglish J aplish and TeXMex Rapid loss of languages is at risk four stages 0 0 Language shiftdecay speakers have limited vocabulary in their native language and more often use a new language in which they may be uent Language endangerment language has fewer than 10000 speakers Nearextinction situation in which only a few elderly speakers are still living Language extinction language has no competent speakers Keeping track of endangered languages is hard bc no one is sure how many languages have existed in the recent past or even now Largest number of languages is on island of New Guinea Strategies to language revitalization O 0 Formal classroom instruction Masterapprentice system where elder teachers a nonspeaker in one onone situation Webbased tools and services to support language learning