Human Geo 109 Final Study Guide
Human Geo 109 Final Study Guide GEO 109
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dayna Wallace on Monday July 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 109 at Towson University taught by Prof. Burtch in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at Towson University.
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Date Created: 07/25/16
HUMAN GEO 109 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE WHAT IS A COUNTRY? - Boundaries help us divide territory and divide us o Includinary Boundaries: sense of place o Exclusivary Boundaries: regulate o Types of Boundaries: Natural and Artificial - Territory: and area under control by a particular group of people - Territorial Sovereignty: the power of a government over a particular group of people - Borderlands: hybrid areas lying on either side of the border - Nation: a group of people sharing cultural traits like religion, language, ethnicity, history or identity - State: a territory with demarcated borders that is recognized as sovereign by other states - NationState: a state populated and governed by a fairly homogenous cultural group - Nationalism: a significant sense of belonging an individual has to a national culture - Enclave: territory completely surrounded by a different country - Exclave: territory separated from the rest of the state by the territory of another state POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY - Geopolitics: the power of a state to control territory and shape international political relationships - Centripetal Forces: forces that unify and state o EX: rule of law, pride, common disaster, holidays - Centrifugal Forces: forces that divide a state o EX: war, race/ethnicity, economics - World System: a system of connection between countries that creates interdependence through political and economic competition - Core Regions: regions that dominate trade, accumulate wealth, and have advanced, diversified economies - Peripheral Regions: regions underdeveloped, lose wealth, and have low levels of productivity. Usually poor countries that are exploited. - Semiperipheral Regions: regions that exploit peripheral regions, but are exploited by core regions - External Regions: regions that have not been absorbed into the world system. (No longer exists) - East/West Divide: a division between communist and noncommunist states o First World: western democracies (west) o Third World: underdeveloped world o Second World: communist countries (east) - North/South Divide: a division between the colonized and formally colonized states - Decolonization: the process of colonized people gaining control over their own territory o No country from the south divide has ever moved to the north divide - International Organization: group of states that seek political and/or economical cooperation with one another o EX: U.N., NAFTA, OPEC - Supranational organization: a group of states that to some extent diminish sovereignty for group interests o EX: E.U. - Unitary (Centralized): governmental subdivisions serve to carry out national politics - Confederation: a group of states united for a common purpose - Federalist: national government is a federation of smaller states - Principle Subsidiary: ideal that governance should be carried out at most localized position possible - Scale Mismatch: a situation when the scale of a process occurs at a different scale from the government managing it ELECTORAL GEOGRAPHY - Proportional Representation: voting system in which the number of seats in the legislator is assigned based on the percentage of total votes for a party - Plurality Voting: voting system where the winner of the election is the one that receives the most votes, but not necessarily over half the votes - Majority Voting: voting system where the winner od and election receives over half the vote - Alternative Vote: voting system where the voter ranks candidates and the winner is picked through and iterative process - Mixed Member Proportional: voting system that uses both directly elected representatives and proportional representation - Trade Offs When You District o Equal population o Community boundaries o Affirmative action o Compactness o Gerrymandering: the practice of redistricting for partisan purposes ENVIORNMENTAL JUSTICE - Environmental Justice: a movement objecting to the fact that poorer places have more toxic environments than wealthier places - Locally Unwanted Land Uses (LULU’s): a land use that is necessary in society, but is not something people want to live near - Nimbyism: the objecting to something that will affect a persons locality - Substantive Justice: the fairness of an outcome - Procedural Justice: the fairness of the decision making process - Principles of Justice o Happiness: greater good o Rights: everyone has the right to live in a nontoxic environment unless they agree to (usually given with compensation) o Equality: spread things equally so everyone has to deal with the repercussions or equalize benefit o Duty: certain people are responsible for certain things o Desert: people get what they deserve or earn - Considerability: the capacity of being considered for determinations of justice o Anthropocentrism: theory that limits considerability only to humans o Sentiencecentrism: theory that allows ‘higher animals’ that can feel pain and pleasure should have considerability o Biocentrism: theory that all living organisms should have considerability o Ecocentrism: theory that ecosystems and landscapes should have considerability GLOBALIZATION - Globalization: the increasing interconnectivity of places through political, economic and cultural processes - Neocolonialism: strategies of core countries to maintain of extend influences over other people and regions through economic and political processes - Transnational Corporations: a company that spans multiple counties through investments, activities and subsidiary facilities - Multinational: a decentralized organization that operates like a series of semi independent organizations - International: a centralized organization with one headquarters that controls oversea operations - Commodity Chain: a network of labor and production processes stretching from resource extraction to the delivery of a final product - Consumption: the final purchase of goods and services ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY - Capitalism: an economic system in which private individuals control the means of production and labor is a commodity - Market Economy: economy in which production, distribution and prices are all determined by supply and demand - Planned Economy: economy in which production, distribution and prices are planned from some central authority - Mixed Economy: economy that mixes both market and planned economies - 4 Major Features of Capitalism o private own capital o exchange in market with un coerced buying and selling o competition between different buyers and sellers o investment in order to earn profit - Capital: any asset that can be used in economic production - Fixed Capital: objects like machinery and factories that can be used towards the production of goods - Financial Capital: resources measured in money that can be used towards the production of goods - Human Capital: the skills and knowledge of individuals that can be used to create economic value - Natural Capital: environmental services provided to humanity outside of consumable resources - Social Capital: the network of relationships which can be used for mutual benefit - Agglomeration: clusters of similar industries that gain cost advantage by locating near one another - Externality: an effect that an individual or organization has on one another without either party being compensated - Positive Externality: a benefit given from one individual or organization without compensation - Negative Externality: a cost imposed from one individual or organization to another without compensation ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - Development: the process in which a regions economy changes to increase overall prosperity o Changes That Lead To Development Economic structure Economic system Technology use and availability - Gross Domestic Product (GDP): the estimated total value of all goods and services produced in a country within a specific year - Gross National Product (GNP): the estimated total value of all goods and services produced in a country, plus value of income from abroad in a particular year - Per Capita: the normalization of a count by the number of people within an area - Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): a method of comparing different currencies by using the expenditure on a similar commodity - Human Development Index o 09 with 0 being the worst and 9 being the best o Average of 3 Factors Life expectancy Educational attainment Income - Gender Empowerment Index o 09 with 0 being the worst and 9 being the best o Average of 3 Factors Average woman income Labor force participation Percent of woman in parliament - Gini Coefficient: measuring inequality of income distribution o Score of 0 = perfect income equality o Score of 1 = perfectly unequal o Want to score in middle o Calculated through Lorenz Curve - Uneven Development: geographical outcome of development under capitalism that leads to development in one place and underdevelopment in another - Under Development: the denial of development to certain regions, often through active disinvestment in that region - SeeSaw Motion of Development: investment reverses over time - Primary Sector: economic activities involved directly with natural resources - Secondary Sector: economic activities involved with processing, fabricating, manufacturing or packaging of finished goods from raw materials - Tertiary Sector: economic activities involved with the sale and trade of goods and services - Quaternary Sector: economic activities involved with the handling and processing of information and knowledge - Formal Sector: part of the economy that is taxed and regulated - Informal Sector: a part of an economy that is not texted or regulated o “under the table” URBANIZATION - What led to the Rise of Cities o Agricultural surplus o Division of labor o Hierarchies of power - Hinterland: area surrounding and controlled by a city - Von Thunen o Made assumptions for a perfect hinterland Isolated city surrounded by wilderness Land is ubiquitous Farmers do their own transport, no roads Farmers behave rationally to maximize profit - Bid Rent Curve: an economic geography that rent for land decreases with demand the further away from the center of the city - Central Business District: a zone of important commercial business in center of city - Burgess o Concentric Ring Model Richer people live out of city paying a lot for a lot of space, poorer inside of city paying little for little space Businesses want to be in city Taller buildings = more rent $ - Hoyt Sector Model o Segregated land uses o Roads allow for retail opportunity - Multiple Nuclei Model o Harris & Ulman o Starts in CBD and also edge cities - Edge Cities: concentrations of commercial businesses situated on fringes of metropolitan regions - Urban Hierarchy: system of organizing cities by size and types of services available - Central Place Theory o Describe distribution of settlements across country o Cities provide services o Smaller places have only essentials o Bigger places have more central things o Highly Centralized: service has long ranges EX: Football – people will travel to see o Low Centralized: things have small ranges EX: Milk – go somewhere close This is why we have few large cities and many small towns/cities - Global City: a city that is influential in the worldwide economic system - Mega City: very large cities that are highly centralized and have the highest population in their country CITY SPACES - Urban System: interdependent group of urban settlements within a region - Urban Form: the physical structure and organization of cities (layout) - Urban Ecology: the social and demographic composition of neighborhoods and city districts - Urbanism: the values, beliefs, behaviors, and overall way of life fostering by urban settings o Urbanism is relative to space and population density o Increase industrialization = increase urbanism - Urban Sprawl: a pattern of urban development that consumes a large area of land o Negative Outcomes Loss of agricultural land More impermeable surfaces Increase obesity o Positive Outcomes Popular Better schools More affluence Less crime - Urban Planning: a process concerned with the form and function of urban form
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