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Test 2 Week 7: Relationships Chapter 7 There are 2 broad categories of relationships: social and personal o These categories are NOT mutually exclusive, as relationships can become more personal social relationships: relationships in which the specific people in a given role can be changed and the relationship would still occur (e.g., customer–client relationships are the same irrespective of who is the customer and who is the client on a particular occasion personal relationships: relationships that only specified and irreplaceable individuals (such as your mother, father, brother, sister, or very best friend) can have with you Benefits of Personal Relationships o Provide ways of knowing and support o They are not just a result of communication, but they are also significant in the opposite process, which is the formation and transaction of knowledge. o Relationships exert influence on the distribution of information o Communicating with others offers opportunities for people to test their knowledge of the world. o Provide you with support o provisions of relationships: the 6 areas of deep and important psychological and supportive benefits that relationships provide 1. Belonging and a Sense of Reliable Alliance- Feeling connected with others provides a sense of stability and provides feelings of comfort. 2. Emotional Integration and Stability- Personal relationships also provide people with opportunities to express and evaluate emotions. 3. Opportunity to Talk About Oneself- one of the main things that makes a relationship more rewarding to people is a sense of being known and accepted 4. Provision of Physical Support- Physical support includes needing help from others to move a heavy piano, fix your computer, or look after your pet rat while you are on vacation. 5. Reassurance of Worth and Value- relationships show people how others see the world, how they represent/present it, what they value in it, what matters to them, and how one’s own way of thinking fits in with theirs Initiating Relationships o Talking to Strangers- Interactions among strangers focus on information gathering and providing information, in which you use a filtering process. o Relationship Filtering Model: demonstrates how sequences of cues are used to determine which people are selected to develop close relationships 1. Appearance- includes age, race, sex, dress, number of tattoos and body piercings, height, and physical attractiveness. 2. Behavior/Nonverbal Communication- their inner world of meanings, beliefs, and values about themselves is exhibited through their behaviors and actions. 3. Roles- Roles can be either formal (school principle) or informal (good friend) and can in both cases provide information about how a person thinks and sees the world. 4. Attitude/Personality- you are really trying to find out what people are like at the level of their deeper worlds of meaning, so you aim all the questions you ask and all the communication strategies you adopt toward finding these deeper selves. Relationship development is dependent on the interpretation of this information Transacting and Maintaining Personal Relationships o The essential function of talk happens when talk makes the relationship real or talks it into being. o The indexical function of talk demonstrates or indicates the nature of the relationship between speakers. What you say and how you say it reveals intimacy (closeness) levels, power differences, and other characteristics of relationships. o Transforming Relationships- the transformation of a relationship is generally the result of at least one partner, if not both, driving it toward more intimacy or less intimacy. o Relationship Talk: Direct- Relationship transformation can also occur through communication about the relationship. o Relationship Talk: Indirect- most communication about a relationship—and the communication that most often results in transforming relationships—is indirect. Keeping Relationships Going Through Communication o relational continuity constructional units (RCCUs): small- talk ways of demonstrating that the relationship persists during absence of face-to-face contact, divided into prospective, introspective, or retrospective types Prospective units provide recognition that an interaction is about to end but the relationship continues Any form of communication that suggests the likelihood of the partner’s return is considered a prospective unit. Ex: “Let’s set the agenda for next time” or “See you later.” Introspective units are direct indications of a relationship’s existence during the physical absence of one partner. Acknowledges that the absence has already happened Ex: wedding rings worn when away from the spouse, as well as text messages and photos of friends, romantic partners, and family on your cell phone. Retrospective units directly recognize the end of an absence and the reestablishment of the relationship through actual interaction. Ex: The most familiar nonverbal example is a hug or handshake or kiss upon greeting. The most common forms of conversation that fit this category are catch-up conversations and talk about the day relational dialectics: the study of contradictions in relationships, how they are played out and how they are managed contradiction (relational dialectics): interplay between two things that are connected at the same time they are in opposition change (relational dialectics): movement in relationships that occurs in part through dealing with relational contradictions; in relationships, change is the constant element; relationships are perpetually in motion, unfinished business, and constantly evolving praxis (relational dialectics): the notion that activities of the partners in a relationship are a vital component of the relationship itself; people are both actors and the objects of action in relationships totality (relational dialectics): the notion that relational contradictions do not occur in isolation from one another and that the whole complexity of relationships must be taken into account as each element or part of the relationship influences other parts internal dialectics: those occurring within a relationship itself external dialectics: those involving a relational unit and other relational units or people within their social networks Symptoms and Sources of Decline o Deterioration in Communication o Destructive Conflict o Changes in Evaluative Standards o Major Transgressions o Inequity o Personal Reflection The Breakdown Process Model 1. intrapsychic process: part of the process of breakdown of a relationship where an individual reflects on the strengths and weaknesses of a relationship and begins to consider the possibility of ending it 2. dyadic process: part of the process of breakdown of relationships that involves a confrontation with a partner and the open discussion of a problem with a relationship 3. social process: telling other people in one’s social network about dissatisfaction and about possible disengagement or dissolution of a relationship 4. grave dressing process: part of the breakdown of relationships that consists of creating the story of why a relationship died and erecting a metaphorical tombstone that summarizes its main events and features from its birth to its death 5. resurrection process: part of the breakdown of relationships that deals with how people prepare themselves for new relationships after ending an old one Chapter 8 socialization: the process by which a child comes to understand the way the surrounding culture “does things”—that is, holds certain values to be self-evident and celebrates particular events or festivals rules: norms for “family” that monitor the way in which family life should be carried out Structural definitions term a “family” as people who are related by blood, law, or adoption Functional definitions focus on the behaviors that make a family work well, such as mutual support, socialization, and financial assistance Transactional definitions are based on the communication that takes place within a group in a way that builds a sense of family identity. Families as Structures o Can be defined according to biological ties, legal definitions, and sociological definitions. o kin networks: the extended relational network of cousins, second cousins, children of cousins, uncles, aunts, and even long-term friends who are considered family, too o nuclear family: the parents plus their genetically related children o extended family: a family that has at its center a nuclear family but also includes grandparents, aunts, cousins, and all other living forms of blood relatives o family of origin: the family where you are the child of two parents, and in the majority of cases you will have spent some of your life with one or both of them o family of descent: the whole historical family tree from which you are descended, both living and dead o family of generativity: the family where you are one of the parents of at least one child o family of choice: a family created through adoption, or simply the group of people you decide is your “true” family even though there is no genetic connection o blended family: when parents adopt nongenetic offspring, divorce, or remarry other partners, then so-called blended families are the result o binuclear family: two families based on the nuclear form (e.g., the children’s father, their stepmother, and her children, if any, as well as the children’s mother and their stepfather and his children, if any) o single-parent family: family where there are children but only one parent caregiver; singleness may be a choice, a preference, or an unwanted outcome (e.g., as a result of an undesired divorce or unexpected death) Families as Communication Systems o Family communication is described along two dimensions: conformity orientation and conversation orientation. o Conformity orientation- describes “the degree to which family communication stresses a climate of homogeneity of attitudes, values, and beliefs,” o Conversation orientation- describes “the degree to which families create a climate in which all family members are encouraged to participate in unrestrained interaction about a wide array of topics” o This creates four types of family communication: 1. Protective families are high in conformity orientation and low in conversation orientation. Family members place a value on conformity to family norms and do not permit or expect discussion of alternatives. 2. Pluralistic families are the opposite on both dimensions: high in conversation orientation but low in conformity orientation. Such families encourage conversation about rules and enjoy discussion, innovation, and diversity of lifestyle, so it is not offensive to break family rules if it raises a worthy issue for discussion. 3. Consensual families are high in both conformity and conversation orientation. In these families, parents expect children to obey rules but provide opportunities to discuss and question these rules, as long as there is ultimately agreement about how the rules should be followed in the future. 4. Laissez-faire families are low in both conformity and conversation orientation. These families have lax rules and do not talk about them much. One consequence is that members of such families are somewhat emotionally distant from each other Families as Systems o systems theory: deals with (among other phenomena) family and social events as systems made up of parts but operating as a whole system that can achieve functions that individuals alone cannot and that also creates an environment in which those individuals must exist; the behavior of one part (person) affects the atmosphere and behavior of other parts (persons) of the family o Systems are goal-oriented and self-regulating o Systems show hierarchy among component parts and environment, in that one component tends to be in charge of others o The parts are also mutually interdependent, and the performance of one influences the success of the total system (common fate) o peer culture: the set of attitudes and beliefs that create influence from children or adults of the same age/generation as the target person Families as Transacted Relationships o norms: the habitual rules for conducting any family activity o rituals: particularly formalized ways for handling, say, the routines of mealtimes or birthday gift giving in a family o authority structure: in some families the authority structure stresses the role of one parent as head of the family; others stress equality of all the mature members o bidirectionality hypothesis: the idea that power can work in two directions; that is, at some points and times it works one way when parents control or influence their young kids, but power also goes the other way and sometimes kids can control or influence parents, for example, by throwing temper tantrums o boundary/privacy management: focuses on the way marital couples manage talking about private matters with each other and how they coordinate communication boundaries in balancing a need for disclosure with the need for privacy o family storytelling: families have stories about remarkable figures or events in their history that help define the nature of that particular family; telling such stories is a way of bonding and uniting the family as well as identifying some of its key characteristics o family identity: a family identity is a sense of the special or unique features of the family; often revolves around intergenerational storytelling, where the elders talk about dead relatives or relate stories about particular family characters who defined the essence of being a member of their family o family narratives: in the process of storytelling families create a shared sense of meaning about the family experience, whether it is something positive like a birth or an adoption or something negative such as a death or divorce o long-distance relationships (LDRs): relationships characterized by the distance between partners that prevents them from meeting face-to-face frequently (e.g., commuter marriages or relationships where one person lives on the East Coast and one on the West Coast) o kin keeping: the act of serving as a reservoir for information about members of the family, which is passed along to the other members of the network o introspective units: one of three types of relational continuity constructional units that keep the memory of the relationship alive during the physical separation of the members involved; introspective units are reminders of the relationships during an absence, examples being photographs of a couple, wedding bands, or fluffy toys that one partner gave to another o prospective units: one of three types of relational continuity constructional units that keep the memory of the relationship alive during the physical separation of the members involved; prospective units are recognitions that a separation is about to occur Week 8: Work Chapter 9 A group is more than just a collection of a few people. Groups are transacted through communication and relationships. A group comes into being once people recognize and identify themselves and others as members of the same group. Types of groups: o Formal: Purpose is task oriented, general management oversight, outcome focused, often legislative or formally structured to run an organization. Ex: Congress, debate clubs, student government organization o Advisory: Purpose is task specific, usually evidentiary or evaluative, with the intention of producing an outcome that is focused “best solution” to a specific problem or arrangement of and event. Ex: Sorority and fraternity social affairs committees, homecoming committees, juries o Creative: Purpose is the evaluation of concepts or creation of new products or approached to complex problems. Ex: Brainstorming; focus groups o Support: Purpose is advising, comforting, sharing knowledge, spreading information, and raising consciousness about specific issues. Ex: Alcoholics Anonymous, breast cancer survivors, grief support groups o Networking: Purpose is obtaining, building, or sustaining relationships, usually online. Ex: Chat rooms, social networking groups, Twitter, Facebook Characteristics of Groups o cohesiveness: working together and feeling connected groupthink: a negative kind of consensus seeking through which members place a higher priority on keeping the process running smoothly and agreeably than they do on voicing opinions that contradict the majority opinion (or the opinion of the leader) –avoid this— o interdependence: the reliance of each member of a team or group on the other members, making their outcomes dependent on the collaboration and interrelated performance of all members (e.g., a football team dividing up the jobs of throwing, catching, and blocking) o Commitment out-groups: cells of disgruntled members who feel undervalued, mistreated, disrespected, not included, or overlooked; these members can be either disruptive or constructive o group norms: rules and procedures that occur in a group but not necessarily outside it and that are enforced by the use of power or rules for behavior group sanctions: punishments for violating norms o group roles: positions or functions within a group formal roles: specific functions to which group members are assigned and that they are expected to perform within the group informal roles: those to which someone is not officially assigned but that serve a function with a group task roles: those functioning to ensure a group achieves its goals and is productive social roles: those functioning to encourage group members and to develop and maintain positive communication and relationships among group members disruptive roles: those functioning in opposition to group productivity and cohesion o group culture: the set of expectations and practices that a group develops to make itself distinctive from other groups and to give its members a sense of exclusive membership (e.g., dress code, specialized language, particular rituals) Development and Decision Making o Tuckman’s Five Stages of Group Development Forming: The group comes into existence and seeks direction from a leader about the nature of its tasks and procedures. Storming: The group determines leadership and roles of its members. Norming: The group establishes its procedures to move more formally toward a solution. Performing: Having established how it will perform its task, the group now does so. Adjourning: The group reflects on its achievements, underlines its performative accomplishments, and closes itself down. o Fisher’s Model of Group Progression Orientation: Group members get to know one another and come to grips with the problems they have convened to deal with. Conflict: The group argues about possible ways of approaching the problem and begins to seek solutions. Emergence: This occurs when some daylight of consensus begins to dawn. The group sees the emergence of possible agreement. Reinforcement: The group explicitly consolidates consensus to complete the task, or the leader may do it for the group by thanking everyone. Group Decision Making Is About Relationships o Group members have relationships with one another outside as well as inside their meetings. o Group interaction and decision making are about emotions, feelings, and relationships—not so much a battle of ideas as a battle between people who have ideas and persisting relationships with one another. Leadership Styles o socioemotional leaders: those focusing on making group members feel comfortable, satisfied, valued, and understood • pay attention to how everyone feels in the group, • ensure that members feel comfortable with the decision- making process, • allow everyone to get a turn in the discussion, • make members happy with the outcome, • keep the personal relationships between group members on an even keel, and • manage people’s “face” and handle their feelings. o task leaders: those focusing on the performance of tasks to ensure the achievement of group goals • stress the activity of the group, • keep members on topic, • follow the agenda, • make sure decisions get made, • are responsible for defining the group’s intended accomplishment, • are charged with directing what happens to fulfill the set tasks of the group, • make sure the group reaches a conclusion at the end of its allotted meeting time, • summarize what got done in a meeting, and • set the agenda for the next meeting. Leadership Power o formal power: that which is formally allocated by a system or group to particular people o informal power: operates through relationships and individual reputations without formal status (e.g., someone may not actually be the boss but might exert more influence on other workers by being highly respected o Legitimate: Created by a person’s office rank of official status o Expert: Created through special knowledge of a particular topic o Referent: Created by the allegiance of one group of people to another person or group o Reward: created by the power to five benefits to other people, or to manage or withhold them o Coercive: Created by the power to punish (as distinct from withholding of rewards, this means actual application of punishment) Leadership Vision o There are too many “visions” in existence for that to have much meaning beyond talking points in business seminars. Yet it is very often motivating for the members of a group to believe that their leader has some idea of where the group will be headed and what they will be doing. Leadership Ethics o The main problem with the ethics question in leadership is that it is context-bound and often dependent on a whole range of complexities that interlock, especially those involving relationships. Leadership is Transacted o Leadership is a communicative relationship between one person and others such that when one gives a direction and another gladly carries it out, leadership has been successfully transacted in the interchange. Leadership is embedded not in a person but in communication and relationships between people. Chapter 10 Learning About the Workplace o People’s ideas about the nature of work and the workplace are obtained early in childhood through family stories and discussions with others at school or through the media, which present certain professions and jobs as more or less valuable as others and stress the importance of work as part of identity or the value of “success.” o vocational anticipatory socialization: the preparation for becoming a worker; takes place from early moments of childhood onward, including through exposure to the media and depiction of the workplace in comedy and other shows Going to Work o An organization can be viewed as a simple structure as in an organizational chart or as a sedimented set of practices that are transacted through repetitive communication, memory, narrative, and routine daily discourse. A better way of looking at the workplace, however, is as a set of interpersonal relationships between specific individuals. o continuation of identity: parts of your identity carry over from your normal practices of everyday talk into the workplace, but some parts of your identity are transformed by the workplace o professional face: the behaviors, courtesy, and comportment that are appropriate for people to present to others in a workplace o instrumental goals: are predominant at work and are directed at completion of duties; can also involve a direct assessment of performance o relational goals: typically involve intimacy and support and usually serve recreational or supportive purposes o formality/hierarchy: creates distance between workers and management and can represent a strain or restraint on relationships as an individual is forced to adopt a professional face rather than a personal identity when dealing with people at work Workplace as a Culture o Although we often talk about organizations transacting business with other organizations, in fact these transactions occur at the face-to-face interpersonal level between individuals or groups of individuals who know one another, and this is a relational activity. It is important to focus away from looking mostly at the managers in the situation and to look at the everyday discourses between other employees who transact their relationships within the organization. o structuration theory: points to the regularities of human relationships that act as rules and resources drawn on to enable or constrain social interaction o sedimentation: the process by which repeated everyday practices create a “structure” for performance in the future, as a river deposits sediment that alters or maintains its course over time o structurational approach: to look at how people enact and enable or contain future interactions through their talk o industrial time: the attention to punctuality and dedication to a task that is connected with the nature of industry (clocking in, clocking out, lunch breaks, etc. The Workplace as a Relationship o Since the workplace is another frame for real interactions and although it has hierarchical structures, there is no reason to suppose that relationship types there are different from those anywhere else, especially as these may be transacted in communication. o The Three Types of Friendly or Collegial Relationships Between People in an Organization Informational Peer Relationships: Low on personal self-disclosure, but information about the task is freely and openly discussed Civil and Cordial but not close Collegial Peer Relationships: Individuals at work regard one another as friends and act in all respects in ways indistinguishable from friends outside the workplace; that is, they self-disclose and joke around and arrange to meet outside the workplace for social events. Special Peer Relationships Characterized by very high openness, self-disclosure, and intimacy Virtually indistinguishable from best-friend relationships outside of the workplace o Sexual harassment: “any unwelcome sexual advance or conduct on the job that creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment; any conduct of a sexual nature that makes an employee uncomfortable” Week 9: Health and Uncertainty Chapter 11 Patient- Provider Communication o Patient and provider interactions most often transact relationships that place the patient in a passive role and place the provider in a dominant role, o Providers tend to dominate interactions with patients through questions and directives. o Providers also focus most often on establishing a patient’s physical problems rather than psychosocial problems o Patient-Provider Identities: Machines and Mechanics- providers are viewed as competent experts analytically diagnosing a physical problem and then fixing it; patients are passive and allow the expert mechanic to give them a proper tune-up with little or no input or objection Children and parents: the provider clearly portrays a dominant role of expert while the patient assumes a submissive and dependent role; this view of provider and patient relationships is the most Consumers: patients viewing themselves as paying providers for specific information and expecting them to carry out their wishes Partners: patients and providers work together to solve a problem and are viewed as equals, each bringing special knowledge to the interaction o Benefits of Effective Patient-Provider Relationships Satisfaction Adherence to Treatments Enhance Physical and Psychological Health Decrease Malpractice Claims o Patient-Provider Communication Principles (Patient- Provider communication should acknowledge…) Patient Stories- Stories reveal what people perceive as the most important details or elements of a situation. Patient Expertise- Patients should be considered experts about their unique situation, regardless of how common the illness or medical concern. Provider Expertise- Beyond utilizing specialized medical knowledge to confirm illness and to set forth treatment options, providers should use their knowledge to educate patients. Physical and Psychosocial Connections- There exists a powerful connection between health and everyday life. Both patients and providers do not always recognize the importance of everyday life experiences and instead focus their attention on biological causes. A holistic understanding of patient experiences can improve diagnoses and treatment option. Emotions- The expression, recognition, and subsequent transacted meaning of emotion should be recognize as a profound influence. Reciprocity- Patients will act in accordance with provider interaction styles (positive or negative), and both must treat each other with respect and recognize the concerns and needs of each other. Roles and Expectations- They must clearly express their expectations of the relationship, interaction, and each other. Social Networks and Health o Social networks influence many of the lifestyle choices people make, from eating and exercising to smoking, drinking, and taking drugs. o Social networks also provide various forms of support o Friends and family members have an incredible influence on your food consumption and your exercise habits through both their actions and the ways in which they talk about these things Supportive Functions of Everyday Communication: o Two Primary Types of Social Support action-facilitating support: providing information or performing tasks for others informational support: type of action-facilitating support providing someone with information in order to increase his or her knowledge and understanding of health issues instrumental support: type of action-facilitating support performing tasks for someone nurturing support: helping people feel better about themselves and the issues they are experiencing emotional support: type of nurturing support enabling people to express their feelings and to have those feelings validated by others esteem support: type of nurturing support making someone feel competent and valued o Secondary Roles Identity roles- People desire to be seen as worthwhile and as decent overall (positive face wants) and do not wish to be imposed upon or treated in a negative manner (negative face wants). communication privacy management theory: explains how people create and manage privacy boundaries in their relationships Media, Technology and Health o Health issues make up a great deal of media and technology content. This content influences people’s lifestyles, awareness of health issues, understanding of health issues, and how people talk about health both with their social network and with their health provider. Entertainment media, for instance, can increase awareness of medical issues and procedures but may lead to inaccurate perceptions and expectations of health and medical procedures. Further, news media tend to focus on certain health and illness issues while neglecting others. Additionally, direct-to-consumer advertising increases patient awareness of illnesses treated by the medication, increases patient awareness of available treatment options, and increases the likelihood that patients will take a more active role in discussions with providers. Finally, the Internet serves as a source of information about a variety of health issues and as a means of managing health-related concerns. It is increasingly used to connect patients and providers. Chapter 12 ethnocentric bias: believing that the way one’s own culture does things is the right and normal way to do them o We all have some degree of such bias in our worlds of meaning o You do not just have or belong to a culture; you transact and perform culture. o Culture is not only geographical Culture as Structure o This way of seeing culture focuses on large-scale differences in values, beliefs, goals, and preferred ways of acting among nations, regions, ethnicities, and religions o cross-cultural communication: compares the communication styles and patterns of people from very different cultural/social structures, such as nation-states o intercultural communication: examines how people from different cultural/social structures speak to one another and what difficulties or conflicts they encounter, over and above the different languages they speak o Limitations and Benefits: First, multiple “cultures” exist in one national or regional group. Second, multiple social communities coexist in a single culture and talk amongst themselves as part of their conduct of membership From a communication point of view, we can study how all members of a nation partake of the customs or beliefs of the nation and its communication patterns and styles. o coded system of meaning: a set of beliefs, a heritage, and a way of being that is transacted in communication Structure-Based Cultural Characteristics o Learning to communicate includes learning the habits of your particular culture or society. o Context- Context involves the emphasis placed on the environment, the situation, or relationships when communicating. high-context culture: a culture that places a great deal of emphasis on the total environment (context) where speech and interaction take place, especially on the relationships between the speakers rather than just on what they say low-context culture: assumes that the message itself means everything, and it is much more important to have a well- structured argument or a well-delivered presentation than it is to be a member of the royal family or a cousin of the person listening o Collectivism/Individualism collectivist: subscribing to a belief system that stresses group benefit and the overriding value of working harmoniously rather than individual personal advancement individualist: one who subscribes to a belief system that focuses on the individual person and his or her personal dreams, goals and achievements, and right to make choices o Time Cultures are also categorized and differentiated according to their views of time. Consider how time is perceived in the United States: Time is money. monochronic culture: a culture that views time as a valuable commodity and punctuality as very important polychronic culture: a culture that sees time not as linear and simple but as complex and made up of many strands, none of which is more important than any other—hence such culture’s relaxed attitude toward time Cultures also differ in the way they pay attention to the past, the present, and the future. Different cultures tend to assume that the present is influenced either by one’s goals and the future or by past events. In the latter case, fatalism and preordained destiny are seen as the controlling force over what happens in the present. o Conflict- real or perceived incompatibilities of processes, understandings, and viewpoints between people conflict-as-opportunity culture: a culture based on four assumptions: that conflict is a normal, useful process; that all issues are subject to change through negotiation; that direct confrontation and conciliation are valued; and that conflict is a necessary renegotiation of an implied contract—a redistribution of opportunity, a release of tensions, and a renewal of relationships conflict-as-destructive culture: a culture based on four assumptions: that conflict is a destructive disturbance of the peace; that the social system should not be adjusted to meet the needs of members, but members should adapt to established values; that confrontations are destructive and ineffective; and that disputants should be disciplined Managing Conflict: Dominating. Dominating styles involve forcing one’s will on another to satisfy individual desires regardless of negative relational consequences Integrating. Integrating styles necessitate a great deal of open discussion about the conflict at hand to reach a solution that completely satisfies everyone involved Compromising. Compromising styles are often confused with integrating styles because a solution is reached following discussion of the conflict. However, making a compromise demands that everyone must give something up to reach the solution, and as a result, people never feel fully satisfied. Obliging. Obliging styles of conflict management involve giving up one’s position to satisfy another’s. This style generally emphasizes areas of agreement and deemphasizes areas of disagreement. Avoiding. Finally, avoiding styles of conflict are just that: People avoid the conflict entirely either by failing to acknowledge its existence or by withdrawing from a situation when it arises. o Law of Jante Theme: You are not to think you’re anyone special or that you’re better than us. 1. You’re not to think you are anything special. 2. You’re not to think you are as good as us. 3. You’re not to think you are smarter than us. 4. You’re not to convince yourself that you are better than us. 5. You’re not to think you know more than us. 6. You’re not to think you are more important than us. 7. You’re not to think you are good at anything. 8. You’re not to laugh at us. 9. You’re not to think anyone cares about you. 10. You’re not to think you can teach us anything. Transacting Culture o co-cultures: smaller groups of culture within a larger cultural mass o speech communities: sets of people whose speech codes and practices identify them as a cultural unit, sharing characteristic values through their equally characteristic speech o speech (communication) codes: sets of communication patterns that are the norm for a culture, and only that culture, hence defining it as different from others around it o cultural persuadables: the cultural premises and norms that delineate a range of what may and what must be persuaded (as opposed to certain topics in a society that require no persuasive appeal because the matters are taken for granted) Culture is Coded o Culture is coded in communication not only in the language spoken but also in thoughts expressed and assumptions made. Every time a person communicates, other people know something about his or her culture. Cultural beliefs and values are displayed by a person’s communication. Cultural Groups are Created Through Communication o Multiple cultural groups are recognized and differentiated through their unique communication and meaning systems. Speech communities are cultures defining membership in terms of speaking patterns and styles that reinforce beliefs and values of the group. Essentially, cultural groups are set apart based on their unique communication styles. People Enact Cultural Membership Through Communication o Enacting membership in a cultural group means communicating and assigning meaning in ways similar to other members of that group. However, it is not just the act of communicating that establishes membership into a cultural group; it is also, and more important, knowing the meaning of that communication that does so. Membership in a culture can be represented in and restricted by one’s knowledge of speech (communication) codes. Week 10: Persuasion Chapter 14 Four major areas of public and personal influence: (1) public address, (2) sequential persuasion, (3) emotional appeals, and (4) compliance gaining. Public Address and Relating to Audiences o Relationship with the speaker is important The most successful individuals tend to be those who are (a) considered knowledgeable about the topic, (b) trusted, and (c) concerned about the audience. three primary dimensions of credibility: knowledge, trustworthiness, and goodwill o Relationship with the issue or position You must also determine an audience’s relationship with the issue being addressed or the position being advanced. he level of audience knowledge and understanding of an issue will dictate the depth and intricacy of a speech o Attitudes, beliefs, and values attitudes: learned predispositions to evaluate something in a positive or negative way that guide people’s thinking and behavior beliefs: what a person holds to be true or false values: deeply held and enduring judgments of significance or importance that often provide the basis for both beliefs and attitudes given belief: a belief that the majority of people in an audience will view as either true or false Determining audience attitudes, beliefs, and values also provides a speaker with insight into how an audience may evaluate and respond to an issue and how audience members may view their relationship with him or her. Speeches to Convince and Speeches to Actuate o speech to convince: a speech delivered in an attempt to impact audience thinking; encompasses a primary claim, or essentially what the speaker is trying to convince the audience to believe o 4 types of primary persuasive claims: claim of policy: a claim maintaining that a course of action should or should not be taken claim of value: a claim maintaining that something is good or bad, beneficial or detrimental, or another evaluative criterion claim of fact: a claim maintaining that something is true or false claim of conjecture: a claim maintaining that something will be true or false in the future o Audience Approaches to Speeches to Convince You can impact the thinking of your audience in the three different ways 1. Reinforcing an Existing way of thinking- in this case, you desire to strengthen your audience members’ convictions and ensure them of their accuracy and legitimacy. Speeches that reinforce an existing way of thinking usually offer additional reasons in support of a particular way of thinking along with new or recent evidence. In these situations, audiences generally view their relationship with the speaker in a very positive manner 2. Altering an Existing Way of Thinking- Here, you essentially tell the audience members that their current way of thinking is wrong or should be modified, this approach does not automatically mean that the audience will be hostile toward you or your position. However, when attempting to bring about this change, it is especially important to develop a very positive relationship with the audience. It is also especially important to enhance audience perceptions of your credibility, particularly of your goodwill. 3. Creating a New way of Thinking- In this situation, member of your audience will probably be more willing to accept your claim than they would if you attempted to change their position. However, you may need to spend additional time developing the audience members’ relationship with the material and stressing the importance of the issue in their lives. You can impact the audience behavior as well: 1. Reinforcing and Existing behavior- you desire to strengthen audience members’ conviction about performing a behavior and ensure that they continue performing it. 2. Altering and Existing Behavior- You are aking the audience not the stop performing a certain behavior or to enact a totally new behavior but to modify an existing behavior. 3. Ceasing and Existing Behavior 4. Enacting New Behavior 5. Avoiding a Future Behavior o speech to actuate: a speech that is delivered in an attempt to impact audience behavior Sequential Persuasion o Persuasion as a gradual process is the primary idea behind methods of sequential persuasion. o foot-in-the-door technique: sequential method of persuasion that involves making a small request and then following up with a second, larger request Why does Foot in the Door work? 1. Self-perception theory- People come to understand their attitudes, beliefs, and values through their actions. It works because upon contributing to a cause, a person begins seeing him or herself as the type of person who supports a particular organization or worthy causes in general. 2. Cognitive dissonance theory- People prefer their actions to be consistent with their attitudes, beliefs, and values because inconsistency elicits negative feelings.. Works because complying with the second request would be consistent with previous decisions and would likely prevent the possibility of negative feelings resulting from inconsistency. When is it most successful? 1. Prosocial reasons- most effective when seeking donations for a charity, providing volunteer activities for an organization, or supporting a cause. Less effective when selling items or self-serving reasons. 2. Different People- Best when people make the requests. Complying with a second request made by a different person than the one who made the initial request reinforces attitudes, belief, and values. 3. Significant Request- Best if the initial request is large enough that it will be meaningful to the person being asked. 4. No Material Incentives- Best when people are not given material incentives to comply. o door-in-the-face technique: sequential method of persuasion that involves making a request so large that it will be turned down and then following up with a second, smaller request Why does it work? 1. Perceptual contrast effect- people generally comply with the second request because compared to the initial request it appears much smaller. 2. Reciprocal Concessions- People generally comply with the second request because they feel that since the person making the request is willing to concede something, they should match the concession and also be willing to concede something 3. Self-presentation- people are concerned that other people may view them in a negative light and that complying with the second request might prevent or decrease those negative perceptions. When is it most successful? 1. Prosocial reasons- The door in the Face technique is most effective when seeking donations for a charity or volunteer activities. 2. Same person- Best when the same person makes the second request. 3. Brief Delay- Works best when there is a relatively brief delay between requests. o pregiving technique: sequential method of persuasion maintaining that when a person is given something or offered favors by someone else, that person is more likely to comply with a subsequent request Why does it work? 1. Norm of Reciprocity- People comply with requests following receipt of gifts of favors because they want to pay back the person who provided such gifts 2. Increased Liking- When someone does something for a person or gives something to a person, the giver may be viewed more positively When is it most successful? 1. Same person or organization 2. Brief dealy 3. No bribe or ulterior motive o extended parallel process model: explains the process of fear appeals using the key elements of perceived threat and perceived efficacy Two elements: the extent to which a person believes that he or she is susceptible to the threat and the severity of the threat. When this fails, people use perceived efficacy. This entails (a) the extent to which a person believes a recommended course of action will work and (b) whether or not he or she is capable of performing the recommended action. If a person does experience fear as a result of a perceived threat, he or she will likely do something about it. A person will engage in either (a) fear control or (b) danger control, and this choice will be determined by reactions to perceived efficacy. 1. Fear control- people focus on fear itself by denying its existence, not thinking about it, or simply taking deep breaths and hoping it goes away. 2. danger control- people do something about the threat, likely adopting the measure suggested by the persuasive appeal. o Guilt Appeals Made up of two components: (1) evocation of guilt and (2) path to atonement o “Lost” Emotions of Persuasion Anger- like fear, is positively related to changes in attitude. The angrier someone gets, the more likely that person will be persuaded. Disgust- Negatively correlated with attitude change when it comes to be associated with a position Happiness- associated with humor—people tend to be happy when they find something funny Hope- like fear appeals, likely that hope is only effective is audiences found a suggested action to be a viable path to achieving whatever is being hoped for compliance gaining: involves interpersonal attempts at influence, especially attempts to influence someone’s behavior o Goals of Relational influence: Gaining assistance- dedicated to obtaining resources/services Giving advice Sharing activities Changing orientations Changing Relationships Obtaining Permission Enforcing rights And Obligation 1. Secondary Goals: identity goals, interaction goals, resource goals, and arousal goals o Contextual Influences dominance: contextual influence of compliance gaining based on power dimensions within a relationship intimacy: contextual influence of compliance gaining based on the relational connection among interactants resistance: contextual influence of compliance gaining based on anticipated opposition relational consequences: contextual influence of compliance gaining based on the perceived effects a compliance gaining strategy might have on a relationship rights: contextual influence of compliance gaining based on the degree to which the desired outcome seems justified apprehension: contextual influence of compliance gaining based on anxiety resulting from the circumstances o Compliance Gaining Strategies Rewarding Activities Punishing Activities Expertise Activities Activation of Impersonal Commitments Activation of Personal Commitments o Bases of Power Reward Power- used when someone has something that another people wants or possesses the ability to provide it Coercive Power- When someone is capable of imposing punishment on another person Expert power- When someone possesses needed knowledge or info Legitimate power- When someone holds a formal role Referent Power- When someone wants to influence another person who wished to emulate or happens to admire him/her. Week 11: Technology Chapter 13 concurrent media use: use of two or more media systems simultaneously Perceptions of Technology and Media o When a new technology is introduced in a society, it is generally framed both as something that will save the world and as something that is intrusive and threatening. o The emergence of any new communication technology has historically elicited choruses of concern and anxiety, surprisingly similar in nature. o Relational: The one constant among all technologies, from cave drawings to the Internet to whatever technologies arise next, is that they are inherently relational in their understanding and use. There are three primary views associated with the impact of technology: o technological determinism: belief that technologies determine social structure, cultural values, and even how people think o social construction of technology: belief that people determine the development of technology and ultimately determine social structure and cultural value o social shaping of technology: belief that both people and technologies exert influence on social structure and cultural values The Relational
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