Study Guide for Exam 2: fully detailed, pictures provided
Study Guide for Exam 2: fully detailed, pictures provided GSC 103-O
Popular in Evolution of Modern Earth and Enviroment
MED 545 Music in Rehabilitation
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
PSY 292 Forster- Introduction to Biobehavioral Statistics for Non-Majors
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juan Rios on Sunday March 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GSC 103-O at a university taught by Professor Peter Leech in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 959 views.
Reviews for Study Guide for Exam 2: fully detailed, pictures provided
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/22/15
Exam 2 Review Thursday March 19 2015 1014 AM 1 Lecture 11 How Rocks Bend a Elastic deformation i Wherein the stress is reversible b ductile deformation i The strain is irreversible c fracture i Irreversible strain wherein the material breaks d Brittleductile transitions in the crust and mantle i Brittle material 1 Small or large regions of elastic behavior but a small region of ductile formation before they fracture ii Ductile Material 1 Ductile material have a small region of elastic behavior and a large region of ductile behavior before they fracture Brittle Material Ductile Material LowT High T Low Confining P High Con ning P High Strain Rate Low Strain Rate 39 quot Straln Strain Stress e Vertical motion in the US Three types of boundaries g Footwall blocks i Incline fault plane block below the fault h hangingwall blocks i incline fault plane block above the fault h Footwall Hanging wall Fault Plane Above Plane Footwall Below Planel Hanging wall Three types of vertical faults i Normal Fault 1 Result from horizontal tensional stresses in brittle rocks 2 Where hanging block has moved down relative to the footwall block ii Reverse Fault 1 Result from horizontal compressional stresses in brittle rocks 2 Where hanging wall block has moved up relative to footwall block iii StrikeSlip Faults 1 Faults where relative motion on the fault has taken place along a horizontal direction Horizontal offset Strikeslip fault Flour IComparative fault behavior More faulting No offsotof la 5 H DIpsllpfaults j Horsts and grabens i Due to tension stress responsible for normal faults they often occur in a series ii Faults dip in opposite directions 1 Down drop Graben 2 Uplifted block Horst Horst M k Monoclines i When horizontal strata are bent upwards so that the two libs of the fold are still horizontal l Synclines i Fold where horizontal strata have been folded downward ii The two limbs of the fold dip inward towards the hinge of the fold m Anticlines i The original horizontal strata have been folded upward ii Two limbs of the fold dip away from hinge of the fold Three types of Folds 1 Anticlines upward folds 2 Synclines downward folds 3 Monoclines gently dipping bends in n Five types of fold i Symmetrical ii Asymmetrical iii lsclinal iv Overturn v Recumbant vi Chevron Symmetrical Folds Asymmetrical Folds quot39 39393Ig Isoclinal Folds Overturned Folds vii Recumbent Folds Chevron Folds 2 Lecture 12 Earthquakes a Three types of earthquakes i Normal Faults ii Reverse thrust fault iii Strike Fault b Where do earthquakes happen i Edges of tectonic plates ii The Madrid Fault 1 lntraplate Earthquake c Earthquake hazards i tsunamis 1 Ocean floor splits 2 Lifts column of waterocean 3 Water gets pushed back 4 As the wave gets closer to shore it gets bigger ii Liquefaction 1 Wet unlithified sediment 2 Water fills in pore space between grain that holds the sediment 3 Eliminates grain to grain contact 4 Sediments liquefies Seismometers i Records earthquakes in motion Richter scale i lnvented by Charles Ritcher 1 Measures how large waves are from earthquakes 2 8 or 9 are rare Pwaves i Pressure waves that move horizontally ii First waves felt iii Faster than S waves 1 They can move thru solids liquids and gas Swaves i Shear waves ii Second wave felt iii Up and down motion iv Can only move thru solids 1 Slower than p waves 2 More destructive Triangulating earthquake positions i Use of 3 seismometers ii Epicenter where all circles meet is where iii earthquakes occurs gaff N t i Beachball diagrams j What earthquakes tell us about the core of the Earth size and solidliquid i path of seismic waves will change speed and direction as it hits different layers inside Earth 1 As it passes thru the core the speed and timing of waves can tell it properties 2 Larger shadow larger core A 1Elliew fro m side View from abo we A Ilia Surface of palm r Earth T Fault plane Beach ball quot Focal 3 re k What earthquakes tell us about other layers in the Earth i Different sets of Waves travel thru different layers of Earth 3 Lecture 13 Geological Time a Uniformitarianism i Present is Key to the past 1 If its happening now it must of happened in the past b Ussher and Kelvin s calculations for the age of the Earth L Ussher 1 Based on bible 2 Placed creation of Earth at 4004 BC ii Kelvin 1 Estimated the time it would take forthe earth to cool from a molten mass to current temps 2 2040 million years c Steno s three laws i Law of superstition 1 Oldest rocks are on the bottom 2 Youngest on the top ROCK LAYERS Law of Superposition younger rocks are on top older rocks are on bottom iii Principle of original horizontality 1 Layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal position 2 Rock layers that are flat have not been distributed iv Original continuity d Chemical and fossil correlation i Fossil correlation depends on the principle of fossil succession 1 Index species ii KT boundary is example of Chemical correlation 1 Disaster of all living things 2 Line of mass extinction e Cross cutting i Younger features cut across older features f Relative dating of rock layers be able to put rock layers in order i Which thing is older Law of Original Horizontalin Law of Superposmon originally like gure to the right Youngest Oldest C rossC utting Relationship Youngest Oldest h Radioisotope dating be able to do simple math know how we figure out how big the original pile of isotopes is that is know how we start the clock for living things and different rocks 4 Lecture 14 The Earth Through Geological Time a Formation ofthe Earth 45 billion years ago Differentiation of the Eanh i Dust cloud of stuff ii Dust begins to spin and come together gravity iii quotstuffquot forms sun and planets iv Conservation of angular momentum 1 Planets and stuff start to spin in same direction b Formation ofthe Moon i Giant impact hypothesis 1 Planet smashed into early earth j 2 Debris large chunk formed moon Evidence for plate tectonics and liquid water Evidence for ancient plate i Certain rocks can only form in water 1 Pillow Basalts formed around 4 billion years ago a Ocean basin continents and water formed at this time Motion and collision Grenville orogeny and Rodinia i Mountain range underneath the Appalachian ii Thrown up and eroded away iii formed Rodinia Wilson cycles i Atlantic ocean open and closes every 5 million years ii Would expect super continents to exist Cambrian explosion i Giant explosion of life 1 Trilobites a Marine cockroach b First hardshell like organism Plant vascularity i Vascularity 1 Evolution of tubes Wood i Coal swamps appear 1 Warm and humid ii Plants use C02 in air 1 Create 02 iii Plants and trees cause major climate change 1 Formation of coal decrease of C02 increase in oxygen Fish evolve into amphibians into reptiles and mammallike reptiles Massive volcanism causes mass extinctions 5 Lecture 15 The Earth Through Geological Time II a Mammal like reptiles replaced by crocodilelike reptiles replaced by Dipodocus and Stegosaurus replaced by Triceratops and Tyrannosaurus Where do birds come from i Birds come from dinosaurs c Dinosaur extinction i 5 mile long asteroid hit modern day Mexico 1 Blocked off the sun a Mammal like burrowing omnivores survived d The fall line e The Great American Interchange i Period where North America and South America came together ii Animals migrated between continents 6 Lecture 16 Uplift Erosion and Denudation a Davis39s threestage cycle of erosion i Young 1 Rock is uplifted ii Mature 1 Mountains are formed 2 Rivers cut through land and mountains iii Old 1 Rivers flatten land b Young vs old landscapes disequilibrium i When uplift is fasterthan erosion 1 Young landscape ii When uplift is slower than erosion 1 Old landscape c Four kinds of Uplift i Collisional 1 When continental plate is at one or both sides of convergent boundary a Alps in Africa b Andes South America ii Extensional 1 Occurs where plate Rifts a Being stretched apart by upwelling of magma iii lsostatic 1 hot spot a Buoyant mantle plume creates uplifts on continental crust i Hawaii 2 lost root a Two plate crash together b quotorganic Rootsquot scrape off i Crust becomes lighter and floats higher d Erosion rates weathering and sediment i Exhumation and Denudation are controlled by i Climate 1 Rainfall i Lithography 1 Different erosion for different rock 2 Some tougher than others iv Relief 1 Continental divides separate continents into drainage basins e Uplift rates i warped strata ii earthquake displacement iii Both tell how fast a Rock is moving f Fission track dating i Radioactive Decay causes fissiontracks ii Isotopes are kicked out of rocks 1 More cracks older the rock g Cosmogenic nuclides i Can tell us how long a rock has been at the surface h lichenometry for exposure time i Measures how large lichens have grown on exposed rock i Measuring rates of uplift with fission tracks cosmogenic nuclides and lichenometry j Different minerals anneal at different temperatures a Zircon tough mineral i Many fission tracks b Apatite ends to be very soft i Little to no fission tracks 7 Lecture 17 Mass wasting a How mass wasting is different from other ways of moving rocks a Mass wasting is the movement of rocks due to gravity not wind water ice etc b Why are rocks on a slope are stable or unstable a Gravity can pull rocks towards surface and partly along sunace b With increasing slope the rocks tend to fall c Angle of repose a 30 degree angle b Water type of rock and type of how it is stacked play influence of angle d Slope failure vs downslope flow e f g h Slope failures a Slumps i Material moves like a solid block ii Rotation and translation rock falls and slides i Masses of rock detach from surface a Very rapid b Pile at the bottom is a Talus Downslope flow i slurry flow a Sediment is lubricated by water and it moves b lfthe amount of water increases enough the flow becomes a sedimentladen stream i Not mass wasting ii granular flow a When sediment is dry and moves iii Solifluction vs mudflows a Solifluction i A slow slurry flow b Mudflow i A fast slurry flow How water changes the angle of repose a b Additional water can change stability of pile Can destabilize slope Frost heaving and rock glaciers a b Caused by ice lens formation When the icy ground thaws and shrinks again the material tends to settle downhill allowing for some movement along surface Preventing mudflows and stabilizing slopes a Local relief composition of local slopes and remains of old mass wasting events are used to predict the relative risks near a slope i Slopes can also be stabilize by a Plastic sheeting b By planting vegetation c Draining water from wet sediments
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'