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Exam 2 Notes

by: Monika Stark

Exam 2 Notes PET 3322

Monika Stark
GPA 3.49

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About this Document

Nervous System & Skeletal Muscle
Functional Anatomy and Physiology I
Arturo Figueroa-Galvez
Study Guide
anatomy, Physiology, nervous system, Skeletal System
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monika Stark on Tuesday July 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PET 3322 at Florida State University taught by Arturo Figueroa-Galvez in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Functional Anatomy and Physiology I in Health and Human Services at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 07/26/16
Exam II Study Guide Functional Anatomy and Physiology  Nervous system o Functions:  Sensory input, Integration, Motor Output o Divisions:  CNS: brain and spinal cord  PNS: sensory receptors and nerves  Peripheral Nervous System o Cranial nerves: 12 o Spinal nerves: 31 o Sensory: from receptor to CNS  Somatic fibers: skin, muscle, joints  Visceral fibers: visceral organs o Motor: from CNS to muscles/glands  Can be voluntary or involuntary  Motor Division o Somatic Nervous System  Voluntary  Single neuron system by synapse o Autonomic Nervous System  Involuntary  Two-part system separated by ganglion  3 divisions:  Sympathetic: prepares body for activity  Parasympathetic: regulates resting functions  Enteric: controls digestive track o Neurons (Nerve Cells)  Neuroglia: support and protect neurons  Structure  Cell body: nucleus and protein synthesis  Axon: output  Dendrites: input  Axon hillock: trigger zone of AP  Axonal terminals:  Myelin Sheath: protects axons  Neurotransmitter  Function of Neurons: receive stimuli and transmit APs  Myelinated axons = white matter  Not continuous with nodes of ranvier  Unmyelinated Axons = gray matter, integrative functions  Plasma Membrane characteristics o Proteins: negatively charged, large o Cl-: repelled by proteins by non-gated channels o Gated: open by stimulus o Ligand-gated: ligand Ach binds to receptor glycoprotein to open Na+ channel o Voltage gated: open by voltage changes  The Action Potential o Resting Membrane Potential = -70mV  Negative because concentration of ions, proteins, and permeability o 1.Depolarization: influx of Na+ into cell causing cell to become less negative. If Ca concentration decreases  -55mV or threshold is reached o 2. Repolarization: behind AP, Na channels close and K channels open allowing K to exit. If extracellular Ca increases o 3.Hyperpolarization: K channels still open and cell becomes more negative o Ionic Events o APs occur in one direction because the recently depolarized area of the membrane is in absolute refractory period  Axons of the Central Nervous System o Tracts  Synapses o Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Neurons o Synaptic Cleft 2+ o Ca at axon terminal o Neurotransmitter binding to postsynaptic neuron o Removal of neurotransmitter  Inhibitory Synapses o Its effect (K+, Cl-, and hyperpolarization as the only electrical event). Central Nervous System  Central Nervous System Components o Brain and Spinal Cord  Cerebral Cortex o Motor Areas, Sensory Areas o Primary Motor Cortex  Voluntary Movement  Motor Homunculus  Understand Proportion Concept  Somatic Motor Pathway o Motor Tracts  Pyramids  Decussation of pyramids  Corticospinal Pathway o Function o Pathway  Peripheral Distribution of Spinal Nerves o How signals are sent and received to and from the spinal cord  Crossing Over o Axon in anterior corticospinal tract pathway  The Direct (Pyramidal) System Skeletal Muscle  Structure of Skeletal Muscle o Sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, tendon, epimysium, endomysium, perimysium, fascicle, muscle fiber, myofibril  Sarcomere o Structure  Z-disc, I band, A-band (what myofilaments are in the bands?)  How it changes during contraction o Myofilaments  Actin  G-actin, tropomyosin, ,troponin, troponin regulatory subunits  Myosin  Tails, Heads, ATPase enzyme  Contraction of Skeletal Muscle o Sarcollema, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, T-Tubules, terminal cisternae, triads, stimulation via motor neurons o Neuromuscular junction  Axon terminal, ACH, Synaptic Cleft, ACH receptors, Na+/K+ pump, acetylcholinesterase o Excitation-Contraction Coupling  Propagation of signal through muscle fiber, Ca 2+release, Troponin and tropomyosin interaction, myosin cross bridge, Hydrolysis of ATP, Removal of Ca , Blocking of binding site on actin  1. Myosin cross bridge  2. Working Stroke  3. ATP detaches cross-bridge  4. ATP Split to cock head o Sliding Filament Model of Contraction o Motor Units  Large and small  Skeletal Muscle Twitch o tension  Skeletal Muscle Contractions o Isometric Contraction o Isotonic Contractions  Concentric and eccentric o Energy for Contraction  ATP, creatine phosphate, anaerobic glycolysis, aerobic glycolysis  Sources of ATP  Muscle Fiber Types o Type 1, Type 2b o Speed of Contraction o Oxidative and Glycolytic Fibers o Be able to differentiate them by their characteristics


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