Management Concepts, Midterm Exam 4 Study Guide
Management Concepts, Midterm Exam 4 Study Guide MANGT 420
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laurel Knust on Wednesday July 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MANGT 420 at Kansas State University taught by Sabine Turnley in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Management Concepts in Management at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 07/27/16
Management Concepts - MANGT 420 Summer 2016 Sabine Turnley Exam #4 Study Guide Module 11: Managing Employee Motivation and Performance The Relationship between Motivation and Performance Motivation is the intensity of what causes an effort, resulting in Performance The Nature of Motivation Definition The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways The Motivation Process (3 ways to better understand Motivation) 1. Content Theories of Motivation WHAT motivates us Different needs = Different choices/actions 2. Process Theories of Motivation WHY and HOW motivation occurs Thought process 3. Reinforcement Theory HOW outcomes influence behaviors Positive = Repeated Content Perspectives on Motivation 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Mainly focuses on what factor or factors motivate people o People are motivated to satisfy 5 levels of needs o Start at bottom, can't go down o Physiological = Basic needs that we all need Can drive motivation o When need is fulfilled, move to next level o Security = Safety Behavior driven by keeping job o Belongingness = Social o Esteem = External/Personal Split in 2 Personal Job One at a time o Self-Actualization All that you can be o Need at one level activated when lower level completed o Model based on observation from monkeys, then college students, then the mentally ill o Has serious weaknesses: Five levels of need are not always present Order is not always the same Cultural differences o Need's Hierarchy in China ...an example: Belonging Physiological Safety Self actualizing in service to society 2. The ERG theory Existence needs Material well-being Relates to Maslow's physiological and safety needs Relatedness needs How one individual relates to his/her social environment Relates to Maslow's belongingness and external esteem needs Growth needs Desire for personal growth and development Relates to Maslow's internal esteem and self- actualizations needs o No specific order, but matches up with Maslow's o Can move up and down Process Perspectives on Motivation Why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals 1. Expectancy theory Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it 1. Effort to Performance Expectancy or Expectancy (E) is the probability that effort will lead to performance Can do it 2. Performance to Outcome Expectancy or Instrumentality (I) is the perception that performance leads to an outcome. Outcome is the consequence or reward for performance Reward 3. Attractiveness or Valence (V) is how much a particular outcome/reward is valued Care/If it's worth it Ex: +1 = $10,000 (Has to be + to be motivated) -1 = Cap with logo/time away from family o M = E x I x V For motivated behavior to occur: Effort-to-performance must be greater than 0 Performance-to-outcome must be greater than 0 Sum of valences must be greater than 0* (* One or more valences may be negative!) 2. Equity theory o Individuals equate value of rewards to effort and compare it to other people o Comparing yourself to others Inputs/Outcomes comparison of self with others Equity Motivation to maintain current situation Inequity Ways to reduce inequity o Change inputs o Change outcomes o Alter perceptions of self o Alter perceptions of other o Leave situation o Change comparisons 3. Goal-setting theory Employees will be motivated by goals that have 4 characteristics: 1. Difficulty Extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort 2. Specificity Clarity and precision of the goal Be specific and let them know what is wanted How much by when 3. Acceptance Extent to which persons accept a goal as their own 4. Commitment (Relevant/Relevance) Extent to which an individual is personally interested in reaching a goal Will work harder if it's more difficult Has to be realistic/possible Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation Reinforcement Theory Explains the role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time 1. Reinforcing/strengthening desirable behaviors: a. Positive Reinforcement Strengthens behavior by providing a desirable consequence b. Avoidance (Negative Reinforcement) Strengthens behavior by allowing escape from an undesirable consequence 2. Eliminating/weakening undesirable behaviors: a. Punishment Weakens behavior by providing an undesirable consequence b. Extinction Weakens behavior by not providing a desirable consequence 1. Ignore behavior 2. Remove reinforcing factors Module 12: Managing Interpersonal Relations and Communication Communication and Effective Communication o Communication: The process of transmitting information from one person to another (from Latin for common) o Effective Communication: The process of sending a message so that the message received is as close in meaning as possible to the message intended The Role of Communication in Management Everything a manager does involves communication 50-90% oral communication by manager The Communication Process and Noise 20% lost between speaker and interpreter, and another 20% is lost between interpreter and receiver 3 Basic Forms of Communication in Organizations o Interpersonal Communication Oral vs Written Between persons Oral Communication: When the SPOKEN word is used to express meaning (7%) Written Communication: When the WRITTEN words is used to transmit meaning Non-verbal communication o The communication exchange that does not use words or uses words to carry more meaning than the strict definition of the words themselves o Images, settings, body language (55%), facial expressions, inflection of your voice (38%) o Grapevine: An informal communication network that can permeate an organization The Gossip Chain: One person tells many The Cluster Chain: Many people tell a few Technology and Communication (e-mails and texts) o Communication in Networks and Teams (2 patterns) Between people in workgroups 1. Wheel 2. Spoke o Organizational Communication Between groups/units Vertical (downward & upward) vs. Horizontal/Lateral Vertical: Communication that flows up and down the organization, usually along formal reporting lines Upward Communication is most subject to distortion Downward Communication Horizontal/Lateral: Communication that involves persons at the same level of the organization Contemporary Issues Cross-Gender Communication (article and discussion: The Power of Talk: Who Gets Heard and Why?) Module 13: Managing Work Groups and Teams The Benefits of Teams from an Organization’s Perspective o Give more responsibility for task performance to the workers who do the tasks o Empower workers by giving them greater authority and decision-making freedom o Allow organizations to capitalize on the knowledge and motivation of their workers o Enable the organization to shed its bureaucracy and to promote flexibility and responsiveness The Benefits of Teams from an Individual’s Perspective (Why people join teams) o Interpersonal Attraction People are attracted to one another o Group Activities Activities of the group appeal to them o Group Goals Group's goals motivate them o Need Satisfaction Satisfies an individual's need for affiliation (belongingness needs) o Instrumental Benefits Membership provides other benefits The Disadvantages of Teams o Time-Consuming o Resource-Intensive o Overuse o Groupthink o Lack of Accountability o Unequal Participation Social Loafing Does nothing Can compromise group effectiveness Lazy and irresponsible OR lack confidence Lone Wolf Does everything Does not want to have interpersonal relationships with group members and lacks group skills Does not believe that other members are capable of doing quality work Can compromise group effectiveness Hard worker (task-oriented, high standards) Can have leadership skills Stages of Group Development o Forming Team members meet, learn about the task, and learn what their roles will be o Storming Team members learn how to work together, learn about other member's abilities, and leader focuses the team Friction, cliques, high notionality Have to beat it to move on o Norming Team starts to work together, roles evolve into helping the team succeed, and members are more likely to express opinions o Performing Members work hard toward goal, are flexible and help each other, and leader's role is blurred - everyone is focused Characteristics of Teams o Roles: "Parts" that individuals play in groups in helping the group reach its goals Role Ambiguity When the sent role is unclear Role Overload When role expectations exceed an individual's capacities or when a person takes on too many roles Role Conflicts (interrole, intrarole, intrasender, person-role) o Interrole Conflict: Conflict between roles o Intrarole Conflict: Conflicting demands for one role from different sources Ex. Boss wants great performance, but coworkers tell you to chill out o Intrasender Conflict: When a single source sends contradictory messages Ex. Boss gives you an all day project due at the end of the day, but then tells you to take care of a guest all day o Person-role Conflict: Discrepancy between role requirements and an individual's values, attitudes, and needs Ex. Charging for new parts in an old lady's car, when old parts were actually used o Behavioral Norms Standards of behavior that a group accepts and expects of its members Managers don't decide group norms Ex. Output level, dress code, promptness o Cohesiveness Tendency for a group to be in unity while working toward a goal Strongest = INTER-group competition More similarities = More cohesive Membership is difficult = More cohesive Success/Pleasant Experiences = Cohesive o The Interaction between Cohesiveness and Performance Norms
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