Exam 3 study guide
Exam 3 study guide History 1302
Tarrant County College
Popular in US History II since 1867
Popular in History
This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Constance Aguocha on Thursday July 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1302 at Tarrant County College taught by Dr. Peter Martinez in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see US History II since 1867 in History at Tarrant County College.
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Date Created: 07/28/16
Test 3 Study Guide KEY WORDS AND PHRASES WILL BE BOLDED AND UNDERLINED Roosevelt to the Great War Roosevelt in the US ● Coal Strike of 1902 ○ Coal miners demanded more pay and shorter hours ○ Mine operators complain that revenue is too low ○ Mine operators refuse to negotiate with labor unions ○ Roosevelt says that he doesn’t have the power to intervene ○ Roosevelt threatens to nationalize the coal industry if operators can’t get the strike under control ○ Operators give workers a 10% pay increase and a nine hour work day ● 1904 Presidential Election ○ Theodore Roosevelt ■ Was currently the sitting president because he took over after McKinley was assassinated ■ Wins majority of the popular vote ■ Largest presidential victory since 1820 ● Won by almost 19% ● Hepburn Act 1906 ○ Federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the authority to establish maximum rates on railroad companies ○ Limits how much railroad companies are allowed to charge ● Roosevelt and National Parks and Conservation ○ Roosevelt doubles the amount of national parks from 5 parks to 10 parks ○ 230 million acres of land set aside for conservation ○ 150 million acres of the 230 million acres are eventually made into parks Roosevelt and Foreign Issues ● Protecting the Open Door ○ Roosevelt has vested interest in China because of the “open door” policy made by the open door notes ■ Roosevelt will concern himself with Chinese affairs for the purpose of protecting America’s stake in China ○ Russia and Japan ■ At war with each other because both of them want control of a railroad in Manchuria, China ■ Russia already controls Manchuria ■ RussoJapanese War ■ Japan is winning the war ● 2nd best navy in the world ■ Japan loses 40,000 people while Russia loses 60,000 people ■ US doesn’t like this because their expansions threaten the Open Door MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ Treaty of Portsmouth ● Ends the war ● Signed at the US Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine ● Japan is given land in China, but not Manchuria ● Manchuria is taken from Russia and made into Open territory ● Japan is bitter towards the US for this because they were winning and could have taken Manchuria ● Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine ○ Venezuela Crisis(19011902) ■ Venezuela is in debt and borrows money from Germany and England ■ Revolution happens in Venezuela and Cipriano Castro takes over ■ Castro refuses to pay Germany and England because him and his regime aren’t the ones who borrowed money from them ■ Germany sends a blockade to Venezuela’s harbors ■ International courts rule that Venezuela must pay ■ Roosevelt Corollary ● US has the right to intervene if any country in the western hemisphere fail to pay debts to international creditors ○ The Dominican Republic 1905 ■ The Dominican Republic owes money to Europe ■ US takes over the Dominican customs to make sure that they paid off debts ○ The Great White Fleet ■ 16 US navy battleships are commissioned by Roosevelt to circumnavigate the Earth ■ Purpose of this is to flaunt the naval superiority of the US ○ The Panama Canal ■ France began work on the canal in the 1880s but stopped because of engineering issues and a high mortality rate ■ Roosevelt sends the Secretary of State, John Hay, to meetTomas Herran in Columbia ● Herran was the Colombian diplomat to the US and the charge d'affaires ■ US agrees to pay Columbia $10 million and $250,000 annual rent indefinitely, in return for Columbia allowing them to build the canal ■ Colombia's senate refuses to ratify ● Want the US to pay more money ■ US doesn’t like this and they turn their attention to Panama ■ Panama was trying to gain independence from Columbia ● Philippe BunauVarilla ○ French engineer living in Panama who is a huge advocate for the canal ○ Helps instigate the Panamanian Revolution MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ US backs Panama’s revolution ■ Panama gains independence and signs the HayBunauVarilla Treaty with the US ● John Hay and Philippe BunauVarilla ● Granted the US land to build the canal in return for paying Panama $10 million and $250,000 annual rent indefinitely ○ Election of 1908 ■ Roosevelt doesn’t run for reelection ● Goes on an African safari instead ● Puts his support behind William H. Taft ■ William Howard Taft ● Becomes president ● Not successful or charismatic ● Too passive ● Lost Roosevelt’s support by the end of his term ○ Election of 1912 ■ Roosevelt and Taft battle for the Republican nomination ● Mudslinging ● Roosevelt campaigns swiftly from city to city ○ One of the first to do this ● Roosevelt gets majority of the republican popular vote, but Taft gets majority of the delegates and wins the nomination ■ Roosevelt creates thProgressive(Bull Moose) Party ● Political attitude favoring reform through government action ● Roosevelt becomes the Progressive Party nominee ■ Woodrow WilsonDemocratic Party ■ Since the republican party is now split, more votes go to the Democratic party ■ Wilson wins Woodrow WilsonLatin America and the Caribbean ● Dominican Republic, 1916 ○ US occupied the Dominican Republic because their unstable government was preventing them from paying off debts ○ US is able to put down the rebellion ○ US occupies for 8 years ● Haiti, 1915 ○ US sends troops down to Haiti to help put down the revolution ○ US assists in writing the Haitian constitution ● The US Virgin Islands, 19161917 ○ Treaty of the Danish West Indies ■ US buys the West Indies from the Danish so Germany won’t conquer it ● Mexico ○ Porfirio Diaz MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ Rules Mexico from 18761910 ■ Dictator ■ US and europeans like him because he allows a lot of foreign investments ■ Sells communal land to the US ■ Agrarians in Mexico are very dissatisfied with him and eventually form a coup and overthrow him ○ Francisco Madero ■ Takes office after Diaz’s overthrow ■ Democratic ■ America doesn’t like him because he doesn’t facilitate American interests ○ Victoriano Huerto ■ US puts their support behind him to overthrow Madero ■ Huerto takes over and has Madero executed ■ US didn’t approve the execution ■ Tampico Affair ● US sends military personnel to Tampico, Mexico ● Huerto has them jailed, but released them about a day later ● The US demands an apology and a 21 gun salute ● Huerto gave an apology but refused to give the 21 gun salute ● US send more ships and personnel to occupy Veracruz, Mexico ○ April 9, 1914 ○ Battle erupts and 150 Mexican civilians die ○ US maintains a presence in Mexico until November 1914 ■ To protect American interests and stabilize the government ○ Venustiano Carranza ■ Takes over after Huerto ■ Has Huerto executed ■ Democratic ■ US doesn’t like him ○ Pancho Villa ■ Represents northern agrarians ■ Supports US interests ■ US supports him ■ Overtime the US starts to like Carranza and withdraw their support from Villa ■ Kills Americans in Mexico and goes to the US to kill Americans in Columbus, New Mexico ○ Punitive Expedition ■ General John J. Pershing eads an expedition to capture Pancho Villa ■ Never capture Villa ■ End up fighting some of Carranza’s men even though the US likes Carranza MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ Huge mess ■ Troops withdrawn The Great War ● WWI in Europe ○ The Bosnian Crisis ■ AustriaHungary annexes BosniaHerzegovina ■ Austria asks Germany for protection in case Russia attacks ■ Archduke ranz Ferdinandf Austria and his wife are killed while in Serbia ● Austria declares war on Serbia ● Russia declares war on Austria ● Germany declares war on Russia ● France is on Russia’s side and declares war and Britain jumps in after france ● Beginning of WWI ○ Triple Entente ■ Britain ■ France ■ Russia ○ Central Powers ■ Austria ■ Germany ■ Ottoman Empire ○ England wants the US to join, but the US is isolationist ○ England cuts the cables to the US, so all the information from Europe to the US is coming from Britain ○ Although the US is isolationist, they’re on Britain and France’s side because they owe them money ○ Sinking of the Lusitania, May 7, 1915 ■ Germany sinks a British passenger ship called the Lusitania because they think that it’s carrying armed goods ■ Kills 128 Americans ○ Zimmerman Telegraph ■ Telegram sent by German, Arthur Zimmerman, to a German ambassador in Mexico which stated that if Mexico joined the war on Germany’s side, then Germany will restore all land lost in the Mexican war ○ US declares war April 6, 1917 ■ Not a lot of people enlist ■ Selective Service Act of 1917 ● Leads to a draft ○ Treaty of BrestLitovsk ■ March 3, 1918 MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ Signed between Russia and Germany ■ Ends Russia’s involvement in the war ■ Russia is undergoing a communist revolution ● Believe that capitalism is causing all their problems and this war is driven by capitalistic ventures ○ US joins the war ■ Very needed because Britain and France need a lot of help due to the absence of Russia ○ Armistice signed November 11, 1918 ○ Wilson’sourteen Points ■ Wilson’s ideas on what’s necessary for the world ■ Believes in a League of Nations ■ Believes that countries should be divided by ethnicity ■ Open covenants of peace ■ Recommended that Germany return Alsace and Lorraine to France ● Germany had taken the land in the 1870s ○ Paris Peace Conference ■ Treaty of Versailles ● June 1919 ● Ended WWI ● Reduced Germany’s army ● Germany held responsible for the whole war and must pay $33 billion in reparations ■ League of Nations ● England, France, Italy, and Japan are the main powers ● US isn’t apart of it because the US wants complete control of its military at any given time ■ Germany’s boundaries are redone ■ Many little countries that are separated by ethnicity are created Roaring 20s Economic Boom ● Manufacturing ○ Rises by over 60% ○ Too much manufacturing leads to over abundance and a recession by the end of the 20s ○ Per capita income increases by 30% ○ Abundance of cars ■ Leads to manufacturing of related goods ● Ex: steel, leather, etc. ● Increased road construction ■ Around 30 million vehicles on the road by the 1930s ■ Overabundance of cars MadebyConstanceAguocha ● Rise in commercialism ○ Radio drives marketing ■ Almost every household had a radio ○ Electric refrigerator ○ A lot of marketing towards women ■ Women were most likely to be at home near the radio ● Entertainment ○ Rise in hollywood ○ US was producing more movie than any other country in the world ○ Baseball ● Boost in the economy because of spending ● Agriculture is already seeing a depression Workers in the 1920s ● Welfare Capitalism ○ Technique used by businesses to better relations with their workers by adding welfare like policies without the use of labor unions ○ Company unions ○ Weakened labor rights activists ● The American Plan ○ Idea that unions should be kept out of the workplace Women in the Workforce ● Pink Collar Jobs ○ Women dominated jobs ○ Phone operators ○ Sales clerks ○ Secretaries ○ Not usually represented by unions ■ Too easily replaced ○ Flappers ■ Young women in the 1920s who wore their hair and skirts short, danced and drank in speakeasies, and were mostly middle class ■ Symbols of a sort of women’s liberation movement The Great Migration ● 6 million African Americans move from the south to the north ○ Started during WWI ● Jobs open up in the north since many white men are off fighting in WWI ● 1 million African Americans moved to the north just in the span of 19161919 ● Chicago Race Riot of 1919 ○ Tensions between black people and white people in the north because of black people still holding formerly white held jobs after white men returned from the door ○ Riot cause MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ A black teen is drowned in lake Michigan by a group of white teens because he went into an unofficially segregated beach area ■ Police refuse to arrest the white man responsible for the murder ○ Riots break out in Chicago ○ Many civilians died and over 1000 black people lost their homes ○ Militia has to put down the riot ● Brotherhood of the Sleeping Car Porters, 1925 ○ Organized by laborers of the Pullman Car Company ○ Sleeping Car Porters served the people in the trains and worked very long hours ■ Sleeping cars had nighttime accommodations for the passengers and car porters still had to wait on them ○ Wanted shorter hours ○ Led byA. Philip Randolph ■ From South Carolina ■ Moved during the Great Migration ■ Eventually got the Pullman Car Company to recognize the union Other Minorities ● Japanese ○ US starts to bring Japanese people into the country during the late 1800s ■ Meant to be low wage laborers ○ Japanese immigrants end up being very successful and start to outcompete white Americans ○ Issei ■ Japanese Immigrants ○ Nisei ■ American born Japanese people ■ Citizens ○ California Land Law Act of 191ebHaney Act) ■ Prohibited aliens who were ineligible for citizenship from owning agricultural property or maintaining a longterm lease ■ Passed because white people are threatened by the Japanese ■ Japanese people get around this law by grouping together and forming corporations and then buying land through the corporation and investing in the corporation ○ California Land Law Act of 1920 ■ Prevents immigrants from owning a 3 year lease or own stock in a company ○ Laws went to the supreme court twice and were upheld ■ Weren’t abolished until 1952 ● Filipinos ○ AntiFilipino riots ■ on the west coast ● From California to Washington State MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ 19271934 ○ TydingsMcDuffie Act, 1934 ■ Eliminates immigration from the Philippines ■ Calls for Filipinos to go back to the Philippines ■ Reclassified Filipinos as aliens ■ Only 50 Filipinos can immigrate to the US a year ● Mexicans ○ Half a million to 1 million immigrate to the US ○ No caps on Mexican immigration yet ■ Not until the 60s ■ US wants them as low wage laborers ■ Don’t get citizenship easily ○ Manuel Gamio ■ Well known anthropologist ■ Studied Mexican immigration ■ Concluded that mexicans should only come to the US for short periods at a time ● Work and then go back to Mexico ○ League of Latin American Citizens(LULAC)1929 ■ Established in Corpus Christi ■ Focused on education and civil rights Cultural Renaissance ● American Literary Figures ○ The Lost Generation ■ Go to France because they’re sick of America ■ Sinclair Lewis ● Wrote the bookMainstreet ● First American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature1920 ■ F. Scott Fitzgerald ● Wrote The Great Gatsby ■ Ernest Hemingway ● Fails to pass his physical and can’t join WWI ● Becomes a WWI journalist ● Joined the Red Cross ● Pulitzer Prize for Fiction1953 ● Nobel Prize for Literature1954 ● Suicide1961 ■ William Faulkner ● Born in Mississippi ● Witnesses and writes of race relations ● Inspires Truman Capote and Harper Lee ● Harlem Renaissance ○ The innovative literary, artistic, and intellectual movement by Black Americans MadebyConstanceAguocha ○ Langston Hughes ■ Poet, social activist, playwright ○ Alain Locke ■ Father of the Harlem Renaissance ■ Philosopher ■ 1st African American Rhodes Scholar ■ Graduated from Harvard in 1907 ■ WroteThe New Negro ● Speaks on the changes in the life and attitude of Black people in America in comparison to the preHarlem Renaissance time period ○ Billie Holiday, Louis Armstrong, and Ella Fitzgerald are musicians ○ W.E.B. Du Bois ■ Editor ohe Crisis ● Journal written by the NAACP ○ Marcus Garvey ■ Huge “back to Africa” advocate ■ Believed that black people needed to work on themselves first and then worry about equality later ■ Universal Negro Improvement Association ■ Starts his own cruise liners ■ Uses Ethiopia as an example of black greatness ■ Referred to as the “Black Moses” ■ Huge influence ○ Paul Robeson ■ Rutgers University ● Academic scholarship ● 1st team AllAmerican football player ● Valedictorian ■ Gets a law degree from Columbia University while coaching and playing professional football ■ Best known Othello ever ■ Was inShow Boat ● First racially integrated musical where white people and black people sang together ■ Blacklisted in the 1940s because of alleged communist ties Nativism in the 1920s ● Marcus Garvey ○ Back to Africa Movement ● KKK ○ A lot of Klansmen in the North ■ Ohio, Indiana, Illinois ○ 45 million in the 1920s MadebyConstanceAguocha ● National Origins Act of 1924 ○ Sets a quota on immigration based on the 1890 census ○ Favored northern and western europeans ○ No cap on Mexicans or Latinos ■ US trying to make themselves look like good neighbors ■ Wanted low wage workers ■ Taxed and inspected all Mexican and Latin immigrants ● Many started coming in undocumented to avoid having to be inspected and being taxed ○ 2% quota ○ A total of 155,000 immigrants were allowed a year Teapot Dome Scandal ● Warren G. Harding is president during the scandal ● Teapot Dome is an oil field reserve ○ Owned by the US Navy ○ Wyoming ○ Managed by Albert Fall ● Albert Fall ○ Leases the oil field to Sinclair Oil Company ■ Gets gifts in exchange ■ Acquires $400,000 ○ Gets caught and sent to prison in New Mexico for nine months ○ 1st US cabinet member to go to prison ● Calvin Coolidge ○ Takes office after Harding dies ○ Conservative ○ Doesn’t help farmers ○ Silent Cal ● Herbert Hoover ○ Takes office after Coolidge ○ President during Black Tuesday The Great Depression The Great Depression ● Black Tuesday ○ October 29, 1929 ○ Beginning of the depression ● Causes of the Great Depression ○ Lack of diversification ■ US only focuses on manufacturing ■ Too much manufacturing in a short amount of time ■ Overproduction of automobiles ● 1927: Model T drops 67% MadebyConstanceAguocha ● Henry Ford ends production ○ 60,000 people lose their jobs ○ Consumer debt doubled between 1920 and 1930 ■ People make a lot of purchases on credit ○ Price of wheat drops by 50% and cotton drops by 75% ○ Weak middle class ■ Top 1% has the most wealth ■ 50% of people are living on a subsistence level ○ Reckless investments and loans by the banks ○ European Financial Problems ■ The Dawes Plan ● England and France are in debt to the US after WWI ○ Waiting on germany to pay them their reparations so that they can pay off their debts ○ Germany’s economy is ruined and they can’t pay off their debts ○ England and France threaten to use the league of nations to invade Germany and make them pay ● The Dawes Plan is created by American, Charles Dawes ○ American banks should loan Germany $200 million ○ Germany would then be able to use the $200 million and pay off England and France, and then England and France could pay off the US ○ Germany’s economy tanks even lower and they use the $200 million and can’t pay anyone back ○ This takes money out of the US economy ○ Trade decline ● Results of the Great Depression ○ Over 9,000 banks fail ○ Gross National Product(GNP) drops by almost 50% from 19291933 ○ Unemployment rate stays around 20% for the entire decade ○ Underemployment ■ 1/3rd of the remaining workers are underemployed ● Can’t get full time jobs ○ Agricultural Failures ■ 1/3rd of American farmers lose their land ■ 60% drop in agricultural income ● Dust Bowl ○ Midwest ○ Caused by extreme drought ○ Former Great American Desert ○ 1930s ○ 200,000 people move from the midwest to California MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ Become migrant farmers and laborers ● This causes the Mexican and Latino workers in the area to become unemployed as bosses showed favoritism towards whites ● Repatriation ○ 2,000 Filipinos sent back to the Philippines ○ ½ million to 1 million Mexicans are sent back to mexico ● Virtually no jobs for women ○ Mostly affected married women ○ Bosses saw giving a married woman a job as depriving a married man a job Entertainment ● Radio During the Great Depression ○ Amos and Andy ■ Controversial ■ Popular ■ White people stereotyping and making fun of black people for comedy ■ Hated by the NAACP ■ Cancelled after 23 seasons ○ The Lone Ranger ■ Bastion of good values ○ Displayed America as being great ■ Dick Tracy ■ Superman ○ War of the Worlds ■ 1938 ■ Narrated by Orson Welles ● Movie Industry in the Great Depression ○ Mid 30s, movies move toward full sound instead of silent films ○ Colored movies in the late 30s ○ Walt Disney ■ Mickey Mouse ■ Snow White and the Seven Dwarves, 1937 ● 10th biggest movie in US history ○ Gone with the Wind, 1939 ○ Wizard of OZ, 1939 ● Popular Literature ○ Life Magazine ○ Gone with the WindMargaret Mitchell, 1936 ○ The Grapes of WrathJohn Steinbeck, 1939 ● The Popular Front ○ Communist leaning group of people against fascist regimes ○ Endorsed by the American Communist Party MadebyConstanceAguocha ○ People start to blame capitalism for the depression ● The Lincoln Brigade ○ 35,000 to 45,000 people go to spain to help them overthrow their fascist dictator, Francisco Franco ○ About 3,000 Americans served ○ Unsuccessful ● Main Fascists ○ Mussolini, Italy ○ Hitler, Germany ○ Franco, Spain Democracy vs Nazism ● 1936 Olympics ○ Berlin Germany ○ US wants to prove that they’re the best ○ Germany wants to show off ○ Jesse Owens ■ American ■ Moved during the Great Migration ■ Birthname: James Cleveland ■ Won 4 gold medals in track and field ■ Snubbed by FDR because FDR didn’t want to shake a black man’s hand and lose the southern democrat vote ● Joe Louis(The Brown Bomber) ○ Parents were sharecroppers ○ Great migration ○ Boxer ○ Defeats former heavyweight champion, Primo Carnera of Italy ■ Significant because italy had invaded ethiopia in 1935 and now a black man just beat Italy ○ Loses to Max Schmeling of Germany ■ Hitler uses this as an example of arian greatness ○ Rematch with Schmeling in 1938 ■ Yankee stadium ■ Over 70 million americans listened in on their radios ■ Battle between fascism and democracy ■ Louis wins Hoover to Roosevelt ● Herbert Hoover ○ Donates money to public works ■ $423 million ○ Meets with business people and tries to keep people calm ○ Americans dislike him because he can’t fix the depression ○ People start using his name to describe bad things MadebyConstanceAguocha ■ Ex:people have to use newspapers as blankets and the newspapers are called hoover blankets ○ Hoovervilles ■ Shanty towns on the outskirts of towns for unemployed/homeless people ■ Built near bodies of water ● The Farmers’ Holiday Association ○ Developed in response to depressed farm income and loss of land ○ Endorsed withholding farm products to the market ○ Want government intervention and mandated prices ○ Bid pennies on foreclosed farms ○ Blockaded and/used violence when other farmers didn’t participate ○ Led to a moratorium on foreclosing farms ● Bonus Expeditionary Force ○ Congress approved a $1000 bonus for WWI vets ○ Banks wouldn’t pay the bonuses until 1944 ○ 1932: farmers start to demand payment ○ Bonus Army, comprised of 20,000 WWI vets, go to DC to demand immediate payment ○ May 1932 ○ Stay for two months and create a shantytown ■ The goal is that hopefully their close proximity to the president will evoke action ○ General Douglas MacArthur ■ Believes that the protesters are communists ■ Brings in six tanks and marches down Pennsylvania Avenue ■ MacArthur attacks ■ Burns down shantytown ■ 100 people injured plus a baby was killed ○ Hoover loses a lot of popularity The Election of 1932 ● Herbert Hoover vs FDR ● Franklin Delanor Roosevelt ○ Assistant Secretary of State during WWI ○ From New York ○ Stricken with polio in 1921 ■ He keeps this and the affects of his ailment secret ○ Huge easy victory MadebyConstanceAguocha
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