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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elise Parziale on Sunday March 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych1100 at Ohio State University taught by Gim Toh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 248 views. For similar materials see Psychology 1100 in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/22/15
Midterm 2 Study Guide MEMORY Ch 6 3 Processes Functjons of Memory 1 Encoding the process by which we transfer what we perceive think or feel into an enduring memory a Elaborative Encoding actively relating new information to knowledge that is in memory b Visual Imagery Encoding store new information by converting into pictures 0 Organizational Encoding categorizing information according to relationship among series 2 Storage 3 systems have different purposes spans how much can hold and duration how long can hold a Sensorv Storage holds information for a few seconds i Iconic Memorv fastdecaying store of visual info ii Echoic Memorv fastdecaying store of auditory info b ShortTerm Storage memory store for info we re currently thinking about attending to or actively processing a few minutes i Like a workbench where info manipulation occurs ii Normally people remember 7 2 pieces of info at a time iii Chunking info together and rehearsal repeating info over again help move memories to longterm storage iv Working Memory active maintenance of shortterm storage v Memorv Consolidation process by which memories become stable in brain vi Reconsolidation doing memory consolidation again 1 Makes memories vulnerable when bring back into shortterm storage a can change when moved back into longterm c LongTerm Storage sustained retention of info stored regarding facts experiences and skills i Capacity and duration I unlimited ii Anterograde Amnesia can t bring shortterm memories to longterm iii Retrograde Amnesia can t recall longterm memories iv Clive Wearing had both types of amnesia due to herpes V Explicit Memorv info we can intentionally recall 1 Episodic memory for an event where one was present 2 Semantic generalized knowledge vi Implicit Memorv recalling info without doing it deliberately 1 Procedural memory of how to do something 2 Priming ability to identify a stimulus more easilyquickly due to memory 3 Retrieval reactivationreconstruction of experiences from memory storage a Retrieval Cues external info that is associated with stored info and helps bring it to mind i Encoding Specifity Principle it is easier to remember something when the conditions match those in which one encoded it 1 StateDependent Learning similar internal state mood dependent learning 2 TransferAppropriate Processing memory is likely to transfer when encoding context of situations match b Consequences i Helps later recall ii Hurts later recall a retrievalinduced forgetting when first learned to use a Mac Memorv Failure The 7 Sing 1 Transience forgetting things as time goes by a Retroactive Interference what you learn later impairs earlier memory b Proactive Interference earlier memory impairs later learning 2 Absentmindedness lapse in attention that results in memory failure a Prospective Memorv remembering to remember 3 Blocking can t retrieve memory even though you are trying to I tipof thetongue 4 Memorv Misattribution assigning a memory to the wrong source a Source Memorv when where and how you got the info b False Recognition deja vu 5 Suggestibility incorporate misleading info from another source into recollection a Implanting False Memories i Elizabeth Loftus 1 Smashed vs contacted I smashed remembered cars going faster 2 Lost in mall I gave people some of their actual memories and one false one of being lost in a mall a 25 remembered getting lost when they weren t ii Eyewitness testimonies I not exact replica of original event 1 Less accurate between people of different races 6 distorting in uences of present knowledge beliefs and feelings on recollection of previous experience a Change Bias tendency to exaggerate differences between feelings of past and present b Consistencv Bias reconstruct past to fit present 7 Persistence intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget a Flashbulb Memories detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events LEARNING Ch 7 Learning change in an organism s behaviour or thought as a result of experience Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning 1 When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response I biological 2 Pavlov s Dogs 3 Conditioning a UnConditioned Stimulus US something that naturally produces a biological reaction b UnConditioned Response UR a re exive reaction to a stimulus c Conditioned Stimulus CS initially neutral stimulus becomes associated with UR d Conditioned Response CR learned reactionresponse US I UR UR and CR are same behaviour but brought about by different CS I CR stimuli 4 3 Phases a Acquisition learning connection b Extinction elimination of response c Spontaneous Recoverv seemingly extinct CR reappears when CS is presented again Generalization process by which CS similar to original elicits a CR 6 Discrimination displaying a less pronounced response to CS that U differs from original CS 7 SecondOrder Conditioning developing a CR to a CS by virtue of its association with another CS 8 Survival can depend on paying attention to pairing Operant Conditioning 1 Learning controlled by consequences of an organism s behaviour 2 Law of Effect behaviours that lead to satisfaction tend to be repeated and viceversa 3 Operant Behaviour voluntary behaviour 4 Reinforces stimulus that increases likelihood of behaviour or 5 Punishes stimulus that decreases likelihood of behaviour or 6 Skinner s Box 7 Primary and Secondary a Primary Reinforcement satisfies biological needs I food shelter warmth etc b Secondary Reinforcement associated with primary reinforce through classical conditioning I money good grades etc 8 Over Justification Effect a When a behaviour stops because they were rewarded i When operant conditioning fails 9 Basic Principles a Stimulus Control i Give responses only when in appropriate context Discrimination b Extinction i Occurs when reinforcement stops ii Continuous Reinforcement 1Fixed consistency 2 Variable random iii Intermittent Reinforcement 1Ratio of behaviours 2 Interval time elapsed iv Variable ratio is most resistant to extinction I slot machines 10 Applications a Token Economv system set up for reinforcing target behaviours b Classical and operant conditioning work together to keep phobias alive i TwoProcess TheorV 1 Phobia acquired by classical conditioning 2 Phobia maintained by operant conditioning I negative reinforcement c Shaping reinforcing responses that come successively closer to desired response d Superstitious Behaviour become accidentally reinforced Observational Learning 1 Learn by watching others TBobo Doll Studv a Independent variable I if kids saw aggressive adults bDependent variable I how kids behaved 3 Diffusion Chain individuals initially learn a behaviour by observing and then serve as a model for others 4 Mirror Neurons cells in prefrontal cortex I activated by specific motions when someone both performs and observes the motion a Watching and doing activates cells Implicit Learning 1 Takes place without awareness 2 Habituation react less and less to prolonged exposure to stimulus DEVELOPMENT Ch 11 Mture vs Nurture Nature genetic in uence Nurture environmental in uence m the unit of heredity transmission identical twins Thev in uence each othi Gender Concepts Sei biological Gender psychological Gender Roles behaviours that tend to accompany being malefemale 1 Some gender differences in early in uences I not result of socialization 2 By age 3 prefer to play with same sex peers understand gender differences 3 Parents and teachers encourage gender stereotyped behaviours Mture via Nurture Those with certain genetic makeups seek out certain environments I niche picking Gene Expression Only some genes are active at any particular time 1 Some genes require activation by environmental experiences Nature AND Nurture Heritability measure of the variability of behavioural traits among individuals that can be accounted by genetic factors 1 Full range is 0 100 a Behaviour ranges from 030 060 2 Doesn t tell us about a Specific gene b Individuals c Which environments d How changeable a trait is Developmental Psychology Coanitive Development how children think and develop Piaget s 4 Stages 1 Sensorimotor 0 2 vears a Use senses and movement to learn about world b Schemas theories about how world works i Assimilation infants apply schemas in new situations ii Accommodation revise schemas in light of new information c Lack Object Permanence the idea that things continue to exist even when not visible 2 PreOperational Stage 2 6 vears a Learn about physical objects i Understand physical objects ii Don t Understand 1 Conservation quantity of objects stay same even when appearances change only focus on one thing 2 Egocentrism failure to understand that world appears differently to different people 3 Theorv of Mind the way people behave is guided by mental representations MampM test 3 Concrete Operational Stage 6 11 years a Don t understand abstract concepts b Understand transformation and mental representation 4 Formal Operational Stage 11 years Adulthood a Understand abstract concepts and hypothetical situations 5 Critiques of Piaget s Theorv a People develop at different rates I not simple bUnderestimates children s abilities cUnderestimates environment s role in development i Culturally diverse vaotskv Cultural In uences lChinese and American children learning numbers I very different Social In uences 1 Parents guide children a Joint Attention child looks at what parent looks at b Social Referencing when child isn t sure of situation looks to parent for supportadvice c Imitation Social Development lHumans need to interact with others a Imprinting forming a strong bond with thing that tends to them shortly after birth I sensitive period in humans and critical period in animals i Attachment early formed bonds that affect future relationships 1 Contact Comfort positive emotions elicited by touch 2 Strange Situation Test a systematic way of determining a child s attachment style a Examines child s reaction to separation from parent b Attachment Stvles i Secure 60 Avoidant 20 Ambivalent 15 iLDisorganized lt5 c Critigues i Low reliability ii Monooperation bias relying on a single occurence 3 Internal Working Model of Relationships set of beliefs about the self primary caregiver and their relationship 2 Temperament characteristic patterns of emotional reactions a b c Behavioural Inhibition more reactive to stress correlates with psychological disorders Cultural differences Can be shaped by enviomment 3 Adolescence period of sexual maturity and lasts until 1821 years old a 4 Sexuality qowogpca Less neurons and lose them if you do not use them I pr39ming Cultural differences I other cultures do not seem to experience the same angst as USA LGBTQ Youth i 3040 attempted suicide ii 4x as likely to attempt suicide iii 22 don t feel safe at school iv 40 have been harassed or assaulted in past year Samesex relationships develop in almost all cultures 210 of population are LGBTQ More nature than nurture Children with gay parents are NOT more likely to be gay Early sexual encounters don t have an impact on sexuality Gay people are more likely to have gay siblings Twins show that male identical twins are likely to share sexual orientation Sexual Reorientation try to turn gays and lesbians straight DBAD 5 Gender Identification a Own sense of being malefemaleneither b Some people feel trapped in another sex body c Gender is NOT sexuality 6 Sexual Behaviour a 25 of teenagers have 4 sexual partners by senior year of high school b Only 50 use a condom c Sexed decreases likelihood of pregnancySTD 7 Adulthood a Changing Roles i Becoming a spouseparent b Changing Brains i Bilateral Asymmetry seen in younger adults c Changing Personality i More emotionally stable and conscientious ii Less extroverted iii Less open to new experiences d Changing Goals i SocioEmotional Selectively Theorv younger adults are more futureoriented older adults are more presentcentered STRESS and HEALTH Ch 16 Stress physical and psychological response to a stressor Stressor causes stress Chronic Stressors sources of stress that occur continuouslyrepeatedly 1 Perceived Control when someone has no control over stressor insane amount of stress Stress Reactions thsical Reactions 1 General Adaptation Svndrome a Alarm Phase I fight ight bResistance Phase I adapt to cope c Exhaustion Phase I collapse i Immune system affected ii Psychoneuroimmunology field studying relationships between psychological processes nervous system and immune system 1 Cohen s Cold Studv levels of stress predicted likelihood of developing a cold 2 Bionsvchosocial Perspective a Peptic ulcers I caused by bacteria people used to believe it was stress b Coronary heart disease I artery blockage provoked by stressful events c Stress II illness Stress Management 1 Mind Management a Repressive Coping avoiding situations that remind you of stressor fake positive b Rational Coping facing stressor to overcome it i Acceptance exposure understanding c Reframing finding a new creative stressor that reduces its threat 2 Body Management a Relaxation Therapv reduce tension by consciously relaxing muscles in the body b Biofeedback use of external monitorcues from body to change behaviour c Aerobic Exercise 3 Situation Management a Social Support help from friends and family i Less social support earlier death b Humour 4 Gender Differences a Male fight ight bFemale tendbefriend 5 Individual Differences a Personality and Health i Optimism Hardiness I positive Selfregulation will power 1 Delay of gratification
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