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Anthropology Final Study Guide Notes

by: Oshsherre Knight

Anthropology Final Study Guide Notes Anth 1101

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Charlotte > Anthropology > Anth 1101 > Anthropology Final Study Guide Notes
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These are the notes for the Anthropology Final w/ Fuentes. Check the study guide that she will give you and this should take care of having to fill it out. It'll save you about three days worth of ...
Intro to Anthropology
Catherine Fuentes
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Oshsherre Knight on Friday July 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 1101 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Catherine Fuentes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in Anthropology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.


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Date Created: 07/29/16
Anthropology Final ­ Study Guide ★ Medical Anthropology - The application of anthropological theories and methods to questions of health, illness and medicine. ○ Coursepack ★ Medicine - Any and all practices that are intended to address or alleviate what a given group of people consider to be an affliction ○ Coursepack ★ Biomedicine - The medicine of hospitals and mainstream doctors of the industrialized world. ○ Coursepack ★ Health - A dynamic condition combining individuals, society and an adaptation to the environment ○ Coursepack ★ Biocultural approaches to Med. Anthro. - an anthropological view of the way in which people adapt to their environment and change that environment that make health conditions better or worse ○ Coursepack ★ Cultural approaches to Med. Anthro. - emphasize the role of ideas, beliefs, and values in creating systems of illness classification and medical programs for curing. ○ Coursepack ★ Culture-bound syndrome - used to describe the uniqueness of some syndromes in specific cultures. ★ Americanization of mental health ○ AE #7.3 reading ★ Language - human communication by means of shared symbols ○ Coursepack, CHP 11, Sparkchart ★ Displacement - The ability to communicate about things and ideas not immediate in space or time. ○ CHP 11 ★ Duality - The two levels of human language: units of sound and units of meaning that those units of sound are combined to create. ○ CHP 11 ★ Phoneme - A unit of sound in a language ○ CHP 11 ★ Morpheme - a unit of meaning in a language ○ CHP 11 ★ Productivity - the ability of human languages to generate limitless numbers of meaning ○ CHP 11 ★ Ethnosemantics - the study of the meaning of words, especially as they relate to folk taxonomies ○ CHP 11 ★ Linguistic Relativism - the idea that the language a person speaks has an influence on this person's cognition. ★ Linguistic Nativism - children learn language solely from their environmental stimulus ★ Sociolinguistics - study of language in its social contexts. ○ CHP 11, Sparkchart, Coursepack Anthropology Final ­ Study Guide ★ Gender communication differences ■ Women more likely to speak standard English ■ Women end sentences intonation of uncertainty ○ Coursepack ★ Social Stratification - contain social groups that have unequal access to important advantages; economic resources, power, prestige ○ Coursepack ★ Egalitarian societies - Bands & Tribes; there is no differential access to power, prestige, OR economic resources. ○ Coursepack ★ Rank societies - Chiefdoms; the chief position is ascribed even though it is still kin-based. there is slight inequality regarding prestige ○ Coursepack ★ Class stratified societies - States; unequal access to power, prestige, and economic resources. ○ Coursepack ★ Social control - a concept that refers to the ways in which people’s thoughts, feelings, appearance, and behavior are regulated in social systems. ○ Law - a social norm whose violation is punishable by threat of or application of physical force by a legitimate official or body ○ Gossip and ridicule - found in all types of society ○ Witchcraft accusations - ○ Threat of supernatural wrath - ★ Hegemony - the power and solidarity of the state as created by the consent of the governed. ○ Coursepack ★ Appeasement - a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict ○ Coursepack ★ The Anthropological “Other” - lack power, legitimacy and validity. their knowledge is dismissed. suffer from cultural poverty. ○ Coursepack ★ Religion - a system of ideas and rules for behavior based on supernatural explanations. ○ Coursepack, CHP 12 ★ Supernatural - Power believed to be not human or not subject to the laws of nature. ○ Coursepack, CHP 12 ★ Natural - Things perceived by our five senses. ★ Theories for the origins of religion - ○ A] The Need to understand - religion originates in people’s speculation about dreams, trances and death ○ B] Reversion to Childhood Feelings - to fulfill the role that our parents filled when we were children ○ C] Anxiety and Uncertainty - ○ D] The need for Community - affirms a person’s place in society and enhances feeling of community. Anthropology Final ­ Study Guide ■ Coursepack ★ Types of Supernatural forces/beings - ○ Mana: supernatural force that is impersonal and is thought to inhabit some object, people, or animals but not others. ○ Taboo: persons, objects, animals, or places that are not to be touched because their power can cause harm. ○ Gods ○ Ghosts and Ancestor Spirits: beings may act in a guardian way doing good, some act in mischief, they once were human ■ Coursepack ★ Monotheistic - One god. ○ Coursepack, Book ★ Polytheistic - recognize many important gods with no one supreme god ○ Coursepack, Book ★ Tenets of indigenous worldview - everything is controlled by fate, the supernatural & natural are the same. humans and the environment share equality. supernatural relationships are personalized. ★ Ways of interacting with supernatural: ○ Prayer - asking for supernatural help ○ Altering the body or mind ○ Trance - common altered state; can be possession ○ Simulation ○ Divination - getting the supernatural to provide guidance ○ Sacred Meal ○ Sacrifice - something of value is given up to the gods. ■ Coursepack ★ Magic - the use of ritual and paraphernalia to compel or manipulate the supernatural to act in desired ways ○ Coursepack, CHP 12 ★ Prayer - a solemn request for help or expression of thanks addressed to God or an object of worship. ★ Sorcery - Magical acts with evil intent uses materials, objects and medicines to invoke the supernatural ○ Coursepack, CHP 12 ★ Witchcraft - traditionally evil acts performed by individuals who possess inherent powers uses thought and emotion alone. ○ Coursepack, CHP 12 ★ Different types of religious practitioners ○ Shaman - Part time male religious practitioner and healer; high status ○ Sorcerers and witches - Part time; low status ○ Mediums - Part time; go into trance to obtain information ○ Priests - Full time practitioners; high status; job is obtained by political appointment ★ Ritual - A repetitive social practice composed of a sequence of symbolic activities. Activities including religious speech (prayer, song), ceremonies, and behaviors that demonstrate our religious beliefs. Anthropology Final ­ Study Guide ★ Rites of Passage - a ritual that serves to mark the movement and transformation of an individual from one social position to another. ○ Coursepack ★ Liminality - the transitional period or phase of a rite of passage, during which the participant lacks social status or rank ○ Coursepack ★ Communitas - unstructured of minimally structured community of equal individuals found in rites of passages. ○ Coursepack ★ Voodoo Zombfication in Haiti ○ AE #6.4 ★ Carrying capacity - the maximum population of a species allowed by existing environmental conditions and resources. ○ CHP 15 ★ Emerging diseases - any of a group of diseases of various causes, that have newly appeared or are rapidly expanding their range in the human species ○ CHP 15 ★ The costs of progress/modernization for traditional cultures ★ Identity crisis of the Tuva CH. 4 ­ Culture Definition Society interacting group of individuals Worldview a group's view of the universe and their place  in it. Mesolithic Period: Middle Stone Age 14k­ya. ● 1. Broad­Spectrum Collecting  the change from hunting big­game to relying  on a wider variety of food sources. ● 2. Ground Stones used for grinding grains Neolithic Period: New Stone Age 11k­ya ? 1. Oasis Theory extreme drought at the end of the pleistocene made domestication necessary ? 2. Readiness Hypothesis long­term collection and knowledge made it  so that people eventually are ready to  domesticate ? 3. Population Models Demographic stress theory: rising ocean  levels make populations more dense Population growth theory: humans  populations were growing and spreading and  we ran out of room for nomadic hunting and  gathering Evolution of the State model that explains how an ecological trigger  can lead to intensification of food production.  This leads to a further increase in population.  This leads to four interrelated factors:  specialization, nucleation, centralization of  power, and stratification. Theory of environmental degradation ruin the environment so that they can no  longer grow enough food to have surplus Theory of overextension the state grows so big that the peripheries go  unchecked and chaos spreads until the state  collapses Theory of Internal Conflicts  rulers become inefficient and corrupt and  there is so much mismanagement that the  state collapses Culture ordered system of beliefs, symbols, values  and knowledge in terms of which groups of  individuals define their world Four Characteristics of culture learned shared symbolically mediated abstract Enculturation/socialization the process through which individuals  become cultural beings. it begins at birth. Cultural Relativism understanding the ways of other cultures and  not judging these practices according to one’s own cultural ways. Ethnocentrism Making judgements about another culture  from the perspective of your own cultural  system. Model of Sociocultural change shows that change starts with an external or  internal stimuli. then donors put forward new  ideas/technology. the recipients of the change process the proposed ideas thru their cultural  filer and either accept and modify, or reject  the proposed changes. Social Structure  the pattern or network of interaction of  individuals and groups Sociocultural System human population viewed in its ecological  context and as one of the many subsystems  of a larger ecological system Achieved vs. Ascribed Status: Achieved: Position or merit that is earned. Ascribed: Position or merit that is given. CH. 7 ­ Reproduction Definition Sex biologically defined categories and  characteristics of men and women Gender culturally defined categories and  characteristics of men a women Sexual Dimorphism  physical differences between the genders Theories for the incest taboo a cultural rule that prohibits sexual intercorse  or marriage between persons definied as  being too closely related Berdache third gender that was neither male or women  but could perform both duties of the gender  roles. very holy beings; identified at a young  age. could be healers or shaman. CH. 9 ­ Food Definition Bands small autonomous group associated with  foraging societies ● egalitarian ● kin­based ● small, mobile ● reciprocal distribution ● division based on gender &  age ● no war Tribes a political organization with no central leader  but the subunits may make collective  decisions about the entire group ● larger, more sedentary ● kinship based ● reciprocal distribution ● frequent warfare ● no government Chiefdoms a political organization made up of groups  of  interacting units each which have a leader. ● larger, and socially stratified ● intensive agriculture ● chief ● kinship based ● redistribution network ● frequent warfare States political organization with one central  governing authority. ● cities ● huge populations ● class based ● highest degree of  specialization ● market economy Industrial States economic production that is based on the use of machines and fossil fuels Non­Industrial States based on intensive agriculture and  pastoralism, labor intensive and some  household based manufacturing. Egalitarian the practice of not recognizing differences in  social status and wealth Horiculture (type of extensive agriculture) farming using human labor and simple tools  such as digging sticks and hoes Hunting­gathering (foraging) subsistence pattern that relies on naturally  occurring sources of food Pastoralism subsistence pattern characterized by an  emphasis on herding animals Intensive Agriculture  agriculture that makes intensive use of the  factors of production: land, labor, capital, and  machinery Slash / Burn (type of extensive agriculture) type of agriculture that does not make  intensive use of any of the factors of  production: land, labor, capital, or machinery Different types of reciprocity:  Generalized: goods or services are given to  Generalized another without any apparent expectation of a  Balanced return gift Negative Balanced: involves a exchange of goods or  services either immediately or over an agreed­ upon period of time Negative: aim is to profit. Redistribution the accumulation of goods or labor by a  particular person for the purpose of  subsequent distribution Money markets exchange or transactions in which the prices  are subject to supply and demand Ecological Base  base of the sociocultural system. comprised  of: demographic, environment, economic  production Demography the study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or  the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing  structure of human populations Economic Production techniques and behavior for producing  subsistence and other goods Industrial Production is a measure of output of the industrial  sector of the economy. CH. 10 ­ Family Definition Other Definitions: Bilateral Descent Kinship system in which an  individual is a member of  both parents’ descent lines;  it’s not lineal & it includes  relatives by marriage Unilineal Descent a person is a member of only  Types of Unilineal Descent  one parent’s descent line groups: Lineages: set of kin whose  members are descended from  a common ancestor, links are  specified [Consanguineal  kin] Clans: a set of kin whose  members believes themselves  to be from a common  ancestor, but links aren’t  specified Phratries: unilineal descent  group composed of  supposedly related clans, Moities: when a society is  divided into two unilineal  descent groups Patrilineal descent Unilineal system in which an  individual is a member of the  father’s descent line. Matrilineal descent Unilineal system in which an  individual is a member of the  mother’s descent line. Ambilineal descent rule of descent that affiliates  an individual with kin related  to him/her thru men or  women. Endogamy marriage within your unit of  people [ex; Caste system of  India] Exogamy marriage outside your unit of  people [ex; Mbuti.] Cross­cousins children of your father’s  sisters of mother’s brothers. { different gender as parents } Parallel cousins children of your father’s  brothers and mother’s sisters. { same gender as parents } Levirate marriage rule of when the  husband dies, his brothers  support his family Sororate marriage rule of when the  wife dies, her sisters support  her family. Arranged marriage a marriage planned and agreed  to by the families or guardians  of the bride and groom. Polygamy marriage that allows multiple  spouses. [Polygyny & Polyandry] Polygyny (sororal)  a man has multiple wives but  the wives are sisters. Polyandry (fraternal) a woman had multiple  husbands but the husbands  are brothers. Group marriage multiple men and women in  the same marriage [ex; the  Oneida] Monogamy one man w/ one woman  marriage. Marriage a set of cultural rules for  bringing together a man and  a woman to create a family  unit and for defining their  behaviors. Types of family: Nuclear family: a  monogamous family Extended Family: consists of  two or more nuclear parents,  polygamous or polyandrous  families linked by blood ties Single Parent­ Matrifocal are  single mother families w/o a  father. Marital Residence Rules: 1. Patrilocal  1. the newly  residence rule married couple goes  2. Matrilocal  to live with the  residence rule groom’s family 2. the newly  3. Ambilocal/bilo married couple goes  cal residence rule 4. Neolocal  to live near the bride’s residence rule family 3. the newly  married couple goes  to live near either  family 4. the married  couple does not move anywhere Types of marital economic  1. Bride Price 1. where a gift of  exchange  2. Bride Service money or goods goes  3. Gift Exchange from the groom and  4. Dowry his kin to the bride’s  kin 2. where the  groom is required to  work for the bride’s  family sometime  before or after the  marriage 3. involves that  exchange of gifts of  about equal value by  two groups about to  be linked in marriage 4. where a  substantial transfer of  goods or money goes  from the bride’s kin to  the bride. Affines a relative by marriage Kin vs. kindred: ● Kindred: set of bilateral relatives who  may be called on ● Kin: one’s  family and relations CH. 13 ­ Culture Change Definition Processes of cultural change: a) discovery/Invention: realization and a) discovery/Invention understanding of a set of relationships. the  b) Diffusion creation of new artifacts c) Acculturation b) Diffusion: the movement of cultural d) Revolution ideas and artifacts among socities c) Acculturation: change from the  contact of two different cultures d) Revolution: rapid and extensive  culture change generated from within a  society Theories of Cultural evolution: Classical/Unilineal evolutionism: concept of  Classical/Unilineal evolutionism cultural evolution that claims all societies pass Diffusionism through the same series of stages, from  Historical particularism savagery to civilization Diffusionism: a concept of cultural evolution  that claims major cultural advances were  made by a few or single society and spread  from there to all other societies Historical particularism: american school of  cultural evolution that rejected any general  theory of culture change but believed that  each society could be understood only in  reference to its particular history Revolution/Revitalization movements  social movements designed to return to a  golden age of the past or to create a more  satisfying way of life World System entire world involved in industrial production,  population shifts, inequalities are heightened The Nacirema The description of Americans, and the ritual  care of the mouth; brushing of teeth, dentist  visits, and how the mouth can ruin  relationships. Molimo Pigmy’s trumpet like instrument [For] Descent Rules: see CH 10 definitions on Patrilineal, Matrilineal, Ambilineal, and  Unilineal Descent. Big Man ­ Two critical junctures in socio­cultural evolution ­ General trends in socio­cult.evolution ­ Changes faced by traditional hunter­gatherer societies upon westernization/modernization (e.g.,  as seen in The Forest People, the film on Nai the Kung San woman) ­


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