Endocrine System Study Guide for PSIO 202 Spring 2015 with Dr. Settle
Endocrine System Study Guide for PSIO 202 Spring 2015 with Dr. Settle Psio 202
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anonymous Notetaker on Sunday March 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psio 202 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Eric Price and Dr. Eugene Settle in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 660 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 202 Lecture and Lab in Physiology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 03/22/15
Endocrine System Study Guide Dr Gene Settle PSIO 202 University of Arizona Spring 2015 Introduction to Endocrine System Endocrine Gland O O O O Pituitary Thyroid Parathyroid Adrenal Pineal Other organstissues that contain endocrine cells 0 00000 O Hypothalamus Thymus Pancreas Ovariestestes Kidneys Liver Stomach Heart Skin Adipose tissue Endocrine vs Exocrine O O Endocrine secrete products into interstitial uid and diffuse into blood Exocrine secrete products into ducts or lumens or to the outer surface of the body Hormones Mediator molecules released in one part of the body that regulate activity in other parts of the body 0 0 Local hormones Act locally on neighboring cells paracrine or on the same cell that secreted them autocrine without first entering the blood stream I Ex IL2 released from helper T cells stimulates proliferation of helper T cells and activation of cytotoxic T cells I Ex Histamine released by mast cells stimulates HCl secretion from parietal cells in stomach Circulating hormones Enter interstitial uid and then the bloodstream I Lipid soluble bound to transport proteins Steroid Hormones o Derived from cholesterol 0 Chemical groups attached to the core of the structure makes it unique 0 Ex cortisol testosterone estrogens progesterone aldosterone Thyroid Hormones o Tyrosine ring with attached iodines 0 Very lipid soluble Nitric Oxide o Hormone and neurotransmitter I Water soluble free Peptide and Protein Hormones o chains of amino acids 0 hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones o ADH oxytocin hGH TSH ACTH o Insulin glucagon EPO Biogenic amines o Modi ed amino acids 0 Catecholamines NE epinephrine dopamine o Serotonin melatonin and histamine Eicosanoids o Derived from arachidonic acid 20 carbon fatty acid 0 Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes 0 Local Hormones Functions of Hormones 0 Help Regulate I Extracellular uid I Metabolism I Biological clock I Contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle I Glandular secretion I Some immune functions I Growth and development I Reproduction o Hormones only affect target cells with specific membrane or intracellular protein receptors 0 General mechanism of action I Bind to cell surface or receptor inside target cell I Cell responds via Synthesis of new molecules Change in membrane permeability Altered rates of reaction I Different target cells may respond to the same hormone differently Hepatocytes insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis Adipocytes insulin stimulates triglyceride synthesis 0 Steroid Hormone Action I Receptors typically intracellular I Work by changing the level of specific gene expression 0 Peptide Hormone Action I peptide hormones bind to cell surface receptors I peptide hormones evoke changes in the activity of existing proteins through a second messenger e g cyclicAMP I second messengers alter the phosphorylation state of existing proteins Second messengers 0 Water soluble peptide hormones bind to cell surface receptors 9 production intracellular second messenger o Hormones first messengers may increase or decrease the level of second messengers 0 Ex cAMP calcium ions cGMP 0 Same hormone may use different second messengers in different target cells I Ex Norepenephrine 0 Second messengers initiate a cascade of biochemical reactions often involving phosphorylation or dephosphorylation within the target cell Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland O O Hypothalamus receives input from cortex thalamus limbic system and internal organs Hypothalamus provides a link between the external and internal environment and the endocrine system Hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary gland with different releasing and inhibiting hormones Hypothalamus releases other hormones directly through the posterior pituitary Cell types of the Anterior Pituitary O O O O O 1 Somatotrophs secrete human Grown Hormone 2 Thyrotrophs secrete Thyroid Stimulating Hormone 3 Lactotrophs secrete Prolactin 4 Gonadotrophs secrete Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Lutenizing Hormone 5 Corticotrophs secrete Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone GHRH Growth Hormone GH or Somatotropin Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone GHIH or Somatostatin Growth Hormone GH or Somatotropin Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone GnRH Lutenizing Hormone LH Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Prolactin Releasing Hormone PRH Prolactin PRL Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone PIH or Dopamine Prolactin PRL Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone MSH Corticotropin Releasing Hormone CRH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH or Corticotropin Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone MSH Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH or Thyrotropin Human Growth Hormone o Produced by somatotrophs in anterior pituitary 0 Target cells are liver skeletal muscle cartilage bone 0 Within target cells increases synthesis of insulinlike growth factors that act locally or enter bloodstream o Insulinlike growth factors I Increase cell growth and cell division by increasing the uptake of amino acids and synthesis of proteins I Stimulate lipolysis in adipose tissue so fatty acids are used for ATP I Decrease use of glucose for ATP production by most body cells so blood glucose levels remain high enough to supply brain 0 Regulation of hGH release I hGH is released in bursts every few hours I release is regulated by GHRH Growth hormone releasing hormone and GHIH Growth hormone inhibiting hormone I Stimuli for GHRH Hypoglycemia deep sleep decreased fatty acids and increased amino acids in blood increased sympathetic stimulation I Stimuli for GHIH Hyperglycemis REM sleep increased fatty acids and decreased amino acids in blood obesity low levels of thyroid hormones high levels of hGH Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH o Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH from the hypothalamus stimulates gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce FSH o In females FSH I Stimulates secretion of estrogen I Initiates the formation of follicles within the ovary o In males FSH I Stimulates sperm production in testes Luteinizing Hormone LH o GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce LH o In females LH stimulates I Secretion of estrogen and progesterone I Ovulation I Formation of corpus luteum o In males LH stimulates I Secretion of testosterone Prolactin o Hypothalamus regulates lactotroph cells by secreting PRH and PIH dopamine o Lactotrophs in anterior pituitary produce prolactin 0 Under the right conditions prolactin causes milk production 0 Suckling reduces levels of hypothalamic inhibition and prolactin levels rise along with milk production Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone MSH o Secreted by corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary 0 Excessive levels of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone CRH from the hypothalamus increases Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone MSH release from the anterior pituitary o Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone PIH or Dopamine inhibits MSH release 0 Function unclear in humans but high levels increase skin pigmentation Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH o Corticotropin Releasing Hormone CRH from the hypothalamus stimulates corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary to release ACTH o ACTH stimulates release of glucocorticoids mainly cortisol from adrenal cortex 0 ACTH release is also stimulated by hypoglycemia physical trauma and IL1 Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH o Hypothalamus regulates thyrotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce TSH thyrotropin o TSH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones 0 Metabolic rate stimulated 0 Regulation of TSH release I Hypothalamus releases thyrotropin releasing hormone TRH I TRH causes release of TSH from anterior pituitary cells I Thyroid glands activated to secrete more T3 and T4 Posterior Pituitary Thyroid amp Parathyroid Glands Posterior Pituitary Gland Neurohypophysis 0 Does not synthesize hormones o Consists of axon terminals from two groups of hypothalamic neurons 0 These neurons release two peptide hormones that enter capillaries I Antidiuretic Hormone ADH or vasopressin I Oxytocin OT 0 The posterior pituitary resembles neural tissue with glial cells nerve bers nerve endings and neurosecretory vessicles o Antidiuretic hormone ADH and oxytocin made in the hypothalamus are transported into the neurosecretory vesicles where they are stored until a signal comes to stimulate release Hypothalamus Posterior Pituitary Gland Oxytocin OT Synthesis Oxytocin Synthesis Antidiuretic Hormone ADH or ADH secretion Vasopressin synthesis Antidiuretic Hormone ADH o ADH produced by cells in supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus in response to signals from osmoreceptors 0 Actions I Prevents diuresis decreases urine production by stimulating the kidneys to return more water back to the blood I Prevents water loss in sweat glands I Causes constriction of arterioles Vasopressin 0 Regulation of ADH I Dehydration or high osmolarity of blood ADH released from posterior pituitary I Overhydration or low osmolarity of blood ADH release inhibited I ADH release inhibited by alcohol I Lack of ADH results in diabetes insipidus Inability of the kidneys to conserve H20 Excessive urination Ocytocin o Produced by cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus 0 Two target tissues I Uterus during labor I Mammary glands after glands 0 Regulation during labor I Stimulation of uterus by baby s head causing stretch of cervix I Oxytocin release from posterior pituitary I Uterine smooth muscle contracts I As the baby s head is pushed into the cervix oxytocin release increases I Muscle contraction which pushes the baby further and elicits even more oxytocin release I When baby is born the positive feedback loop ceases 0 Regulation after delivery I Effect on mammary glands Suckling and hearing baby s cry stimulates oxytocin release Oxytocin causes muscle contraction amp milk ejection I Lactation is the process of milk production and ejection Milk production is stimulated by Prolactin Prolactin and Oxytocin work together in lactation Thyroid Follicles O Follicular cells produce thyroid hormones I 1 T3 triiodothyronine I 2 T4 thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine Formation of Thyroid Hormones 0 000000 Iodide trapping by follicular cells Synthesis of thyroglobulin TGB Release of TGB into colloid Iodination of tyrosine in colloid Formation of T3 and T4 by combining T1 and T2 together Uptake and digestion of TGB by follicle cells Secretion of T3 and T4 into blood binds to thyroid binding globulin TBG Actions of Thyroid Hormones O 0 Increased basal metabolic rate by stimulating the cellular use of 02 to produce ATP 9 increased cellular catabolism of glucose glycolysis fatty acids beta oxidation triglycerides lipolysis Increase synthesis of NaK ATPase 9 more ATP is used to pump ions 9 ATP use produces heat which raises body temperature 9 called the calorigenic effect Enhance some actions of sympathetic nervous system by upregulating betareceptors 9 increased heart rate contractility and blood pressure Stimulate growth in conjunction with hHG and insulin particularly during development Thyroid Gland Disorders Hyposecretion 0 During development infancy andor early childhood results in dwarf1sm and severe mental retardation congenital hypothyroidism or cretinism In the adult results in edema low heart rate muscle weakness sensitivity to cold low body temperature weight gain and mental dullness myxedema Thyroid Gland Disorders Hypersecretion O Hyperthyroidism Graves disease I Weight loss nervousness tremor increased heart rate and BP exophthalmos edema behind eyes high body temperature sweating Thyroid Gland Disorders Goiter O O O O Enlarged thyroid usually due to dietary lack of iodine Occurs because TSH levels are high 9 stimulates growth of thyroid gland Can be associated with hyperthyroidism hypothyroidism or euthyroidism Dietary lack of iodine leads to low thyroid hormone T3T4 production 9 stimulates TSH by negative feedback 9 stimulates thyroid gland growth Portion of Thyroid and Parathyoid o Calcitonin secreted by parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland Lowers blood Ca2 levels by inhibiting osteoclasts o Parathyroid hormone secreted by chief cells of the parathyroid gland Raises blood Ca2 levels by stimulating osteoclasts Parathyroid Hormone o Raises blood calcium levels Increases activity of osteoclasts Increases reabsorption of Ca2 by kidney Inhibits reabsorption of phosphate HPO42 Promotes formation of calcitriol active vitamin D3 by kidney which increases absorption of Ca2 and Mg2 by intestinal tract 0 O O O Adrenal and Pancreatic Hormones Mineralocorticoids zona glomerulosa o Maj or human mineralocorticoid is aldosterone 0 Functions I Increases absorption GI and reabsorption kidney of Na with Cl bicarbonate and water following it I Promotes excretion of K and H secretion in kidney 0 Hypersecretion from adrenal tumor produces aldosteronism I High BP caused by retention of Na and resultant increase in plasma volume Glucocorticoids zona fasciculate 0 Major human glucocorticoid is cortisol 0 Key function is regulation of metabolism during stress I Increases rate of protein catabolism and lipolysis I Provides gluconeogenesis I Provides resistance to stress by making nutrients available I Raises blood pressure by vasoconstriction I Has antiin ammatory and immunosuppressive action Reduces release of histamine from mast cells Decreases capillary permeability Depressed phagocytosis Inhibits white blood cells Cushing s Syndrome Increased ACTH o Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids adrenal tumor 0 Redistribution of fat to face 0 Spindly arms and legs due to muscle loss 0 Poor wound healing and easily bruised Addison s Disease Autoimmune leads to adrenal cortex destruction 0 Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone o Hypoglycemia muscle weakness low blood pressure 0 Dehydration due to decreased Na in blood 0 Mimics skin darkening effects of MSH 0 Potential cardiac arrest Androgens zona reticularis 0 Small amount of weak androgens male horomes produced I Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA I Insigni cant in males I May contribute to sex drive in females I Converted to a form of estrogen in postmenopausal women Adrenal Medulla o Chromaff1n cells receive direct innervation from sympathetic nervous system I Develop from same tissue as postganglionic sympathetic neurons I Acts as a modi ed sympathetic ganglion 0 Produce 80 epinephrine adrenaline and 20 norepinephrine noradrenaline o Hormones are sympathomimetric I Effects mimic those of sympathetic NS I Cause fight ight behavior Diabetes Mellitus 0 Diabetes mellitus marked by hyperglycemia I Excessive urine production polyuria I Excessive thirst polydipsia I Excessive eating polyphagia 0 Type I 9 deficiency of insulin typically juvenile onset 0 Type II 9 insulin insensitivity typically adult onset
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