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Lab Practical and Note Quiz

by: Aminah Notetaker

Lab Practical and Note Quiz CHEM 1211L

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Chemistry Lab > CHEM 1211L > Lab Practical and Note Quiz
Aminah Notetaker
GPA 3.58

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About this Document

These notes cover all the information from the $10 dollar review session as well as additional tips and helpful hints that will be beneficial to you on the Chem Lab I final.
Freshman Chem Lab I
Daphne Norton
Study Guide
Chem Lab, Chemistry
50 ?




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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aminah Notetaker on Sunday July 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1211L at University of Georgia taught by Daphne Norton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Freshman Chem Lab I in Chemistry Lab at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 07/31/16
Review Session: Lab Practical and Note Quiz Significant Figures - Leading zeros are never significant, All zeros in between two nonzero numbers are significant, Trailing Zeros are only significant if there is a decimal point Examples 1. 0.0201 – 3 significant figures 2. 21000- 2 significant figures 3. 30.554- 5 significant figures 4. 400.- 3 significant figures 5. 9.1 x 10 - 2 significant figures 6. .00006- 1 significant figures - If you are trying to measure a substance using a non-digital measuring tool (for example: a burette), you measure one number place further than what you can measure with certainty - Make sure you read measurements from the tip of the meniscus Examples Burette Graduated Cylinder Beaker Helpful Hints: Unlike other equipment, a burette is read going down BeakersYYorecveryread 15.7 mL unprecisei.hhcertainty, therefore usually rnlnmd easercotdst one signieccintalplae::~15.75L - - - Increasing Precision: Beaker< Graduated Cylinder< Burette Stoichiometry - Using balanced chemical equations to compare relative amounts of reactants and products 2 KHCO 3(s)→K C2 3(s+C O 2(g)+H 2(g) Helpful Hints: Every reaction has a limiting reagent. If there is only one reactant in the equation than that is the - Theoretical Yield liettimgiredgeynstandard calculations using your starting grams, molar mass, and mole conversion. This is what the value would be in a perfect experiment) Example Starting Mass: 4.0 grams of KHC O 3 4.0gKHCO 3 1 mol KHCO 3 1 mol CO 2 44.01 g CO 2 (from equation) (molar mass) 100.115 g KHC O 1molC O 2 mols 3 2 KHC O 3 (molar (from equation) mass) CO 2elpful Hints: =.8791 g = .88 g Significant Figures! Always wait until the end to round the answer to the least significant figures used in the problem Percent Yield yield=experimentalvalx100 theoreticalvalue Example: - The theoretical yield was determined in the previous problem (.88 g2 ) - The experimental yield is what you determine during your actual experiment (For lab practical purposes, it should be given in the problem) o Let’s say, the experiment value is .88 grams of g 2 .60g yield=.88gx 100=68.181→68 Percent Error - This formula is used to measure the deviation from the theoretical value experimentalvalue−theoreticalvalue error| |x100 theoreticalvalue - Using the information from the previous problem (.60g−(.88g) error| (.88g) |x100=31.818→32 Experiment 1: Density- Determination of Sugar Content in Commercial Beverages mass(3) Density: The ratio of a substancevolume(cm ∨mL) Example: You have a rectangular box with dimensions 12 cm x 20 cm x 4 cm and a weight of 650 grams. What is the density? V=12cm x20cm x4cm=960cm 3 650g 3 D= 960cm 3=.68g/cm In the experiment, you first determine the densities of several known sugar concentration solutions and use that data to make a calibration curve. Then you use the calibration curve to calculate density of an unknown solution masssugar(g) sugar= volumesolvent(mL)x100 Example: % Sugar contains 30. Grams of sugar dissolved in 8 fl. ounces 8 fl.ounces29.574mL =236.592mL ( 1 fl ) 30 g x100 =12.68→13 sugar 236.592mL Helpful Hints: If the problem ask what is the sugar concentration at a specific density then either use the equation (if it is given) by plugging in the given density as y and solving for x or see where that specific density touches the regression line on the graph R : Just indicates linearity. The closer the value is to 1, the straighter the regression line is Experiment 2: Determining Mass Percent Using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis In this experiment, you are finding the amount of original mass of a substance by applying heat to decompose it 2NaHCO 3(s)→ Na 2 O 3(s+CO 2(g)+H O2g) Determine the mass loss (release of CO and2H O gas2 from starting mass Mass loss= Mass of CO + 2ass of H O 2 44.01 g/mol of CO an2 18.02 g/mol of H O= 62203 g/ mol CO and H O 2 2 *For every 2 mols of NaHCO , y3u make 62.03 g/ mol of CO and H 2 2 NaHCO 62.03gC O ∧H O 1 mol =.369 mass loss/ 1 g 3 2 2 NaHCO 3 2molNaHC O 3 84.01 g NaHCO 3 (molar mass) Let’s say in experiment you lose .554 g (Experimental Value) .554g 1gNaHCO 3 .369gloss →.554g ( .369gloss )=1.50g NaHCO 3 1gNaHC O 3 Experiment 3: Synthesis and Decomposition of Zinc Iodide Decomposition by Electrolysis Helpful Hints: Red Electrode (Anode- Oxidation): Orange/ brown color appears where Iodide reacts Black electrode (Cathode- Reduction): Silvery color appears where solid Zinc decomposes OIL RIG- Oxidation is loss of electron Cathode (Reduction) −¿→Zn(s) ¿ 2+¿+2¿ Zn Anode (Oxidation) −¿ −¿→I +2e ¿ ¿ 2I Experiment 4: The Copper Cycle Reaction 1- Dissolution of Copper (II) Ions −¿ (aq)+NO 2(s)+2H O2l) 2+¿ (aq)+2N O 3 ¿ Cu s)+4HN O 3aq )→Cu Type of Reaction: Redox (Solid Cu turns into Cu ion- it is oxidized) Cu(OH) Reaction 2- Formation of 2 CuNO (aq)+2 NaOH aq )→Cu (OH )(s +2 NaN O (aq) 3 2 3 Type of Reaction: Double Displacement and Precipitation (a solid is formed) Cu(OH) Reaction 3- Heating of 2 Cu OH 2 s)→CuO (s+H O2 l ) Cu(OH) 2 Type of Reaction: Decomposition (Heat breaks up into two products) Reaction 4- Formation of Cu (II) again CuO (s)+2H S2 4(aq →CuSO 4aq +2H O2 (l) Type of Reaction: Double Displacement Reaction 5a-Making Cu (s) aq CuSO 4aq )+Zn (s→Cu s +ZnSO ¿ 4 2+¿ion∈ZnSO 4(aq)−oxided 2+¿ion∈CuSO 4(aq)turnsinosolidCu−reduced Type of Reaction: Redox ( ¿ ¿ and Single SolidZnturnsintoZn /Cu Displacement Reaction 5b- Removing excess Zn Zn s)+2 HCl→ZnCl +H 2g) 2 Type of Reaction: Redox (Solid Zn turns into Zn 2+ion in ZnCl 2(aq)−oxided ) Massof Copperaftercycle Percent Recovery= Mass of Copper beforecycle x100 Experiment 5: Separation of a Mixture They did not go over this experiment because it required you to make your own procedure. Just remember that you use a magnet to extract the iron, water to dissolve the NaCl, acid to dissolve the CaCO that 3annot be dissolved in water, and filter out the remaining SiO (s2nd). Experiment 6: Analysis of Vitamin C in Fruit Juices Standardize Sodium Thiosulfate Solution - React the Vitamin C with the known excess triiodide - Titrate the reacted mixture of standardized sodium thiosulfate to measure how much triiodide is leftover - Finally, back calculate to find the amount of Vitamin C in the flask Standardize the Solution - Titrate a known amount of triiodide in solution with a solution of sodium thiosulfate - Stop at the equivalence point - At this point, all the triiodide reacted with all of the sodium thiosulfate added 2−¿ ¿ −¿+S O4 6 2−¿→3I ¿ ¿ −¿+2S O 2 3 I¿ 3 - The amount of triiodide in the solution is exactly ½ the amount of thiosulfate added - The moles of thiosulfate added= 2 moles triiodide in solution molsof thiosulfateadded ThiosulfateConcentration (M )= - Lof thiosulfateadded Helpful Hints: Equivalence point is reached when Calculating Leftover Triiodide the color changes from blue to clear - React the Vitamin C with a known excess triiodide - Titrate reacted mixture with standardized sodium thiosulfate to measure how much triiodide is left over - Moles of triiodide leftover= ½ moles thiosulfate added Calculate Vitamin C Concentration - Moles triiodide added to solution −¿+3H O 2 +¿→3I 3 ¿ −¿+6H −¿+8I ¿ ¿ I O3 - Moles triiodide added- Moles triiodide leftover = Moles of Vitamin C +¿ ¿ −¿+C H 6 +6H 6 −¿+C H O →3I ¿ 6 8 6 I3 - Moles Vitamin C to grams Vitamin C - Grams of Vitamin C/ fl. ounce (Juice used in the experiment= g/fl. ounce) - g/ fl. ounce = Vitamin C/ 8 ounce serving Experiment 7: Synthesis of Alum- A Coagulant Used in Water Treatment In this experiment, you dissolve aluminum and react in three separate reactions to create alum 2 Al(s)+KOH (aq +6H O 2 (l)→2KAI (OH 4 aq )+3 H 2g) 2 KAI (OH 4 aq +H S2 4(aq →2 Al (OH 3 s)+2H O 2 l)+K S2 (a4) 2 Al(OH 3 s)+3H S2 4(aq → Al 2O( 43(aq +3H O 2 *For every 2 mols of Aluminum, you make 1 mol of alum - Test for the presence of Sulfate Al (O )(aq )+3Ba N(O )(aq )→3Ba SO (s)+2 Al ( O )(aq ) 2 43 32 4 33 If a precipitation forms then there is sulfate (sulfate is not soluble in water when reacted with barium) - Test for presence of Aluminum (III) +¿(aq) ¿ 3+¿ (aq +3N H 3(aq +3H O 2 l)+aluminon→ Al OH 3 s)+aluminon+3N H 4 ¿ Al If there is Aluminum (III), there will be a color change Experiment 8: Spectrophotometric Analysis In this experiment, use light to quantify a compound in solution based on absorption - Calibrate the absorption of light vs phosphate concentration - Measure the absorbance of lake water - Use the curve to back calculate the phosphate concentration in the lake water Helpful Hints: The slope of the graph (3114.4) is used in the Lambert A=εbc Equation: ε Slope is The coloring agent- compound reacts with the phosphate to make (N H 4 3O ∙4 H V 4 ∙163oO 3 This compound absorbs strongly whereas phosphate does not Helpful Hints: Measurement wavelength= 420 nm (violent/blue) Experiment 9: Calorimetry In this experiment, you burn food below water and measure the temperature rise of the water q=mS∆ T You can calculate the energy of the food sample by masslost heat givenoff Energy= ¿ burning¿ Experiment 10: Partial Pressure ∆ h PcarbondioxatmP watervap13.6 Helpful Hints: Know how to use and spell a Eudiometer: A laboratory device that measures the change in volume of a gas mixture following a physical or chemical change What to expect! There will be a notebook quiz and a lab practical. The note book quiz will allow you to only use the blue graph pages from the back of your lab book so take as many notes as possible covering the prelab, explanations, calculations, specific observations, etc. These questions are more likely to ask about how to solve mass percent and what color was observed during a particular reaction. The lab practical will NOT allow you to use your notebook so make sure you understand all the procedures to the experiments as well as the name and proper use of all equipment. GOOD LUCK!!!:)


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