HIST 1010 Exam 4 Study Guide
HIST 1010 Exam 4 Study Guide History 1010
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Sunday July 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1010 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 07/31/16
World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 4 Terms to Know Scientific Revolution • Geocentric Cosmology: the theory in which all things revolve around the earth. • Finite Universe: the belief that the universe is not forever going, but stops at some point—it is all contained in a crystalline sphere, there is an end to it. • Aristotle: believe in the geometric cosmology of the universe and that the universe was finite. He believed that motion was caused by the 4 natural elements—earth, fire, water, air, and that they were all constantly trying to get back to their natural resting places. • Ptolemy: developed the idea of the epicycle due to none of his calculations of the planets being correct. • Lunar vs. Sublunar: an idea put out by Aristotle in which the heavens are contained in the lunar region and the earth/atmosphere is contained in the sub lunar region. The lunar region is perfect, whereas the sub lunar region is very imperfect. • Crystalline Spheres: an idea put out by Aristotle in which all things (earth, stars, moons, planets, the universe) is finite and is contained within glass like balls (crystalline spheres). • Epicycle: Ptolemy’s solution to why the planets move so strangely—they make small little loops in their rotations, which is why calculating them is very difficult. • Heliocentric Cosmology: the theory in which all things revolve around the sun—this theory was not widely accepted, and often considered un biblical. • Copernicus: a mathematician and Platonist that was enlisted by the pope to create a more accurate calendar. He came up with the heliocentric theory of the universe. He published “On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies”. • Tycho Brahe: worked with the king of Denmark and collected the most accurate/detailed data he could about the stars, planets, and moon with the naked eye. • Kepler: the assistant of Brahe that formed the “3 Laws of Planetary Motion”. • Galileo: used a telescope (built by himself) to see more of the heavens—he saw sun spots, the surface of the moon, the phases of Venus, the rings of Saturn, and Jupiter’s 4 moons— after seeing all this he realized that the universe is not perfect, but imperfect (contradictory to Aristotle’s theory). He wrote both “The Starry Messenger” and “The Dialogue”. His work ended up getting him sentenced to house arrest for life. • Starry Messenger: a book written by Galileo in which he listed the imperfections he saw using a telescope. • Pope Urban VIII: a pope that was very interested in science, and involved with the controversy of Galileo and his heliocentric theory. • Dialogue: a book written by Galileo in which he essentially tells the story between heliocentric and geocentric theories of the universe, having characters symbolize each. This is the final straw, which causes him to be sentenced to life in house arrest. • Principia: a book written by Newton that states Newton’s Laws of Motion. The Enlightenment • John Locke: an Englishman that contributed to the ideas of the constitution as well as the ideas of the enlightenment. He argued that the government’s power is not unlimited and believed in the time of when there was no governments. He also was a huge advocate for natural rights—life, liberty, and property. • Tabula Rasa: written by John Locke in which he talks about human intellects and understanding, and that all humans are born with a clean slate. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 4 • Voltaire: an enlightenment reformer/philosophe that reflected on the desire to reform France and the western society due to him knowing how unfair western civilization was at the time. • Montesquieu: a philosophe that didn’t like traditional institutions and western society, due to them not being rational or making sense to him. • Diderot: a philosophe and the editor of the encyclopedia that wanted to bring good quality knowledge to as many people as could get it. He wanted to educate the people so they could “fix” the environment by putting their knowledge to use. • Persian Letters: written by Montesquieu in which Persian characters are used to symbolize all the things he disagrees with. • Deism: the idea that god is the clock maker of the universe, and the universe runs on its own, like a clock would. • Adam Smith: believed in the economic concept of supply and demand and that the economy is self regulating and adjusts itself as needed. • Rosseau: envisioned a democracy and wanted to see a government in which the opinion of the people was taken more into consideration. • Spirit of Laws: written by Montesquieu in which he evaluated which government would be the best to protect a person’s natural rights. • Social Contract: written by Rosseau in which his beliefs about the government he wanted were supported. • General Will: the opinion of the people and what Rosseau believed in. • Mary Wollstonecraft and Olympe de Gouges: brought to attention that the issues of women weren’t addressed as much as all other issues. Africa Before the Transatlantic Slave Trade • Timbuktu: a great exotic city that was visited by Ibn Battuta, where the book trade was very popular. • Ibn Battuta: an Arab traveler that visited Africa and documented his travels in a “travel journal”. • Sundiata: the founder of Mali who was said to have laid Mali’s foundation and to have created a highly productive organization of society. • Mansa Musa: considered to be one of the wealthiest men in the world. He was so wealthy that he almost destroyed Cairo’s economy overnight. • Askia the Great: an emperor of the Songhai Empire that was “a man of letters” and created a very literate culture. • Sudanese: the cluster of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. Africa and the Slave Trade • Asante Empire: came into existence by the revenue made from taxing slaves. • Triangular Trade: Europe took manufactured goods to Africa, Africa gave Europe slaves to take to America, and then America would send back raw goods to Europe—it was a three way system, in which all three members benefitted. • Diaspora: the forced dispersal of a group of people beyond their homeland—slavery is an example. • Haiti: produced sugar, and the slaves from there were very skilled in sugar cane farming— Haitian slaves were in high demand but also very rebellious. • Toussaint L’Ouverture: a Haitian slave that caused a huge slave uprising. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 4 Imperial China • Li Shimin: the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty, that helped in the expansion of territory, was a great military leader, and was well educated in the arts—believed that in order to be a successful emperor, one should be good in both military and be well educated. • Chang’an: the capital city of China during this time, which was a hustle/bustle, dynamic, organized, and international place. It was laid out in a grid pattern and locked at night. It was also the last location for the Silk Road. • An Lushan Rebellion: this event is what resulted in the end of the Tang Dynasty, due to suspicions/xenophobia rising of the military, because foreign mercenaries were being hired to serve since no Chinese wanted to. • Li Bo: the greatest poet, which was estimated to have written over 20,000 poems in his time. Most of his poetry was about excessive drinking. • Zhu Xi: a Confucian scholar at the time of the Song Dynasty. • Chinggis Khan: began the conquest of China and unified the Mongols. • Kublai Khan: the grandson of Chinggis Khan that finished conquering the empire after his grandfather’s death. He also allowed foreign fluidity. • Marco Polo: an Italian traveler that came to China during the Mongol Empire’s rule, who wrote about how advanced the Chinese were. He was in China for approximately 17 years. • Ming Taizu: the founder of the Ming Dynasty that grew up in China under the Mongols. He was a very violent leader, that only trusted himself and believed in an absolutist, legalist, and violent government. • Cheng Ho: a Chinese explorer that traveled many places, including China, Africa, and the Arabian Peninsula. • Matteo Ricci: a missionary Jesuit that went to China and was a participant in the Rites Controversy. • Rites Controversy: an issue in which the Jesuits thought that the language being preached in mass (in China) should be in Chinese, whereas the Franciscans and the pope believed It should be in Latin. Islamic Empires • Mehmet the Conqueror: finished off the Byzantine Empire in which he used gunpowder in the form of cannons, and had his crew conquer Constantinople. • Suleiman the Magnificent: was in power during the European reformation and was a very talented military commander—most of the expansion of the empire happened under him. • Viziers of the 17 Century: right hand men, in which the grand vizier was the prime minister. The dynasty of the Viziers was the Koprulu family. • Janissaries: “special forces” of the sultan that were taken from their families, and raised as a part of a special enslaved elites group. • John Sobieski: the king of Poland that was battling the Ottoman Empire, who decided to help the Hapsburgs in Vienna and ended up rescuing the city—he did this as a political strategy. • Devshirme: Taxes in human form—janissaries are an example. • Law of Fratricide: the “killing of brothers” that would happen each time a new king was elected—the brothers of the king would be round up and killed together, so that they wouldn’t be considered a threat to the king in stealing his crown. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 4 Book Notes (pgs. 489-518) CHAPTER 17: The Islamic World Powers The Turkish Ruling Houses: The Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals v The Expansion of the Ottoman Empire • The Ottomans are named after Osman, who was a chief of a band of seminomadic Turks. - Ottomans: ruling house of the Turkish Empire. - The ottoman ruler called himself the border chief. • During Sultan Mehmet II’s reign, the ottomans conquered Constantinople, which was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. • Sultans: an Arabic word for authority/dominion. Used by the Ottomans to connote political and military supremacy. • Annatolia: the region of Modern Turkey. • The Chinese invented gunpowder, and it was key to the expansion of the Ottoman state. • The Ottomans didn’t enjoy complete dominion on the seas. • The Ottoman political system was made under Suleiman II. - The authority flowed from the sultan to his public servants—governors, police, military generals, treasury heads, and viziers. o Viziers: chief assistants to caliphs. - The sultan is also known as the “law giver” for this reason. v The Ottoman Empire’s Use of Slaves • A Devshirme system was used. - Devshirme: a process whereby the sultan’s agents swept the provinces for Christian youths to be trained as soldiers or civil servants - The recruits for this particular Devshirme were janissaries. o Janissaries: Turkish for “recruits” that formed the elite army corps. - The Devshirme system allowed the Ottomans to apply merit-based recruitment to military. • Sultans weren’t allowed to marry; therefore, they used concubines. - Concubine: a woman who is a recognized as spouse but lower in status than a wife. o If a concubine became pregnant, her salary and status went up. v The Safavid Empire in Persia • Shah: Persian word for “king”. • There were 3 crucial features that the strength of the safavid state rested on. - Safavid: the dynasty that encompassed all of Persia and other regions; its state religion was Shi’ism. - 1) It had loyalty and military support of the nomadic Turkish Sufis, known as Qizilbash. o Qizilbash: nomadic Sufi tribesmen who were loyal to and supportive of the early Safavid state. - 2) The safavid state had utilized the skills of urban bureaucrats and made them an essential part of the civil machinery of the government. - 3) The Shia faith. • Ulama: religious scholars whom the Sunnis trust to interpret the Quran and the Sunna, the deeds and sayings of Muhammad. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 4 • Iran is the only Muslim state in which Shi’ism is the official religion v The Mughal Empire in India • Mughal: a term meaning “Mongol”, used to refer to the Muslim empire of India, although its founders were primarily Turks, Afghans, and Persians. - This empire was the largest, wealthiest, and the most populated. Cultural Flowering v The Arts • Carpet making was an art that all 3 Islamic empires did. • Miniature painting for books was also popular. - In Mughal, books were thought to be precious objects. v City and Palace Building • The greatest builder under the Ottomans was Mimar Sinan. - He designed 312 public buildings—schools, mosques, palaces, etc. • Another builder, Akbar, was also very good. - He built the city of Fatehpur Sikri, to symbolize Islamic foundations. • Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal, and it was built as an expression of love. v Gardens • Gardens represent a distinctive and highly developed feature of Persian culture. - They are identified as paradise in Arab culture. v Intellectual Advances and Religious Trends • There were many advances in medicine under Suleiman. The imperial palace had become the center of medical science. v Coffeehouses and Their Social Impact • Drinking coffee was a new social convention that had spread throughout the Islamic world. • Coffeehouses provided a place for socializing. - Unfortunately, coffeehouses were encountered for religious and governmental opposition due to coffee being intoxicating. Shifting Trade Routes and European Penetration v European Rivalry for Trade in the Indian Ocean • The Portuguese established the port of Goa. • The British called their trading posts factory-forts. - Factory-Forts: a term used by the British for their trading post. - They existed to make profits from Asian/European trade. v Merchant Networks in the Islamic Empires • The demands for cotton cloth in India and food crops were very high. • Both Jews and Christians were active in trade. • Armenians were very well known for their trade of Persian silk. v From the British East India Company to the British Empire in India • The British East India Company was a symbol of Britain’s presence in India. - The company’s factories evolved around sepoys. o Sepoys: the native Indian troops who were trained as infantrymen. - Eventually Britain became the dominant foreign presence in India. • Jizya: a tax on non-Muslims.
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