History 173 Quiz Study Guides
History 173 Quiz Study Guides History 173
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Study Guide Quiz 1 The quiz will focus mainly on the Gilded Age and Imperialism. Chapters 16 and 17. The following are terms to or people to be familiar with: 1) Imperialism: ● The quest to build up erritorial empire ● control by powerfunation(sover ess advanced orless civilizarea. 2) Gilded Age An era after Reconstruction During the Gilded Age, it was time for the rise of big corporations. These corporations used vertical & horizontal integrations led many companies to the top. Vertical Integration: A product controlled by a single company in order to increase the company’s power in the marketplace. Horizontal Integration: When markets buy out a similar company to increase market share. Important Figures of the Gilded A : 1) Andrew Carnegie: Found a faster way to make steel. He increased productions and cut costs. 2) John D. Rockefeller: He made his fortune off of oil and used Horizontal Integration. 3) Jay Gould: Speculated Railroads. *These people were referred to as Robber Barons. This term was meant for big businessmen owners who used unfair practices during the Gilded Age to succeed. This era was very beneficial to business owners but not for workers because they were paid little as possible with no benefits due to the lack of competition. Also, the common people can’t compete and become a business owner. In the Gilded Age, some individuals were focused on LaissezFaire. It states that government shouldn’t get involved with economic affairs (to leave businesses alone) Another concept that was important during this Gilded Era aocial Darwinism. These were based on Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” theories but applied to the human society and business. Believed that the government shouldn’t help the poor because it would weaken the society. Carnegie and Rockefeller donated to the public: such as arts, libraries, education, and foundations. They believed in how the rich could use their wealth the better to the society but to never give the wealth directly. Summary of the Gilded Age: Americans believed in the self made man and had an individualistlike attitude. People were supposed to make money, but be thrifty and save money rather than being carefree with their money. However, a lot of big business owners lived a lavish lifestyle during the rise of industrialization. This led Mark Twain to criticize this kind of lifestyle and called this the Gilded Age. There were many realities and downsides to the Gilded Age: many people were povertyridden, encouraged child labor, women and children were paid less, and prevented labor unions on forming. 3) Black codes ● enacted after civil war by white southerners who sought ways to control newly freed African Americans ● regulated civil and legal rights ○ from marriage to the right to hold and sell property ○ guaranteed their continued work as farm laborers 4) Miscegenation ● the interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types. 5) Grandfather clause ● laws that restricted the right to vote to people whose ancestors had voted before the Civil War. ● basically denied blacks the right to vote 6) Teller Amendment ● a congressional resolution stating that the U.S. had no interest in taking control of Cuba 7) Roosevelt Corollary ● In 1904, when Germany demanded a port in the Dominican Republic as compensation for an unpaid loan, Theodore Roosevelt announced the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, declaring thathe U.S. would be the policeman of the Caribbean and Central America. 8) Muckraker ● Writers who exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, meatpacking, child labor, and more, primarily in the first decade of the twentieth century (progressive era); their popular books and magazine articles spurred public interest in reform. 9) lk v Wilkin(1884) ● United States supreme court case ruling that an Indian cannot make himself a citizen of the United States without the consent and cooperation of the government. 10) “Boss” Tweed ● Head of Tammany Hall; an efficient and corrupt political machine based on patronage and graft. (Tammany hall is mentioned in the Triangle book) 11) Social Gospel ● Preached by liberal Protestant clergymen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; advocated the application of Christian principles to social problems generated by industrialization. ● An updated version of manifest destiny and american expansionism strongly connected to ideas of racial superiority and a Christian missionary impulse. 12) Plessy v Ferguson ● U.S. Supreme Court decision supporting the legality of Jim Crow laws that permitted or required "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites. 13) Platt Amendment ● passed after the US defeated Spain giving US the right to intervene in Cuba to protect "life, property, and individual liberties." 14) Emilio Aguinaldo ● recognized as the 1st president of the Philippines ● led Filipinos in the PhilippineAmerican war (lasting 3 years) ○ aka "Bolo War" ○ aka "Filipino Rebellion" ● fought for independenc ● believed in the ideals of American Declaration of Independence. Concepts 1) Reasons for annexing the Philippines ● People that were ProAnnexation claimed they wanted to educate, uplift, christianize, and civilize the Filipinos 2) Ways Jim Crow laws violated the U.S. Constitution ● By enforcing segregation, these laws violated the 14th amendment’s equal protections clause, which prohibits the states from denying “equal protection of the laws” to any person within their jurisdictions. ● (it also seems to have violated free speech, voting rights, along with rights of a jury trial when accused of a crime) 3) Relate Manifest Destiny to Imperialism ● Manifest Destiny relates to Imperialism because it was an ideology used to justify the creation of American empire. Specifically, it used religious notions of Godgiven rights to the AngloSaxon race in order to promote and justify westward expansion in the nited States. 4) What the U.S. gained by the SpanishAmerican War ● New Territories. At the conclusion ofpanishAmerican War, Spain ceded control of Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico and Guam rema.S. territories, while the Philippines eventually became an independent nation. 5) The purpose of Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow Laws were more than a series of antiblack laws, they were the way of life. The primary purpose of Jim Crow Laws were to enforce racial segregation in the public. These laws prevented African Americans from doing things that a white person was privileged enough to do such as voting. This system and laws were meant to threaten the African Americans who violated any Jim Crow norms. 6) Significance flessy v Ferguson In the Plessy v Ferguson casePlessy's lawyer argued that Louisiana's Separate Car Act violated the 13th and 14th Amendments to the Constitution. The 13th Amendment abolished slavery. The 14th Amendment grants citizenship rights to anyone born in the United States. It also says that no laws should be made to take away the rights of U.S. citizens. The Supreme Court disagreed with Plessy's lawyer. Supreme Court Justice Henry Brown said that even though the 14th Amendment may have intended to make African Americans and white people 'equal before the law,' it did not necessarily intend for the two races to be 'equal in society.' According to Justice Brown, whites should not be forced to be in the same public places as African Americans. U ltimately, this case established a “separate but equal” lifestyle for African Americans. 7) rigin of the terms Gilded Age and Jim Crow Laws ● Gilded Age: Name given by Mark Twain to describe the era after Reconstruction (1870's1890's) ● it references to the time period where great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government. Jim Crow Laws: This name originated from a song called “Jim Crow”, written by Thomas Rice. Rice was a struggling actor and he appeared on stage as “Jim Crow”, a highly exaggerated, highly stereotypical black character. There are 8 matching, 15 multiple choice and 7 short answer Please bring a scantron no. 886E so there is room for your short answers. Vocabulary Code talkers Also called the Navajo Code Talkers. Many Native Americans were tempted to leave the reservations and found discrimination. It led the formation of National Congress of American Indians. A few of them joined the military. Used obscure languages during wartime. Dumbarton Oaks Early in the war, the Allies also agreed to establish a successor to the League of Nations. In a 1944 conference at Dumbarton Oaks, near Washington, DC., they developed the structure of the United Nations (UN). There would be a General Assembly essentially a forum for discussion where each member enjoyed an equal voice. Good Neighbor Policy Hoover was on a goodwill trip to Latin America soon after helection in 192 when he gave a speech in Honduras announcing, "We have a desire to maintain not only the cordial relations of governments with each other, but also the relations of good neighbors." The intention of the new policy was to mend relations with Latin American countries after they criticThe Coolidge Administration.In addition, the policy sought to secure Latin American cooperation in the world war effort by maintaining the flow of petroleum and other raw materi ls. Freedom House Freedom House was established in 1941 in New York City. Its creation was a result of a merger of two groups that had been formed, with the quiet encouragement of President Franklin D.Roosevelt, to encourage popular support for American involvement in World War II at a time when isolationist sentiments were running high in the United States. Having been created in response to the threat of one great totalitarian evil, Nazism, Freedom House took up the struggle against the other great twentieth century totalitarian threat, Communism, after the end of World War II. The organization's leadership rightly believed that the spread of democracy was the best weapon against totalitarian ideologies. Freedom House embraced as its mission the expansion of freedom around the world and the strengthening of human rights and civil liberties here at home. Eleanor Roosevelt was one of the members. Office of War Information The United States Office of War Information (OWI) was a United States government agency created during World War II to consolidate existing government information services and deliver propaganda both at home and abroad. Emphasized a good vs evil struggle Promoted total destruction of the enemy Villinied the enemy (particularly the Japanese) Black internationalism Wanting the peace to be free of race and color restrictions. (online) At its core, black internationalism is a struggle against oppression, whether manifested in slavery, colonialism, or racism. GI Bill the G.I. Bill was created to help veterans of World War II. It established hospitals, made lowinterest mortgages available and granted stipends covering tuition and expenses for veterans attending college or trade schools. Yalta Conference ws a meeting of British prime minister Winston Churchill, Soviet poseph Stalin and PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelearly in February 1945 aorld War II was winding down. The leaders agreed to require Germany’s unconditional surrender and to set up in the conquered nation four zones of occupation to be run by their three countries and France. They scheduled another meeting for April an Franciscoto create the United Nations. Stalin also agreed to permit free elections in Eastern Europe and to enter the Asian war against Japan. In turn, he was promised the return of lands lost to Japan in the RussoJapanese War of 19041905. At the time, most of these agreements were kept secret. Yalta became controversial after SovietAmerican wartime cooperation degenerated into the cold war. Stalin broke his promise of free elections in Eastern Europe and installed governments dominated by the Soviet Union. Then American critics charged that Roosevelt, who died two months after the conference, had “sold out” to the Soviets at Yalta. Nye Committee known as the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions IndustryUnited States Senate committee chaired by U.S. SenatGerald Nye. The committee investigated the financial and banking interests which underlUnited State' involvement World War I, and was a significant factor in public and political support for American neutrality in thWorld y stages of War I bracero rogram Initially imported “foreign laborers” into the US. Many stayed behind rather than returning to their country. It encouraged future illegal immigration. zoot suit riots Latino youths known as “Pachucos” caused a sensation by donning zoot suits, pork pie hats and dangling watch chains, and it wasn’t long before their eyecatching garb earned them an overblown reputation as street thugs and juvenile delinquents. Tensions grew especially high between zootsuiters and the large contingent of white sailors and Marines stationed in Los Angeles. Mexican Americans were serving in the military in high numbers, but many servicemen viewed the zootsuit wearers as World War II draft dodgers. Since wool and other textiles were subject to wartime rationing, they also considered the oversized suits an unpatriotic waste of resources. The racially charged atmosphere finally led to fullscale riots in early June 1943. Following a series of bloody street brawls between zootsuiters and white soldiers, a mob of U.S. servicemen took to the streets in taxicabs and began attacking Latinos and stripping them of their suits Smith v. Allright A resolution of the Democratic Party of Texas, a group that the Texas Supreme Court had deemed a "voluntary association," allowed only whites to participate in Democratic primary elections. S.S. Allwright was a county election official; he denied Lonnie E. Smith, a black man, the right to vote in the 1940 Texas Democratic primary. Court then found it unconstitutional, A state cannot "permit a private organization to practice racial discrimination" in elections Agricultural Adjustment Act AAA controlled the supply of seven "basic crops" – corn, wheat, cotton, rice, peanuts, tobacco and milk – by offering payments to farmers in return for taking some of their land out of farming, not pl Its g a crop. purpose was to reduce crop surplus and therefore effectively raise the value of crops. Then it was ruled unconstitutional. Glossary: New Deal legislation that establishes the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) to improve agricultural prices by limiting market supplies; declared unconstitutional in United States v. Butler Book: (p.807): The AAA authorized the federal government to try to raise farm prices by setting production quotas for major crops and paying farmers to plant less. Benefits flowed to propertyowning farmers, ignoring the large number worked on land owned by others. The AAA policy of paying landowning farmers not to grow crops encouraged the eviction of thousands of poor tenants and sharecroppers. Many joined rural exodus to cities or farms of the West Coast. (p.810): 1936, AAA fell inUnited States v. Butler which declared it an unconstitutional exercise John Steinbeck vented his frustration over World War II to a friend on March 15, 1943. Employed by the government in home front duties, the Pulitzer Pricewinning author of The Grapes of Wrath expected a big military push to come soon, and he wanted to be overseas, not stateside, covering the war. With the U.S. entry into World War II in 1941, Steinbeck agreed to write about a bomber crew, using his literary talent to craft a training manual for the Army Air Forces. Steinbeck attended class with the crew, flew in planes alongside the airmen, and learned about bombing and gunnery. Keynesian economics An economic theory of total spending in the economy and its effects on output and inflation. Keynesian economics was developed by the British economist John Maynard Keynes during the 1930s in an attempt to understand the Great Depression. In various theories about how in the short run, and especially during recessions, economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total spending in the economy). Glossary: Economic theory derived from the writings of British economist John Maynard Keynes, which rejected the laissezfaire (no government involvement) approach in favor of public spending to stimulate economic growth, even at the cost of federal deficits; dominated economic policies of administrations from the 1940’s to the mid1970’s. Book: (p.824): In 1936, inhe General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, John Maynard Keynes had challenged economists’ traditional belief in the sanctity of balanced budgets. Largescale government spending, he insisted, was necessary to sustain purchasing power and stimulate economic activity during downturns. Such spending should be enacted even at the cost of a budget deficit (when the gov spends more than it takes in). By 1938, Roosevelt was ready to follow this prescription. Eleanor Roosevelt Book: (p.825):(picture) Eleanor Roosevelt transformed the role of First Lady by taking an active and visible part in public ltext) FDR’s distant cousin whom he married, transformed the role of First lady, turning a position with no formal responsibilities into a base for political action. She traveled widely, spoke out on public issues, wrote a regular newspaper column that sometimes disagreed openly with her husband’s policies, and worked to enlarge the scope of the New Deal in areas like civil rights, labor legislation, and work rel ef. Four Freedoms President Roosevelt outlined to Congress his vision of the future world order founded on the essential human freedoms. The Freedom of Speech, The Freedom from Want, The freedom of worship, and the freedom from fear. Freedom from want meant economic security. Freedom from fear meant longing peace and desire for security in the world. Founder of Fascism Benito Mussolini was the founder of Fascism. It is a totalitarian government that has one political party and one leader. Glorifies the state. No opposition is tolerated. All aspects of society are controlled. Francisco Franco ruled over Spain from 1939 until his death. He rose to power during the bloody Spanish Civil War when, with the help of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, his Nationalist forces overthrew the democratically elected Second Republic. Adopting the title of “El Caudillo” (The Leader), Franco persecuted political opponents, repressed the culture and language of Spain’s Basque and Catalan regions, censured the media and otherwise exerted absolute control over the country. Some of these restrictions gradually eased as Franco got older, and upon his death the country transitioned to democracy. Appeasement An act of giving into the enemy’s demands in hope of not creating further conflict. Hitler demanded Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland to Germany. He said the german population there was being mistreated. British and French prime ministers agreed to agree to Hitler’s demands without consulting Czechoslovakia’s leader, in hopes of avoiding war in Europe. cash and carry plan United States Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts during the 1930s under the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in an attempt to maintain neutral status in the European conflicts. The first Neutrality Acts prohibited the sale of arms or the making of loans to belligerent countries. The U.S. Congress passed a significant Neutrality Act in 1937 that allowed trade with other countries under the condition that American ships were not used the socalled “cashandcarry” principle. This policy was renewed in November 1939 with the Neutrality Act of 1939. The Neutrality Act of 1937 allowed warring a warprone countries to purchase any goods from the United States except for war materials such as arms. Fighting nations could, however, purchase important wartime resources such as oil from the United States. There was a provision in the act that said the goods had to be transported, or “carried,” on nonAmerican ships. Another provision required that the fighting powers had to pay for the goods with cash. It was referred to as the “cashandcarry” principle. LendLease Act the LendLease Act was the principal m eans for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II. It authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress appropriated money to “the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States. ” By allowing the transfer of supplies without compensation to Britain, China, the Soviet Union and other countries, the act permitted the United States to support its war interests without being overextended in battle. DDay After World War II began, Germany invaded and occupied northwestern France beginning in May 1940. The Americans entered the war in December 1941, and by 1942 they and the British were considering the possibility of a major Allied invasion across the English Channel. The following year, Allied plans for a crossChannel invasion began to ramp up. In November 1943, Adolf Hitler (18891945), who was aware of the threat of an invasion along France’s northern coast, put Erwin Rommel (18911944) in charge of spearheading defense operations in the region, even though the Germans did not know exactly where the Allies would strike. Hitler charged Rommel with finishing the Atlantic Wall, a 2,400mile fortification of bunkers, landmines and beach and water obstacles. The Normandy invasion began to turn the tide against the Nazis. A significant psychological blow, it also prevented Hitler from sending troops from France to build up his Eastern Front against the advancing Soviets. The following spring, on May 8, 1945, the Allies formally accepted the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. Hitler had committed suicide a week earlier, on April 30. Holocaust the mass murder of some 6 million European Jews (as well as members of some other persecuted groups, such as Gypsies and homosexuals) by the German Nazi regime during the Second World War. Rosie the Riveter American women entered the workforce in unprecedented numbers during World War II, as widespread male enlistment left gaping holes in the industrial labor force. Between 1940 and 1945, the female percentage of the U.S. workforce increased from 27 percent to nearly 37 percent, and by 1945 nearly one out of every four married women worked outside the home. “Rosie the Riveter,” star of a government campaign aimed at recruiting female workers for the munitions industry, became perhaps the most iconic image of working women during the war. Executive Order 9066 gave the military broad powers to ban any citizen from a fifty to sixtymilewide coastal area stretching from Washington state to California and extending inland into southern Arizona. The order also authorized transporting these citizens to assembly centers hastily set up and governed by the military in California, Arizona, Washington state, and Oregon. Although it is not well known, the same executive order (and other wartime orders and restrictions) were also applied to smaller numbers of residents of the United States who were of Italian or German descent. aUnited States presidentiexecutive ordesigned and issued duringorld War II by the United States Presiden ranklin D. Rooseveon February 19, 1942, authorizing the Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as military zones, clearing the way for the deportation of Japanese Americans to internment camps. Korematsu v. United States The Supreme Court denied the appeal of Korematsu, who had been arrested for refusing to present for interment. Speaking for a 63 majority, Justice Black upheld the constitutionality of the internment policy, insisting that an order applying only to persons of Japanese descent was not based on race. Another Justice pointed out that Korematsu wasn’t accused of any crime. He condemned the majority for justifying a massive violation of civil liberties. Congress then apologized for internment and provided compensation to surviving victims. Korematsu was born on soil, of parents born in Japan. Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombs were dropped on these two cities in Japan. Short Answers 1) Be able to answer the causes of WWII Nationalism : wanted to rebuild Germany. Militarism Building weapons or a strong military. Imperialism: Taking of land/property. Appeasement : British and French agreed to Hitler’s demands for Czechoslovakia to cede the Sudetenland to Germany without consulting Czechoslovakia. AntiCommunism : Globalized fears of communism. Economic Depression : Depression in Germany led to the rise of votes for Hitler and the Nazi Party. Japanese Expansionism: Japan invaded Manchuria for raw materials. They also began to attack China to get more land. Later on, Japan had a war with Russia known as the SovietJapanese Border War. Rise of Fascism in Italy: Glorifies the state, one party and one leader, no opposition allowed, censorship and propaganda widely used, and all aspects of society are controlled by the government. Treaty of Versailles: Hitler violated the treaty by building up the german troops and marching into Rhineland. Rise of Hitler:Hitler wanted to conquer whoever he felt was inferior to the Germans. He wanted more living space for the Germans. Underlying causes of WWII: a. Nationalism: Extreme pride in one’s nationality or country b. Imperialism: Taking of land/property c. Militarism: Building weapons or a strong military d. Fascism: a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for entralized autocratigovernment headed by a dictator leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition. e. Totalitarian DictatorsLeaders who control all aspects of society i. Each dictator took advantage of economic problems by: 1. Promisingimple solutioto their nation’s problems 2. Rebuildingational pr(often using propaganda) 3. Providingcapegoats(targets fanger& lame 4. Absorbing power taking away individual rightrushing opposition (1 party uler) Immediate Causes of WWII: ● Hitler wanted to conquer whoever he felt was inferior to the Germans or Aryans. He wanted “living space” for the Germans in Eastern Europe. ● On September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland without a declaration of war. This starts WWII 2) Be able to discuss the uses of atomic bombs in WWII. Be able to support or not support their use using evidence (facts) not opinions. Should they have used the bomb or not? Why bomb needed: ● Japanese demonstrated nearfanatical resistance, The Japanese fought till the death by mass suicides, kamikaze attacks, and fire bombing. Only an atomic bomb could help resolve this issue. ● The Firebombing technique that was used in Tokyo had barely any political effect. Only the atomic bomb would jolt Japan’s leadership into surrender. ● The two cities would have been firebombed any way ● Immediate use of the bomb convinced world of it’s horror and prevented future use ● It impressed Soviet Union and halted the war quickly Why the Bomb was not needed, or unjustified ● Japan was ready to call it quits anyway. Many of Japan’s cities were destroyed already. ● A demonstration over Tokyo Harbor would have convinced Japan to quit without hurting any people. ● Even if the bombing of Hiromshima was necessary, There was not enough time given to Japan about 2nd bombing on Nagasaki. ● Japanese lives were sacrificed for power politics between the US and Soviet Union. ● Conventional firebombing would have worked without US being 1st to use nuclear weapons. Quiz 2 Fourteen Points Wilson made the 14 Points because he wished to eliminate the causes of WWI and called for an end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, eliminating imperial colonies, and reducing national militaries (Points 15). Wilson also wanted to change national boundaries, create new nations, and allow self determination so the people of each nation could choose their own form of government (Points 613). In Point 14, Wilson wanted the League of Nations. The entire point of these 14 Points were to avoid war and have these nations work out their problems without going to war. He wanted a League of Nations to solve conflicts in a peaceful way. At the end, the 14 points were rejected so Wilson had to compromise. These agreements led to the Treaty of Versailles. Eighteenth Amendment Prohibits the manufacturing and sale of alcohol Nineteenth Amendment Gave women the right to vote. Committee on Public Safety https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Committee_of_Public_Safety May be confused with Committee on Public Information (CPI) an independent agency of the government of the U.S. created (by Wilson) to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in WWI. Gentlemen’s Agreement The Gentleman’s Agreement was between the US and Japan whereby the US wouldn’t impose restrictions on Japanese immigration and Japan would not allow further emigration to the US. Alien Act ??? Sedition Act This law made it illegal to criticize the government or hamper the war effort in almost any manner. This was a further refinement of the Espionage Act. Radicals and Dissidents (protesters) became the targets of government prosecutors. Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) (found in Glossary of textbook) Four measures passed during the undeclared war with France that limited the freedoms of speech and press and restricted the liberty of noncitizens. Palmer Raids A series of raids led by the US Department of Justice and Mitchell Palmer, intended to capture, arrest, and deport radical leftist (communists) especially anarchists (people want to bring on a revolution). The Crisis , W.E.B. Du Bois He created an influential magazine about the social injustices and race in the US history. He wishes for a softening of the anomalies and harshness of racial prejudice, but can’t hope for its early and complete disappearance. This magazine also promotes African American arts from the Harlem Renaissance. Red Scare The promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism and radical leftism. Immigration Policy WW I Reduced immigration from Europe. Internment of enemy aliens. In 1917, there was an act favorable to the restrictionists. They taxed immigrants heading into the country. They could set up Asiatic Barriers, preventing Asians from entering into the country. Birth of a Nation A film that Woodrow Wilson watched that presented a distorted viewpoint of African Americans, glorifying the KKK, and degrading blacks. The Birth of a Nation demonstrates how early 20th Century Americans wanted to view the Civil War and to admire the South Roosevelt Corollary Declared that the US will act as a policeman of the Caribbean and Central America when Germany demanded a port in the Dominican Republic for as a compensation for an unpaid loan. Roosevlet announced in what was essentially a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that the US could intervene militarily to prevent interference from European powers in the Western Hemisphere. League of Nations The League of Nations to talk peacefully negotiate solutions without future conflicts. ○ serve as an international organization to keep peace among nations ○ included court of international justice to settle disagreemnts ○ league covenant included an agreement that all member nations would work together to stop future acts of aggression ○ US NEVER SIGNED or JOINED Great Migration Lynching, racism, and segregation was still alive in the South which led the blacks to move up to the North. Social freedom for the African Americans were accepted in the North, which led to many job opportunities. African Americans left the South because of social, political and economic reasons. Zimmerman Telegram The text from the German foreign secretary named Arthur Zimmerman, to the German ambassador to Mexico proposing a MexicanGerman Alliance in the case war between US and Germany. The telegram was intercepted by British intelligence, the British offered Mexico financial aid if it agreed to enter any future USGerman conflict as a German ally. If the Germans were victorious in the conflict, they promised to restore to Mexico the lost territories: Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. US President Woodrow Wilson found out about the telegram and told the US about it. He proposed Congress to aim the US ships against any possible German attacks. Germans have angered Wilson by attacking American ships. Then the US confirmed that they were entering WWI. Eugenics Eugenics means to set or practice beliefs which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population. “Science”of improving the human race by regulating who can bear children: flourished in early 20th century and led to laws for involuntary sterilazation of the “feebleminded”. Wobblies conference The Wobblies were the Industrial Workers of the World. They were union of wage workers formed in Chicago by unionists and their supporters due to the anger over the conservatism, philosophy, and the craftbased culture of the American Federation of Labor. The Wobblies fought for better pay, hours and conditions but they had different views than the AFL. Americanization Americanization is the process when an immigrant to the US becomes a person who share American values, beliefs and customs and understands the American society. Lusitania The RMS Lusitania was a British passenger ship making a crossing from New York to Liverpool, England. On the ship, there was hidden cargo consisted of ammos destined for the British war efforts. This was no secret to the Germans. A German ship shot a torpedo into the ship which made the Lusitania sink. The British and Americans were angry and within 2 years, America entered the war. British passenger liner sunk by a German Uboat, May 7, 1915, creating a diplomatic crisis and public outrage at the loss of 128 Americans (roughly 10 percent of total aboard); Germany agreed to pay reparations, and the US waited 2 more yrs to ender WWI. Schenck v. United States In the Schenck v US case, The Supreme Court invented the “Clear and Present Danger” test which determined when a state could constitutionally limit a person’s free speech rights. Schenck was distributing provocative flyers to draftees of WWI. The court said that words can express clear and present danger and that Congress can constitutionally prohibit them. Scopes Trial 1925 Scopes was a biology teacher who taught evolution in class. This method of teaching clashed with the traditional ways of teaching in 1920. He was found guilty and was fined 100 dollars. Cable Act 1922 The Cable Act was also known as the Married Woman’s Act. It was a federal law that allowed American women who married foreign men to retain their American citizenship. 1924 Immigration Act The Immigration Act limited the number of immigrants allowed entry into the US by a quota that allowed immigrants to come into the US at 2% of the nation’s residents. This excluded immigrants from Asia. It was an attempt to limit immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe. They welcomed people from Britain, Ireland, and Northern Europe. This act was signed by President Coolidge. Harlem The Harlem Renaissance was the rebirth of artistical or intellectual movements from the African Americans which were expressed through paintings, writing, literature, dance, music, and painting. Now there was a rapid amount of job opportunities in the North. The Harlem Renaissance was originally called the Negro movement. This movement was due to the bottled up emotions by the constraints of segregation. Harlem was centered in New York City. This caused the Great Migration, which had African Americans from the South move up to the North. Harlem Renaissance helped to redefine how Americans and the world understood African American Culture. Short Answer Be able to discuss the causes of World War 1. The first cause of World War 1 was due to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. It sparked Europe into total war. AustriaHungary declared war on Serbia. After a number of developments gradually increase tensions in Europe which lead an outbreak of WWI. The developments were Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism also were causes of WWI. Be able to discuss signs that the Great Depression was looming on the horizon during the Roaring 20s. The 4 signs that signaled the Great Depression were Overproduction, Banking & Money Policies, Political decisions, and stock market practices. Overproduction occurred because the workers’ pay was stagnant as their production of products rose by 50%. The owners of the company were being paid more than the workers. This led to the workers being unable to buy the products that they made because they couldn’t afford them. In conclusion, high demands and underconsumption for goods led to overproduction. Banking and Money Policies caused the Great Depression because banks allowed people to buy items on credit, which increased personal debt since people didn’t have enough money to pay off the item. Political decisions caused the Great Depression because Hoover made the SmootHawley Tariff to tax US imported goods. Huge increase on taxes hurt the companies and individuals. The tariff made trade wars with other countries and worsened the world’s economic condition.The Stock Market was another cause for the Great Depression because they allowed people to buy on margin which meant that they borrowed money from a broker to purchase stocks. Banks also loaned stock brokers margin loans, in which the banks took out money that was deposited from other people for these loans.
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