Final exam review guide
Final exam review guide ANT3520
Popular in Skeleton Keys: Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janaki Padmakumar on Sunday July 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT3520 at University of Florida taught by Amanda Friend in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views.
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Date Created: 07/31/16
Final exam study guide Defining trauma: Trauma is an injury or wound to living tissue caused by an external agent- i.e. an extrinsic force acting upon the body. Trauma can take different forms, including blunt force, and sharp force trauma. Blunt force trauma (BFT) is caused by low velocity forces distributed a larger surface area. This includes instances of objects causing acceleration trauma (like hitting with a bat), and deceleration trauma (moving body striking a blunt object or the ground- car accidents) Fracturing- breakages within the bone- depend on the type of trauma (and can be caused by other factors affecting the bone like stress and pathology). Fractures caused by trauma to the bone occur quickly (with the sole cause being sudden injury), and the damage is noticeable on soft tissue surrounding the fracture. Recall that bone is formed from both an inorganic component (hydroxyapatite), and an organic component (cartilage and collagen matrix with calcium and phosphorous compounds)- the organic compound enables bone to be flexible and repaired to a certain extent, while the inorganic component allows stability. This also affects how strain on the bone affects fractures (fracture mechanics) Remember that the same tool used to inflict damage can cause different fracture patterns (like sharp vs blunt end of hammer, angle, force behind blow, etc). Common factors affecting forces behind fracture mechanics are the magnitude, duration and direction of the force. Likewise, the elasticity, density and strength of bone affects fracturing as well. Strain on bones causes deformation which has three phases Deformation curve: - Elastic phase: bone deforms but returns to original shape - Plastic phase: bone deformation occurs and bone does not retain original shape; no breakage - Failure: bone fracturing occurs Forces resulting in trauma (acute injury to bone) Tension- usually in joints, like when arm is pulled Compression Bending Shear (sliding; happens when one end of the bone is mobilized) Torsion (twisting, forms a spiral fracture) Bone breakage occurs first with tension (applying compression on one surface causes tension on the other side; tension side breaks first) Fracture healing phases - Reactive: o Fracture and inflammation (hematomas can be present) o Granulation tissue formation (bony bridge); this is the phase when osteoblasts lay down new bone after osteoclasts removed damaged portions o Hematomas repair within a few hours (depending on size/severity) - Reparative o Woven callous formation- approx. 21 days o Lamellar bone (formed by concentric osteon rings) deposition - Remodeling o Original bone contour reestablishment phase; osteoblasts and osteoclasts are at homeostasis o Starts within 4-6 weeks and occurs for the rest of the individual’s lifetime o Complete remodeling takes about 3-5 years Variables in healing length - Fracture severity - Location of fracture - The extent to which the fracture can be immobilized - Individual’s age and health status *If a bone is completely healed, you cannot tell where the breakage occurred Types of imperfect repair - Angulation- limb turns out distended or shorter - Pseudoarthrosis- extreme disjunction caused by fracture- creates what appears to be a false joint Imperfect repair may or may not affect limb function- case by case scenario fracture type description boxer's fracture 5th metacarpal head fracture s r r Colle's fracture dorsal angulation of distal radial fragment e c parry ulnar diaphysis break; typically defensive f r radial head displacement in proximal ulnar shaft f Monteggia diaphysis fracture Galeazzi radial break that displaces ulna Pars 5th lumbar vertebral arch fracture pars interarticularsis repetitive hypertension fracture spondylolysis disc slippage weber distal tibia and fibula fracture Trauma relating to time of death: - Perimortem trauma is trauma that occurs at or around the time of death. There is no visible osseous response associated with this trauma, nor is there any discoloration between damaged and intact bone. Concentric, depressed, radiating and/or stellate fractures may be visible when examining the bone. Bone spurring/splintering and fracture margins can also be present - Postmortem damage is not qualified as trauma since this is damage occurring after the individual is deceased. There is a greater likelihood for small splintering fracture since there is no organic material on the bone. This damage produces color differences between damaged and intact bone, and does not always produce identifiable fracture patterns Fracturing associated with blunt force trauma - Blunt force trauma to the cranium produces linear fractures from high mass, low velocity impacts o These can radiate from the point of impact to form radiating or stellate fractures o They can also circumscribe the impact point to form concentric rings o Fracturing occurs at the thinnest part of the skull, and ends in the sutures, which are the thickest part - BFT to the face can produce Le Fort fractures- this type of fracture is a midface fracture that results from the maxillae and/or zygomatics being separated from the cranium. There are three types of La fort fractures: o La fort I is produced by a blow to the lower face that separates the maxilla from the skull o La fort II is a centrally focused/anterior blow to the midface- can fracture the zygomatics o La fort III is a fracture that goes through the eye orbits - BFT can also result in permanent bone deformation, also known as plastic deformation. This occurs when the fracture margins fail to align, and is found in elastic bone, like those of kids - BFT from a high velocity, low mass object can create depressed fractures- these crush the outer table of the bone, and cause localized areas of detached bone to push inward. BFT does not usually leave impressions of objects that caused impact on bones- these are generally left on surrounding soft tissue. No weapon can be matched to skeletal damage to 100% certainty- approximations such as object length, edge, and curvature can be stated. If there are multiple blows that produce fractures, its impossible to determine the sequence of the blows. long bone fractures fracture type description compound/o open wound- bone visible, can stick out; segmental pen or comminuted right angle to long bone axis; can be displaced or transverse nondisplaced curved or sloping fracture pattern on the bone oblique shaft oblique fracture along shaft caused by torque spiral along axis creates three fragments; depends on age, health segmental and joint type type of segmental; forms a triangle on butterfly compression side multiple complex fracture with many fragments; comminuted open or closed impacted/bu common in falls/accidents; compression of two ckle fragments on bone incomplete fracture- bone bends w/out breaking; greenstick common in kids Sharp force trauma: SFT is essentially BFT distributed over a small surface area- one distinction is that the foreign object can go through the bone to cause damage. SFT can result in tension and compression fractures like those created in BFT. Damages unique to SFT include: - Puncture or stab wounds - Incisions - Chopping or hacking injuries These injuries can all be indicative of defensive wounds, trauma or accidents, depending on the context wound type description more length than depth; V shaped cross section with one side Incised lifted; will vary with blade type and weapon track depth greater than length; instrument shape can be determined w/cross section; can produce radiating fractures when sharp stab/puncture object is thrust into tissue chopping/hack common w/axes or machetes; crushes bone and tissue and can ing leave striations which can be used to determine weapon fracturing unique to SFT fracture type description radiating terminates in sutures and other fractures hinge occurs in hydrated tissue; causes fragments to bend inward fragments of wood fly off like wood chips when hacked or wastage chopped Depending on the damage inflicted, examiners can guage the type of instrument used. For example, if the wounds are deep and small, a puncture tool was most likely used. If an area that is hard to access is damaged, then a longer blade length can be assumed. Sometimes the exact amount of SFT can be hard to estimate if there are multiple blows to the body- single events can cause multiple wounds, and repetitive hacking or chopping can remove prior damage- such as in the case of dismemberment. How to ID dismemberment: Dismemberment leaves kerfs, which are the walls and floors of cut marks. Examining the pattern of the kerf can produce estimations about the weapon used to produce the mark. Kerfs are common when knives or saws are used, and can show the serration pattern of the weapon (crosscut saw, rip saw, teeth per inch, etc.) Breakaway spurs are also an indicator of dismemberment- these are projections of uncut bone at the terminal ends of cuts after the weapon is used to break bone. It is accompanied by matching notches on the opposite fragment of bone False starts are kerfs on unsevered bone. These usually occur when dismemberment beings, but the bone is too difficult to cut into, and can provide information about the weapon used. Ballistics and GSW In forensic anthropology, ballistics is the study of projectiles in flight (includes darts, arrows, etc). internal ballistics studies the projectile’s motion within a gun barrel, while external ballistics tracks the travel from gun muzzle to the target. Terminal ballistics studies the projectile’s motion through the target, i.e. the body. Gunshot wounds can estimate the size (caliber) of the bullet, the trajectory into and through the body, and the velocity of the bullet. All GSW cases are x-rayed to check for damage as well as for metal components which can be embedded in the body. 3 GSW factors Entrance wound size can est. caliber; depends on range, projectile type and design. Can be hard to determine sometimes since caliber bullets expand path bullet takes through body- establishes positional relationship trajectory between the shooter and victim speed in a given direction; higher velocity causes greater damage velocity (high velocity= high energy, low velocity= low energy) wounds produced by gunshots penetrating bullet enters tissue but does not exit- only produces entrance wound bullet enters and exits body/organ/structure to produce entrance perforating and exit wounds entrance wound inward curvature (beveling) to produce hertzian cone exit wound external beveling; larger than entrance wound keyhole internal and external beveling along single defect margin; caused entrance by acute angle of trajectory *associated radiating fractures; concentric fractures created mm or inches fracture from GSW Burned remains When bodies are burned, they are usually recovered in the pugilistic pose (curled up or shriveled pose) due to muscles and tendons contracting after heat exposure. Bodies are burned with the intent to either make the body less identifiable, or to cover up a crime. Burn patterns- the dorsal side of the body with minimal amounts of tissue burns first- palms will be the last to burn. The ventral side of the body contains most of the tissue, which causes tissue shielding, therefore it takes longer to burn bones from the ventral side. 3 stages of change in burned bone first 100-600 degrees Celsius; removes water loosely attached to the body secon d 600-800 degrees Celsius; loss of collagen and reduction of bone weight 800 degrees Celsius or greater; combustion of organic material and third enlargement of hydroxyapatite crystals As bone burns, it changes color due to the chemical composition of the bone being altered (order of least to most burnt) - Yellow or light brown - Black when charred - Blue-grey - White calcined bone Once the body burns, expect shrinkage from between 6-25% of the actual size; bones can become warped, curved, and fractured. Fracturing caused by burns longitudi Rare occurrence in burned bones; fracture along nal length of the bone transver curved, thumbnail fractures that do not extend deep se into cortical bone patina tortoise shell patterned breakages The state of the remains (dry, fleshed or defleshed) can be determined by burn patterns found on the body and the bones. Additionally, the body’s position, and uses of accelerants can produce unique burn patterns on the body. Burned bones can also indicate factor such as prior trauma, the individual’s biological profile, and prior trauma. Remains are reconstructed with cement to glue bones back together (unless they are severely damaged). Dental wax and molding clay are also commonly used. In cases relating to cremated bodies, cremains analyses are conducted for ethical reasons, errors, or family concerns. Cremains analyses are done by documenting remains, weighing them, separating by size, using radiographs, visual inspections, and then photographing remains. Fragmentary remains like bone and teeth can be used as lines of evidence for the individual’s identity. The weight of cremated remains is related to the individuals biological profile (sex, weight, stature etc), and a range of variation is used to confirm identity. Cremation artifacts can also be found within remains that can be unique to individuals (jewelry, surgical pins, pacemaker parts, etc) Chemical analysis tests (XRF) can be used to test for human remains, particularly to distinguish from things like concrete. If teeth are recovered, they can be tested for nutritional history, and fragmentary remains can indicate if any traumatic events took place. DNA analysis is rarely done for cremated remains because those being tested are unlikely to produce a match in the DNA databank. It also hasn’t been substantiated with enough research, and even bone exposed to temperatures below commercial grade cremation temperatures do not yield DNA. Mass fatalities and human rights issues Mass disasters can be natural or manmade- they result in a large number of deceased individuals. The primary goal in a mass disaster situation is to aid and provide relief to survivors, prevent further loss of life, and provide medical care. Secondary goals include personal ID, determining cause and manner of death, and is done only once the scene is secure. These issues can relate to public health safety, civil litigation for the decedent’s family and other issues of documentation. DMORT- the Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team is a subset of the national disaster medical system. They have three resource groups who work to provide assistance during mass disasters. - Personnel: experts (pathologists, anthropologists), funeral directors, evidence techs, etc- triage remains (most to least fragmented remains), describe biological profile, establish MNI (minimum number of individuals), trauma analysis, etc. - Family assistance counselors and support- provide family with direct information about the event, collect antemortem information about the deceased, provide counseling/support, and coordinate with family and law enforcement. - Disaster portable morgue unit- maintains consistency of equipment and practices across different situations. Jurisdictional issues- Law enforcement (federal or local) has control of the scene itself. The body falls under the medical examiner’s jurisdiction. Jurisdiction must be established before the investigation begins to ensure that evidence is not misplaced, and that unauthorized personnel do not get access. Identification of 9/11 vics at the WTC - Large number of missing persons - Highly fragmented and altered remains - IDs based on genetic testing Deployment at fresh kills landfill - Requested by NYPD crime scene personnel - Asked to ID osseous v non-osseous, human v non-human remains - Assess which bone, side and ID features; re-associate remains when possible - Ultimately, every piece ID’d with DNA testing - Type II elements- soft tissue fused from two different individuals Some remains found at scenes hold probative value in anthropological analysis (such as myositis ossifications and antemortem fractures); however observations are not that significant if all remains will be genetically tested. The forensic anthropologist’s role is to save resources by preventing evidence techs from wasting time and energy sorting through non-human remains. ID remains of victims of hurricane Katrina - Large number of missing persons- many were relocated before or after hurricane - Remains distributed over a large area - Remains largely intact but decomposed - Cemetery remains mix with newly deceased - Identifications done via traditional means and DNA analysis Undocumented border crossing deaths in Florida - Reasons- economic, political, social, human rights - Conditions: dangerous terrain, long journeys, coyotes (people who are smugglers); corruption - Immigration law and border enforcement- increase patrol in easiest routes of access- resulted in increased casualties/fatalities - Problems with identification and concerns about who crossed into US Historic remains FAs sometimes do work purely for historical interest on those who died during a historical period of a given region. The historical period of the US is determined by the beginning of written documentation and US governmental structure. Biohistory is the practice of applying bioanalytical methods to historical studies. Bioanalysis is any method of inquiry (DNA, histology, radiology) in which the subject being studied has biological origins Case studies: Josef Mengele: Mengele was a Nazi war criminal who did inhumane medical tests on those imprisoned during the holocaust (twins in particular). Mengele escaped to Brazil, and his remains were exhumed in 1985. Dental comparisons, photo superimposition, osteological analysis and nuclear DNA testing were used to verify his ID. Pizzaro: Pizzaro was a conquistador from Spain who conquered the Incas in Peru. He was allegedly assassinated between the ages of 60-70 after being stabbed in the throat. Remains found in the Lima cathedral in 1977 were tested in 1984. The osteological analysis was compared to historical accounts of his death- it was determined these remains matched better with biological profile and trauma fitting Pizzaro than a mummy discovered earlier. Zachary Taylor: Taylor fell ill in 1850 and died suddenly, leading to the conspiracy that he was poised with arsenic. His family members had his body exhumed in 1991 to be tested, and Dr. Maples and two independent labs tested the remains- trace amounts of arsenic were found, but the level was not high enough to indicate poisoning. Beethoven: Beethoven’s hair and bone fragment contained high amounts of lead, suggestive of heavy drinking. However, an autopsy done on him before showed liver cirrhosis and indicators of type II diabetes; others believed bone damage was caused by him entering tertiary syphilis (which was treated with mercury). Ned Kelly: his body was misplaced in 1929; the purported body was ID’d using antemortem trauma analysis, x-rays, CT scans and DNA analysis The Death of the Romanovs and subsequent IDs Tsar Nicholas II was the last emperor of Russia. He and his family (wife Alexandra, daughters Olga, Tatianna, Maria and Anastasia, and son Alexei) were captured, along with 4 house staff during the Bolshevik revolution and were shot and killed in 1919. Remains were recovered later on: - 9 skeletons: 4 female, 1 male - All facial elements were fractured badly - One male skeleton had no upper teeth - All females had dental work done - Skulls and teeth were etched with acid- done to prevent identification Skeleto n numbe r Identity Characteristics of remains Anna pelvis of middle aged female, poor quality dental bridge on Demidov mandible; ankle joint extension suggesting a lot of 1 a (maid) crouching/kneeling Skull missing upper teeth, flat sloping forehead, pelvis of Dr. mature male; GSW to left forehead, only skeleton with intact 2 Botkin torso. One bullet in pelvic area and one in vertebra Grand duchess Female, early 20s, fully developed wisdom teeth, stature 3 Olga estimate of 64.9 in; extensive amalgam fillings 5 grand female, late teens to early 20s; incomplete 3rd molar root duchess tips, underdeveloped sacrum, long bones indicated growth just completed, 67.5 in, back had signs of immaturity but also maria showed over 18. Not Anastasia bc too tall Grand young mature female (clavicle); sacrum and pelvic rim duchess mature (18+); 65.6in; damage prevented facial 6 Tatianna superimposition Ivan badly damaged male skeleton 40s-50s; flat browridge and Kharnito profile, healed ulnar fracture; fairly small; process of 8 v elimination Alexei big, heavy boned male with signs of aging; worn teeth, over 9 Trupp 6ft, overall very robust Czarina older female, possible bayonet damage to ribs; expensive Alexandr dental work with gold fillings, platinum molars, porcelain 7 a crowns middle aged male with short stature; broad, flat palate; Czar terrible teeth, jutting brow line, protruding supraorbitals, Nicholas deformation and wear on pelvis consistent w/horseback 4 II riding Anastasia’s skeleton- all female bodies in the mass graves had rates of growth on epiphyses and teeth that suggested they were too old to be 17. Russians initially believed skeleton 6 was Anastasia and 5 was Tatianna. All skeletons were also too tall to match Anastasia. In 2007, a new grave containing 2 bodies was found 70 meters from the first mass grave. These remains were consistent with two individuals- a young male and female, both in their teens. These remains were more fragmented, with evidence of burning, and had silver fillings in their molars, indicating aristocratic status. When DNA analysis was conducted in 2008, results matched the two missing Romanovs Religion and ritual use of human remains Santeria- “the way of the saints” is a mixture of west African religious traditions and Christianity (Yoruba origins). This religion requires animal sacrifice for priest ordination and induction into the faith. These ceremonies are conducted during important life events, and uses materials such as blood, feathers and mercury. They do not use human remains, but animal remains can be confused with human bone. Palo mayombe “stick”- this religion originated in Cuba, and mixed Bantu practices with Christianity. They use religious receptacles or altars which contain earth, sticks, and human/non-human remains. Each ritual has different components (cauldrons, nails, mercury, stones, sticks etc) Forensic significance is important in these cases as they differentiate between practices and suspected homicide, human and non-human remains, associated artifacts, and taphonomic factors Ethics- human trophy skulls (tribal v. those recovered from WWII vets who served in japan) Overview of forensic sciences - AAFS- American Academy of Forensic Sciences was established in 1948 and functions as a multidisciplinary organization- it establishes standards of practices, holds conferences for collaboration and education, and functions as a way for people to enter/be involved with the field. ID physical evidence and evaluate; run lab tests, DNA, ballistics, criminalistics fingerprinting and chemical analyses etc pathology/biol application of biology/pathology and general medicine to legal ogy needs of society; ME, entomologists study of harmful drug effects on living systems- forensic toxicology studies how illicit substances contributed to person's Toxicology death dentistry applied to medico-legal issues; ID with records and bite odontology mark analysis evaluate ability to stand trial, waiving legal representation, and psychiatry eligibility for execution study of law philosophy; convictions, cases, expert testimonies jurisprudence and evidence studied questioned verification of document authenticity- writer, if additions were docs made; ransom and kidnapping notes, etc digital/media services detect file deletion, alteration, corruption; recover lost files engineering examine material/parts, usually done in civil litigation to see if sciences faulty part resulted in harm general newly emerging specialties; broad category to fit those who don't section meet other category requirements forensic BSc in a natural science (bio, chem, physics); apply sciences to scientists forensic work ME/coroner's ID skeletal remains, assist in trauma analysis, conduct autopsies, office take custody of body Qualifications to be a forensic anthropologist - Minimum of a master’s degree; most have PhDs - Average time to obtain PhD is 8 years - To be eligible for a “diplomate”, need to work cases for a minimum of 3 years post PhD - Knowledge base includes o Human evolution o Anatomy and physiology o Developmental biology o Biometry and statistics o Clinical medicine o Biomechanics o Archaeology o Comparative anatomy - Work locations: o Government institutions (DMORT, FBI, etc) o JPAC-CIL o NGOs for human rights missions (not usually full time jobs); used to gain experience in the field o Museums- curator or collections manager positions o Private consult/for profit work o Professional organizations o Board certification under ABFA o Publishing in scientific journals- publish or perish Maples - Started off a primatologist before he decided to persue forensic anthropology - Worked in collaboration with Dr. Hamilton, ME for this district - Worked on several historical cases such as ID of Pizzaro’s remains, and worked on the first Romanov mass grave - One of the leading anthropologists - Assisted in setting up CAPHIL - Died of glioma as a result of brain cancer
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