Midterm Study Guide for EDC 104
Midterm Study Guide for EDC 104 Edc 104
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Lafond on Monday August 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Edc 104 at La Salle University taught by Maryanne Bednar in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Education Diversity in America in Education at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 08/01/16
EDC 104 Topic 1: Exceptionalities- Historical Overview and Legal Topics *Cyclical nature of humans to include and exclude those “others” deemed different* Social Response o Most social/cultural groups have varied back and forth between including and excluding Social segregation typical in many societies unless individual had a needed skill in the society, and then they were included o Early 1900s- USA Social segregation with institutionalization was the norm until abuses became apparent and lawsuits formed Most publically funded state hospitals closed Plans were made to figure out what to do with these patients that now had nowhere to go Legislation initiated to open educational opportunities for all learners Legislation initiated to open educational opportunities up for all learners o 1972 Mill vs. Washington D.C. and PARC vs. Commonwealth of PA Free appropriate public education to all Include students with disabilities in same schools and programs as those without disabilities Establish procedural safeguards to ensure access o 1975 Public Law 94-142 IDEA Education of all Handicapped Students Act Equal opportunity for education and programs Full participation Independent living Economic self-sufficiency o 2004 IDEA reauthorized Educators must know and appropriately use the critical points IDEA: 6 Basic Principles o 1. Zero Exclusion Concept of “educability”- who is worthy of an education? Has impact on school discipline practices for administrators and teachers If a student acting out is part of their disability, you cannot expel or suspend them If an action such as hitting, biting, etc. has nothing to do with their disability, they can be suspended o 2. Nondiscriminatory Evaluation Screening of ALL students, whether it is hearing, vision, scoliosis, etc. 1) Pre-referral with immediate assistance to teachers to address student need R-T-I: Response to Intervention 2) Referral with formal request 3) Nondiscriminatory evaluation by team (psychologist, teacher, nurse, etc.) o 3. Appropriate Education using the IEP as a blueprint to follow From birth-2 years old they use IEFSP (Individualized Education Family Services Plan) IEP= Individualized Education Plan ages 3-21 Formal legal action plan that helps teachers, learners, parents, and other professionals to operationalize what has been deemed appropriate education for someone who has special needs Basic Components o Determine current academic and functional levels o Create measurable academic and functional goals o Decide how annual progress of these goals will be measured o Determine any special education and related services necessary o Explain any exclusions- i.e. why student cannot take an assessment or why they cannot participate in gym o Identify accommodations that will be made to ensure success for student in state mandated testing, etc. o Identify when these services will begin and end, the location, and when they will be reevaluated o Transition Plan- preparation for this plan will begin at age 16. It will go into effect from ages 18-21. This helps decide what the student is capable of after graduation, whether working, college, etc. o 4. Least Restrictive Environment Today, we want to be less restrictive with students and allow them to be in the regular education classroom We need to look at the natural environment (academic curriculum, extracurricular activities, and nonacademic activities such as lunch, recess, dances, games) Inclusion- both physically and emotionally (sense of belonging) High expectations and challenge o 5. And 6. Safeguard Provisions Procedural Due Process- step-by-step process Parent and student participation in decision making Advocate stands in for child if they cannot be there Need balance in decisions Inclusion o Definition: having students with disabilities/exceptionalities learning in general education classes and having a sense of belonging in these classes o Principles of Inclusion: Home-school placement Natural proportions= percent of district which determines how many kids with an IEP can be in one class comparable to the district population Age and grade appropriate placements Seen as valued classroom members o Additional Safeguards: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act- addresses students who may not qualify under IDEA but possess significant physical or mental impairment; reasonable accommodations that no one would see as problematic (asthma etc.) ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act- civil rights and nondiscriminatory protection (usually after graduation) o Why IEP and UDL? IEP opens educational opportunities for all students and they figure out alternate achievement standards if appropriate UDL removes physical and learning barriers so that all students have to opportunity to learn Topic 2: Universal Design Basic Concept- architectural based concept to design physical spaces that are open to all individuals to use independently Basic Points- ADA requires that public buildings use minimum standards to assure accessibility for all citizens; older buildings are exempt to a certain degree to existing restrictions within the building o Restrooms o Elevators o Doorways o Pavements/curbs o Etc. Adapting o Educators frequently adapt, borrow, apply concepts/terms from other fields o Repurposed and named Universal Design for Learning/Living 6 Basic Principles: o Access o Classroom Ecology o Learning- how the content is presented or represented o Educational and Assistive Technology o Assessment and Task Modifications- changes to time or task but not the content o Teacher, Paraprofessional and/or Peer Support UDL o Flexibility o Thoughtfulness o Preparation o Open to exploration of new ideas UDL for Teachers o Multiple means of representation o Multiple means of action and expression o Multiple means of engagement Topic 3: Family and Social Issues Family response to crisis o Internal- how family members deal with the situation and react Effect on relationships in the family are complicated and ongoing frequently multi-dimensional and, often, surprising (effect on siblings, etc.) o External- how others see this issue outside the family Family impact is dependent upon many issues o Type and degree of issue or challenge o Emotional stability of the family (greater the resilience, the better the response) o Socioeconomic Status o Religious Values and Beliefs Stages of Response: o Shock o Realization o Defensive Retreat o Acknowledgement Parental Concerns o Immediate: concerns for the child labeled as exceptional, concerns for maintaining family functioning while addressing possible new challenges, concerns for child’s acceptance and role within the family o Then: future expectations socially and academically, future expectations past graduation etc., challenges maintaining family functioning while facing these challenges Diversity Issues Within the Family o Changes in family dynamics o Change of personal status, responsibilities, and opportunities within the community Diversity Issues with Siblings o Frequently siblings mirror the parental response o Siblings may present own issues in response to new situation within the home (responsible one, peacemaker, withdrawer, and acting outer) o Anger at parents or the sibling with problem; fear; blame External Issues o How does the family now react with the community? Parents as Advocates o Tendency for people to see the parents as the enemy, which is not true. Everyone needs to work together to get the child the best care possible. Professionals’ Roles o Gain knowledge about the specific issue, dynamics o Serve as a resource guide of information regarding services within the district or available in the community regarding educational issues o Be aware of professional role and boundaries Topic 4: Learning Abilities, Preferences, and Disabilities Exploring the differences: o Learning abilities= your ability to learn (all of us have some ability) o Learning Style= preferred way to learn o Learning Disability= minor or major problems with learning; if you meet the criteria you get an IEP Definition of Learning Disability- A disorder in 1 or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, read, think, speak, write, spell or do mathematical equations. Such a term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Such a term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Who may be labeled under this term? o Most prevalent of all the disabilities o Includes all racial groups and SES o More prevalent among young males o Tends to be genetic Characteristics o Average or above-average intelligence as identified by using and individually administered intelligence test by a qualified examiner (IQ Test) Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children- most typical Stanford Binet Intelligence Test Reading and writing difficulties common o No one clear cut test o Everyone can present differently Academic Issues o Written Language (handwriting, spelling, composition) o Expressive Language (have trouble choosing language to use) o Mathematics (inability to manipulate or not manipulate numbers- dyscalculia) Additional Issues o Memory- difficulty with short-term and working memory; difficulty with long term memory; poor strategies for memorizing or categorizing info o Metacognition- problems with executive functioning and not having effective strategies for solving problems; impulsivity when trying to solve problems o Social, Emotional, or Behavioral Issues SOME may lack effective interpersonal skills May not be able to read facial cues May misread non-verbal language May view self as less competent or less worthy than peers Why is someone learning disabled? o Neurological- unclear o Genetics may play a strong role o Environmental How is one evaluated for a LD? o Full battery of varied tests and measures (intelligence test, achievement tests, physical screenings, classroom observations, parental interviews, child’s development case history) School-Based Approaches o Discrepancy Model- based on what is expected of the learner given his/her basic abilities vs. what they actually produce o Traditional Approach- teach, child does not respond, test formally o R-T-I- based on the ability of the student to respond to effective instruction with progress monitored to see whether or not the intervention or interventions work or not Teachers use tiers, identified series of progressive levels, to assist learner before moving to a more direct diagnosis and formal label 1-mild 2-more aggressive 3-aggressive Teacher stops intervention when it works Classroom Pedagogical Issues o Early Childhood- balance direct and indirect instruction by what the child needs o Elementary-Middle- differentiated instruction; UDL Multiple means of representation Multiple means of action and expression Multiple means of engagement o Secondary-Transition Students- introducing and using learning strategies Topic 5: Attention Deficit Disorders Learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders are not the same! o May present similar characteristics in the classroom o Take the time to sort through the differences o Each learner deserves their own response not clouded by misinformation o Some learners may be dual with both a LD and ADD Definitions: o IDEA- limited strength, vitality, or alertness particularly in an educational environment o DSM-IV- persistent pattern of inattention and or hyperactivity- impulsivity that is more frequently displayed than observed in peers Who “Owns” It? o Predominantly males o Levels: Pre-Schoolers- be cautious because they are at a very active age Elementary- very common to be active at this age, but most settle down when given direction Secondary- by this point it will be known if you have attention issues o Typically a life-long issue Multiple Representations o Predominantly Inattentive Type- ADD o Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type- AD/HD o Combines Type- ADHD Possible Deficits in Executive Functioning o Nonverbal working memory- problems learning from the past o Internalization of speech- no filter with what they say o Self-regulation of affect, motivation, and arousal- emotional or labile response o Reconstitution- difficulty with analyzing and synthesizing behaviors so it keeps on happening Task analysis- help child break down situation and ask them to recognize where things go wrong and how to fix it Causes o Hereditary: 80% o Structural brain differences o Other biological factors (prenatal exposures/postnatal trauma) Diagnosis o Nondiscriminatory evaluation o Strong classroom observation component o Connor’s Rating Scales- typically the test used Treatment options o Medication o Cognitive/behavioral therapy o Multi-modal= therapy and medication (best approach) Pharmaceuticals o Examples: Ritalin (4 hours) Adderall/Ritalin SR (5-7 hours) Adderall/Concerta XR (extended release) (8-12 hours) Patches All of these are “speed” drugs to help calm the person down (amphetamines) o Possible Problems Appetite suppressant Sleep problems Growth delays Rebound effect- ongoing use of the med may actually exacerbate the problem Selling, sharing, and exchange “parties”
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