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EDC 104 Final Study Guide

by: Danielle Lafond

EDC 104 Final Study Guide Edc 104

Marketplace > La Salle University > Education > Edc 104 > EDC 104 Final Study Guide
Danielle Lafond
La Salle
GPA 3.77

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About this Document

This guide contains all of the material covered in the second half of the semester that is on Dr. Bednar's final. It ranges from Emotional and Behavioral Disorders through Gifted and Talented.
Education Diversity in America
Maryanne Bednar
Study Guide
emotional, Behavioral, disorders, anxiety, bipolar, mood, OppositionalDefiant, conduct, Schizophrenia, Idea, Externalizing, Internalizing, Intellectual, Disabilities, characteristics, DownSyndrome, Nondiscriminatory, evaluation, IEP, Paraprofessionals, Milieu, autism, Rhett's, Asperger, SevereandMultipleDisabilities, Apgar, maps, UDL, Physical, CerebralPalsy, SpinaBifida, Epilepsy, health, Impairments, Asthma, 504, TBI
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Lafond on Monday August 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Edc 104 at La Salle University taught by Maryanne Bednar in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Education Diversity in America in Education at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 08/01/16
EDC 104 Final Exam Study Guide Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  Types o Emotional:  Anxiety disorder  Mood Disorder  Bipolar Disorder o Behavioral:  Oppositional Defiant Disorder  Conduct Disorder o Psychiatric:  Schizophrenia  IDEA Definition (1 set of definitions) o Emotional Disturbance includes one or more of the following: inability to learn, inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships, inappropriate behaviors or feelings, general pervasive (ongoing) mood of unhappiness or depression, tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems  Dyslexthymia- inadequate words to express emotion o Conditions must be present:  Over a long time period  Significant degree  Adversely affects educational performance and quality of life o Emotional Disorders  Anxiety  Most common childhood emotional disorder  Excessive fear, worry, or uneasiness  Varying types and possible demonstrations in the classroom  Types: o Separation anxiety disorder: most common; separation from home, family, or someone with whom there is a close attachment o Generalized: excessive worry but not associated with a recent event o Phobia: unrealistic fear of object or situation o Panic disorder: overwhelming attacks of panic including rapid heart beat and dizziness o Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: repetitive impulses or thoughts; repetitive stereotypical behaviors (hand washing, counting) o Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: flashbacks or recurrent symptoms related to trauma; very specific to an event  Physical, war, car crash, mental/emotional abuse  Post-Traumatic Growth- possibilities to grow from trauma; does not disregard negatives but looks at now and future o Mood Disorders  Extreme deviation in either a depressed state, called depression, or an elevated state called mania  Some people cycle between the depressed and manic states, referred to as Bipolar Disorder  Characteristic Changes in one or more areas:  Emotions- feel sad, worthless, or cry a lot  Motivation- loses interest in hobbies, friends, etc.  Physical Well-Being- eat/sleep too much or too little; disregard hygiene  Thoughts- think they are ugly or hopeless  Depression- more than just feeling “down”; more like a loss of all hope  Must be for an extended time period displaying an array of symptoms  Not all depression looks or feels the same  Can range from mild to severe  Suicide threats and actions o Take all concerns seriously o Intervene  Mania- feeling very energetic and animated about life and thinking that you are the greatest  During manic phases individuals may: o Express grandiose ideas and demonstrate exaggerated behaviors with limited to no recognition that the thoughts, behaviors, etc. are extreme  Bipolar- Manic Depression  Bi=2  Exaggerated mood swings  Presents different for each individual o Behavioral Disorders  Oppositional Defiant Disorder  Breaks rules NOT laws  Patterns of negativism, disobedient, hostile, defiant behaviors o Fights o Temper tantrums o Obscenities o Refusal to cooperate o Frequent rule breaking  Poor relationships with peers  Surfaces typically in elementary school  Feelings of no control which is countered with displays of anger or aggression  Focus on problem solving as a therapeutic intervention  **They get very close to the line without actually crossing it**  Conduct Disorder  Breaks laws  Persistent pattern anti-social behavior that interferes with other’s rights or communities’ basic values  Types: o Severe aggressive conduct with harm to others, including animals !!! RED FLAG o Property destruction o Deceitfulness or theft o Rule violations including truancy (stealing) or running away  Treatment options vary: o Medication, therapy, detention facilities for long term problem solving o More minority youth incarcerated than any other group  Adult version of this is a psychopath***  Cognitive characteristics: o More typically low average IQ o Frequently have learning disabilities and poor school performance o May have expressive or receptive language disorders that make it difficult to communicate o May drop out or be ill-prepared for adulthood o Psychiatric Disorder  Schizophrenia  Typically adolescent onset but now seen in much younger children  Characterized by one or more: o Hallucinations o Withdrawal from the world o Delusions o Inability to experience pleasure/pain o Loss of contact with reality (think God is talking to them) o Disorganized speech  May be cyclical with periods of repression or one long cycle  Medications may help, but not always  Chronic, life long disorder  Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Behavioral Characteristics or Issues o Externalizing behaviors- acting out  Persistently aggressive, non-compliant  High intensity actions with fewer incidents reported  Look for early property destruction o Internalizing behaviors- acting in  Withdrawal, the loner, depression, sadness  Lack of friends, sense of isolation  “Columbine Effect”- book  Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Cognitive and Academic Characteristics o Most low average IQ but not all o Many with ADHD o Language disorders that may impede social and academic comprehension of situations Intellectual Disabilities- umbrella term to use for those with significant cognitive and adaptive behavior challenges  Often used to be called “mental retardation”  IDEA Definition- significantly sub average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affect’s a child’s educational performance.  Supports- the services, resources, and personal assistance that enable a person to develop, learn, and live effectively.  Prevalence: o More males than females o Age- mostly diagnosed during childhood o Socioeconomic status- strong correlation with poverty  Characteristics o Limitations in intellectual functioning  Have an IQ score approx. 2 standard deviations below the mean  Mild mental retardation= IQ 50-55 to approx. 70  Moderate= IQ 35-40 to 50-55  Severe= IQ 20-25 and 30-40  Profound= IQ below 20-25  Memory  Have impairments to memory, especially short-term and working  Generalization  Have problems generalizing, or lacking the ability to transfer knowledge or behavior from one learned task to another and to transfer across settings  Motivation  Have trouble motivating themselves and need to be prompted before they act o Limitations in adaptive behavior  Adaptive Behavior- collection of conceptual, social, and practical skills that have been learned and are performed by people in order to function in everyday lives  Conceptual Skills- language, reading/writing, money concepts, and self directions  Social Skills- responsibility, self-esteem, gullibility, and rule following  Practical Skills- activities of daily living, occupational skills, maintenance of safe environments  Causes o Timing  Prenatal  Perinatal  Postnatal o Risk Factors  Biomedical Causes  Down Syndrome- extra chromosome  Chromosomal Disorder- when one part gives too much or too little genetic material (all or part of a chromosome is missing)  Social, Behavioral, and Educational  All interact with each other  An influencing factor is poverty and the multiple challenges associated with it. Poverty is more associated with an intellectual disability than with any other disability  Poverty during childhood creates risk factors including: lower educational attainment, poorer physical and mental health, and increased mortality  Nondiscriminatory Evaluation Process o Consists of:  Observation  Screening  IQ test (Wechsler)  DABS – a new standardized measure for adaptive behavior  IEP o Paraprofessionals are school staff included under the IDEA term supplementary aids and services  Allow students to be educated with their nondisabled peers and progress in the general education curriculum  Provide individualized instruction, aid in forming friendships, supporting peer tutors, using state-of-the-art technology, teaching in community settings, and assisting students with personal care o E-Readers- can read text aloud to student o Teachers need to support students in learning skills that may not be in general education curriculum- money concepts, time, community mobility, grooming and self-care, leisure activities, careers, etc.  Instructional Strategies o Early Childhood  Milieu Teaching- “Before Speaking” “environment”  Teaches children with intellectual disabilities who do not speak to make frequent, clear requests or comments with gestures of sounds while looking at the person with whom they are communicating o Elementary/Middle School  Promote self-determination learning model of instruction  Identify a problem  Identify possible solutions  Identify barriers  Identify consequences of each solution o Secondary and Transition  Community-based instruction Autism  Pervasive (Everywhere) Developmental Disorders o Autism Spectrum Disorders  Asperger Syndrome  Average to above average intelligence  Focus on one thing  Atypical social development- no social awareness  More typical in males  Use trial and error with the different techniques o Rhett’s Disorder or Syndrome  Neurological  Starts at 2-3 years old  Reason why you don’t give children baby aspirin o Childhood Disintegrative Disorder  3-6 years old something occurs in system and cognitive/physical/etc. abilities start to fall apart o Pervasive Developmental Disorder  Cognitive/health/medical/etc. systems don’t develop correctly  Autism’s 7 Characteristics o Atypical Language Development  Delayed language  One topic focus  Limited interactions  Limited gestures  Pronoun reversal (use “you” instead of “I”)  Limited eye contact  Echolalia  Echo or repeat other’s language  Constant repetition o Atypical Social Development  Impaired nonverbal behavior  Lack of peer relationships- hard to make friends  Failure to spontaneously share enjoyment, interests, and achievements of others  Lack of reciprocity- I do it, you do it o Repetitive Behavior  Obsessions  Perservation- keeping things the same and doing things over and over again  Tics, hand flapping, twirling, and other movements o Problem Behavior- all because of frustration  Self-injurious- head banging  Aggression  Tantrums  Property destruction o Environmental Predictability  One way to do thing  No tolerance for change to routines that have been established o Sensory and Motor Disorders  Great variability in sensory response- under and over stimulated by sight, sound, touch, and smell  Variety in movement issues- abnormal posture, gestures, awkward gait, clumsiness o Intellectual Functioning  Unclear as to exact issues/levels  Wechsler may give a bad or fuzzy reading  Other issues associated with Autism make it difficult to tell  Asperger’s- higher, above average levels of intellectual functioning  Savant Syndrome- “Rain Man”  Not as common as you think  Unusual talent for music, numbers, etc.  Causes o Brain or biochemical dysfunction that occurs before, during, or after birth o Possible connection that was later disproven between Autism and childhood immunizations Severe and Multiple Disabilities  IDEA Definition o Multiple concomitant (all occur at the same time)  Each has its own impact that contributes to the whole o Severe educational problems  Can not be accommodated in special ed programs solely for one of the issues  Each issue has own needs o Does not include blindness- typically a blind person does not have all these other issues along with it  Working Definition o 2 or more serious issues o Need highly specialized education programs  Shared Characteristics o Intellectual functioning- ranges but generally challenging (lower range) o Adaptive skills- generally need assistance with self-care and social building skills; can learn but need help with generalizing skills o Motor development- significant impairments dependent upon individual (being able to move, walk, run, etc.) o Sensory Functioning- common to having hearing and vision problems o Communication skills- expressive and receptive language issues  Difficulties expressing needs and wants  Difficultly with expressing pain- could lead to abuse issues  Causes o Unknown but generally most are related to:  Biological- pre, peri, and postnatal (lack of oxygen at birth)  Genetics  Initial Evaluation o Often know about problems before or at birth  Newborn Apgar Test score as critical info- at birth they look for color, breathing on own, and response to stimuli o Frequently taps into medical as the primary issue o Can not forget about the social and emotional issues for the immediate and extended families  Educational Planning o IEP- legal planning and monitoring framework that is mandated o SETT- alternative evaluation framework that is not mandated  Student  Environment  Task  Tools o MAPs- person-centered planning framework  Making Action Plans  What is your history/story?  Dreams? Nightmares?  Who are you?  Strengths? Weaknesses?  What do you need?  What is the plan of action?  Educational Needs o Early Childhood  Circle of Inclusion o Elementary/Middle  Maximal participation  Partial participation- as much as possible o Secondary/Transition (may not be in regular classroom)  Student directed learning strategies  Picture Prompts  Self-instruction strategies using verbal and other communication skills to direct own learning  Identify problem and look for solution  Text sequencing- did-next-now  What-where strategy: What do I need to do? Where do I need to go?  Universal Design Issues: Communication o AAC- Augmentative and Alternative Communication o Technology  Non-electronic  Communication boards  Communication notebooks  Dedicated Communication Device  Visual assistant or the equivalent  Computer systems and consumer commercial devices o Personal Care  Mobility- home, school, community  Access to home devices and appliances  Access and participation in school and classroom  Access and participation in community and entertainment Physical Disabilities  IDEA calls it an orthopedic impairment o Congenital (born with it) o Diseases (polio, bone cancers, tuberculosis) o Amputations o Fractures o Burns  Educators say yes, but say it also includes students with severe and multiple disabilities and it’s a somewhat general umbrella term  Cerebral Palsy- brain/ lack of muscle control o Disorder of movements or posture o Chronic, life long o Types:  Spastic- tightness in 1+ muscle groups  Dyskinetic- impairment of muscle tone of whole body  Athetoid- abrupt, involuntary movements of head, neck, and extremities  Ataxic- unsteadiness, lack of coordination, different standing and walking  Mixed- 2+ movement patterns; 1 isn’t predominant  Spina Bifida- “open spine” o Malformation of spinal cord o Types:  Spina Bifida Occulta  Meningocele  Myelomeningocele- most serious o Causes unknown but early in fetal development o Folic acid vitamins are preventatives o Difficulty with personal care issues  Catherization and related social emotional issues  Sensory loss Health Impairments  IDEA definition- limited, strength, vitality, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment and adversely affects a child’s educational performance  Epilepsy o Seizures- temporary neurological abnormalities resulting from unregulated discharges in the brain  General- both cerebral hemispheres  Tonic-clonic (grand mal)  Absence (petti mal)- don’t even realize you’re having one  Partial- one side of the cerebral hemisphere o Types range in intensity o Effects on school  Lower intellectual abilities  Loss of sustained attention in class  Lower academic achievement  Side effects from medication may compound above issues (depression, school withdraw, social concern)  Asthma o Chronic lung condition  Airway obstruction  Inflammation  Sensitivity or hyperirritability of bronchial tubes o Most chronic diseases among US children  Genetic  Latino children  African American children  {Poverty} o Asthma and School: Possibilities  School absenteeism  If student manages the asthma, there will be no problems  If student does not manage it, higher incidences of absenteeism, hospitalization, and school issues  IEP or 504? What covers what? o Dependent upon the condition or the severity of the impairment on the education performance o School function assessment  Criterion based assessment of:  Participation level  Task supports needed  Activity performance  UDL issues o Adaptive environment for wheelchairs o Adaptive programs in school o Adaptive devices to help with equipment and everyday use o Technology has played an increasingly important role for these learners  Effective Instructional Approaches o Physical/occupational therapy o Fun physical activities o Token economy reinforcement o Self-awareness building- coping o Life transition issues- driving; living on own Traumatic Brain Injury  Only acquired exceptionality (not born with it)  Injury to brain due to external physical force o Results in total or partial functional disability in one or more of the following: physical, cognitive, behavioral, emotional, social  TBI Types o Open head injury  Penetrates skull bones o Closed head injury  Does not penetrate or fracture  External blow or repeated whip-like action wherein brain bounces off internal skull bones  Likely candidates: anyone, everyone o Vehicular accident injuries o Recreational injuries- skateboards, trampolines, sports, etc. o Firearm violence o Shaken baby or child syndrome o Returning veterans  Array of Trauma o Type and degree of injury  Mild  Moderate  Severe o Prognosis for future is dependent upon above as well as level and immediacy of medical care and rehabilitation  Post-Injury Issues: Physical o Motor function abnormalities (walking, moving) o Visual Impairments o Hearing loss o Headaches o Communication/speech impairments  Express or receive words  Post-Injury Issues: Cognitive o Attention and memory impairments o Executive functioning and decision making impairments o Social cognition impairments  Post-Injury Issues: Communication o Central auditory processing- trouble following individual and group conversations o Possible problems with expressive and receptive language issues (tip of the tongue experience)  Post-Injury Issues: Behaviors o Possible aggressive behaviors o Inappropriate behaviors for the context o Anxiety o Depression o Anger and frustration o Subtle to significant changes in personality  Post-Injury Issues: Classroom o Student needs to re-learn more than content knowledge, such as learning how:  To attend to teacher and instruction  To understand and retain info  To reason and express ideas  To solve problems  To plan and monitor own performance  Post-Injury Issues: Technology o Electronic Aids for Memory Support  Digital watches  Pagers  Medication reminder devices  Digital mobile phones  Smartphone prompting systems Gifted and Talented  No federal legislation that says states have to accommodate these students o 32 states have gifted and talented educational policies  Gardner- Multidemensial Model of Intelligence o Musical o Bodily-kinesthetic o Logical-mathematical o Linguistic o Spatial o Interpersonal o Intrapersonal o Naturalistic  Characteristics: o High General Intellect- IQ score over 125  Prodigy- refers to a child before the age of 10 who performs a valued domain at a professional level; exhibits highly developed giftedness within that domain o Creativity- the ability to generate ideas, products, or solutions that are considered novel and useful for a given situation, problem, or context o Leadership Ability- the ability to engender others’ trust and “wisdom with spontaneity- the ability to assess situations quickly and step forward or backward in taking direction for the benefit of the group” o Talents in Visual or Performing Arts- includes areas of the fine arts, music, dance, and theater o Emotional and Social- may experience significantly lower levels of anxiety; can develop a sense of perfectionism which can lead to negative self-judgments  Causes o Nature and Nurture  Determining the Presence o IQ test o DISCOVER- students are observed in small groups o Torrance Test of Creative Thinking  Education o Differentiated instruction o Acceleration o Compact the curriculum- complete most difficult tasks first, and if they get them right then they move forward o Curriculum extension- expanding the depth of coverage about a topic o Cognitive taxonomies- use Bloom and move up it o Autonomous Learner Model (ALM)- assists students in dealing with the social-emotional issues that accompany their giftedness  Explore what it means to be gifted  Explore what creativity and intelligence means  Learn organizational skills  Etc. o Product and Process evaluation


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