Hey guys here is the study guide for exam 2!!
Hey guys here is the study guide for exam 2!! PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Gray on Sunday March 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 521 views.
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Date Created: 03/22/15
Instructions To do well on Exam 2 you will need to KNOW ie you must understand them beyond mere recognition or simply knowing the definition each of these concepts 1 10 11 Yale approach to persuasion this covers everything on Who eg credibility says what e g fear appeals to whom eg good mood or bad mood a The who credibility perceived expertise trustworthiness and attractiveness physical appeal similarity b The what discrepancy twosided appeals primacy and recency effects and fear appeals c To whom mood and distraction ELM what is it what does it postulate etc a Elaboration likelihood model b Postulates central route processing and peripheral route processing Factors that reduce persuasibility a Be forewarned b Be knowledgeable on the topic so you can argue against points made by the persuader c Make a public commitment d Have an ally in your position e Attitude inoculation Minority in uence what it is how it can happen Attitude inoculation a Exposing people to weak attacks to their attitude so that when stronger attacks come they will have counterarguments available Motivations for group formation a Inclusion b Control c affection Triplett 198 8 a String on fishing reel b First social psychological experiment c Concluded that the mere presence of others can enhance performance Social facilitation how does it affect performance why when a Presence of others enhances performance because arousal increases dominant responding Zajonc 1965 a Presence of others produces arousal b Arousal increases the likelihood of dominant responses In social facilitation what factors contribute to the production of arousal a Evaluation apprehension b Distraction c mere presence of others Social loafing why it happens consequences of it when it happens etc how to prevent it 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 a Tendency for people to exert less effort when they pull their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable Group polarization why when how it occurs consequences of it a Group discussion with likeminded others makes each members pre existing views more extreme and the group judgment more extreme Group think why when how it occurs consequences how can we prevent it a The deterioration of group judgment produced by striving for consensus Janis amp Mann s Guidelines for effective group decisionmaking a Consider a wide range of objectives b Consider a wide range of courses of action c Intensely evaluate alternatives d Consider all possible consequences of chosen and not chosen options e Provide detailed descriptions of the chosen course of action Deindividuation why when how it occurs what does it do a When in groups people often abandon normal restraint Stigma a Any characteristic that is judged negatively by a majority Stereotypes vs prejudice vs discrimination differences similarities between these concepts a Stereotype beliefs about the attributes of a group of peoplecognitive component of prejudice b Prejudice an unjustifiable negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people based solely on their membership in that group affective component of prejudice c Discrimination unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members behavioral component of prejudice Modern racism characteristics consequences a A more subtle form of racism less blatant and visible and more socially acceptable Clark amp Clark 1947 a Self hatred studies with dolls b Led to Brown V Board of Education decision that declared segregated schools unconstitutional c Study was awed not much support for selfhatred Causes of prejudice cognitive vs hot theories of stereotyping and prejudice a Motivation b cognition What does it means to say stereotype activation happens automatically Given the current research does this statement seem true a This relates to step one of the Dissociation Model of Prejudice The stereotypes that we know are automatically triggered We can decide whether or not to accept step 1 in step 2 of this model Belief in a just world a Justworld phenomenon 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 b Belief that the world is just and that people get what they deserve Scapegoat theory a When the cause of frustration is vague hostility and aggression are redirected to an easy target Con ict theory a Actual competition for resources or competing goals between groups leads to con ict that then fosters stereotyping and prejudice Stereotype threat a A disruptive concern when facing a negative stereotype that one will verify the negative stereotype Selffulfilling prophecy a A belief that leads to its own fulfillment Word et al 1974 a The nonverbal mediation of selffulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction Social identity theory a Part of our selfconcept can come from group membership b Use membership to maintain positive selfview Reducing prejudice know each method we discussed in class e g contact hypothesis jig saw classroom etc a Contact hypothesis b Equal status c cooperation Know Sherif s study Eagles and Rattlers study on reducing con ict What does the study tell us about reducing con ict between groups a Sheriff argued that intergroup con ict occurs when two groups are in competition for limited resources Minimal group paradigm studies what do they find a Tajfel b Create groups that have no social reality c Investigates the minimal conditions required for discrimination to occur between groups out group homogeneity a perception of outgroup members as being more similar to one another than ingroup memebers Perceived vs actual con ict group con ict how do we perceive group differences and what are the implications
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