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SPH-K405 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Nowak Notetaker

SPH-K405 Final Exam Study Guide SPH-K405

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Overall Study Guide for the Final Exam for Exercise and Sport Psychology
Raglin J
Study Guide
exercise, Sport, Psychology, athlete, mental, health, behaviorism, doc
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nowak Notetaker on Tuesday August 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPH-K405 at Indiana University taught by Raglin J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see EXERCISE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY in School of Public Health at Indiana University.

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Date Created: 08/02/16
Study Guide for Sport Psych Final Exam Introduction and History- 1. 4 major forms of evidence • Philosophical- “play to win” “sport for all” • Pedagogical- accepted or traditional practices ex: running through tires • Theoretical- “more is better” “overload principle” • Empirical- observed through research, strongest type of evidence But there is more to evidence than its validity- consider performance enhancers, scientific/empirical, legal, ethical, and moral issues to consider 2. Coleman Roberts Griffith is the father of modern sport psychology. 1920s • Wrote the first sport psychology textbook • University of Illinois • 1,000 square feet sport psych laboratory • Half of his space was devoted to human psychology studies • 25% human physiology and the other 25% was a rat colony- inexpensive, no informed consent, easier to do procedures on them that humans would not want done to them • Began his studies on the psychological factors in football and baseball • Offers psychology and athletics course (1 textbook) • He studied the psychology of athletic performance • Red Grange, “The Grey Ghost”- Griffith researched him because of his amazing game, when asked about it he replied “I remember nothing” • Griffith came up with the AUTOMATIC SKILL RESPONSE (performance/time/skill) graph, which showed a classic learning curve for performance▯ as you get better and more skilled with time your performance increases until it plateaus. However, he also found the paradox that the better we get better at a skill the less we think about it • Griffith also studied the psychology of coaching- Knute Rockne, who was famous for his locker room speeches: “I try to pick men who like the game of football and get a lot of fun out of playing it” “I do not make any effort to key them up, except for rare, exceptional occasions” “never allow hatred to enter into it, no matter whom we are playing” • 1940’s was a consultant to the Chicago Cubs▯ went horribly, sport psych died for the next 30 years o First sport psychology laboratory o First sport psychology course o First textbook o Conducted laboratory and field research on both basic (information for the sake of knowledge) issues and applied issues (practical information) The contemporary Era of Sport Psychology 1960s (The REBIRTH) • Creation of professional sport psychology organizations • The movement was both national and international • The organizations began to publish sport psychology research journals o Provided empirical evidence for theory and application o Less than 2% of published studies involve samples of elite athletes ** All these things provided a means of consolidating professional interest in the field of sport psychology; however, no professional standards for membership exist Training in Sport Psychology • NASPSPA- members have extensive training in sport and exercise science, and little to no training in psychology • APA- Division of Exercise and Sport Psychology- 100% of members have training in psychology and very few have training in sport and exercise science • PROBLEM- no professional standards for membership • Approximately 10% of the members of professional sport psychology organizations were also members of the APA • Only 10% of sport psychologists are “psychologists”- it is not a licensed profession • The USOC tried to solve this problem (1980) by saying the minimal qualification was that sport psychologist had to have membership in the APA or meet others qualifications for membership (at this point 90% were out of job) o Many of our top teams and athletes are still being seen by people who do not qualify for membership in the directory (they are not psychologists) 3. Models of Sport Psychology • Soviet Union Model (this method has never been replicated) – had a diverse gene pool, lots of money, government wanted to prove that they were the best and people bought into this o 3 sport psychology institutes o 23 physical culture institutes- altitude hotels etc. o 90 physical education departments o 250-1000 sport psychologists, 50+ assigned to national teams (the US only had 1 for the entire Olympic team) o Coach required to be trained in psychology, “the primary sport psychologist of the team is the coach; a specialist who has mastered the basics of applied sport psychology” o Training in psychology was required o Have a good working relationship with the coach and the team o Practical experience in the sport is required: people who had to struggle to learn the sport will often be better teachers of the sport rather than the people that the sport came easily to o Sport Psychologist’s Job ▯ Marxist-Leninist Ideology • Undo all the Marxist ideology that “everyone is the same”, they want their elite athletes to rid themselves of this idea and to think they are the best (cognitive restructuring) ▯ Psychograms- psychological profiling • Test their personality, emotions, stress response, coachability, and social factors to determine which sport and which position they should play • Used with individual athletes (Medved- even if he did poorly they would send him to the Olympics under the hope that their psychogram was right- it was and he won gold medals) • Used to identify ideal characteristics o Sports o Positions within sports o Competitors ▯ Autogenic/Self-training • Hypnosis- taught them how to do it on themselves so they could be independent and reliant on themselves ▯ Stress monitoring during training • Biological o Lactate- muscle soreness o Urea- protein breakdown, only happens when athletes are calorically deficient and over-strained • Mood- irritable, burnt-out o They monitored their mood every day and this dictated what their workouts consisted of ▯ Education of Coaches • Research findings, brief findings, targeting to an appropriate group- SHORT lag time (unlike US) Summary of Soviet Union Model • Standardized psychological training was required for all sport psychologists • Sport psychologists were well integrated into the athletic system and had experience in sports • Coaches also were training in psychology • Sport science research was efficiently distributed to coaches and athletes • The entire sport system was devoted to producing elite athletes▯ very mentally and physically brutal to the elite athletes • WIN AT ALL COSTS • Rest of the Soviet Union population▯ undereducated, malnourished, horrible public health system • Czechoslovakian Model- people from these poor countries were shocked when they arrived to the Olympic games in places like decadent Paris. Their model was based on Intelligence because they didn’t have a lot of money. Enhance moral ▯ eliminate homesickness▯ enhance performance o Communications ▯ Telephone hot line- to speak to family easily ▯ Newspapers- showing them what was going on back home ▯ Military time- to avoid missing shuttles and getting confused about different time zones ▯ Metric- English Conversions o Transportation ▯ Domestic- Foreign- a lot of people had never flown before, also showed them how public transit worked ▯ Jet Lag ▯ Culture Shock- gave them information on the locations in which they would be participating at (Czech did this way before the US did) o Logistics ▯ Food- gave them food that their either recognized or had trained with previously (familiarity), also gave them access to water ▯ Shelter o Medical ▯ Altitude- less oxygen to breathe, also lower density▯ timing gets off, brought them a few days earlier so they could adjust and adjust their timing to the differences in density ▯ Training- sport psychology in elite athletes, role-playing therapy • Scandinavian Model- Sport for all! Based on Sweden- extremely unhealthy eating habits, outdoor country, orienteering: create your own cross country map o Exercise Science: athletes and non-athletes o Health o Coaching: Training, sport psychology: research and theory, application: simple techniques, learn advanced techniques with qualified supervision ▯ Anxiety measurement: baseline and competition (they were very research oriented, want to measure it)[ • Relate to theory: sport, skill level- related certain sports or skill level to different levels of anxiety • Determine Cause- open to the idea that anxiety wasn’t just due to performance, it could be due to illness or relationship problems o Sport related- anxiety regulation o Symptom of medical/psychological illness- referral to medical professionals Scandinavian’s were very SPORT FOR ALL 4 Anxiety Regulation Methods- hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga A) used either to decrease or increase anxiety B) Athletes learn to use techniques on their own- they wanted to create self-reliant individuals, wanted everyone to know the techniques not just the elite athletes C) Training is extensive: 3 to 6 months Summary • Emphasis on both sport performance and health- in contrast to malnourished Russia • Coaches are trained and licensed • Psychological interventions are intensive How old is the field of sport psychology? • 1895- Fitz (Harvard) publishes the first psychology article with a sport component (reaction time) • 1898- Triplett (Indiana University)- publishes the first paper on a sport psychology topic (social facilitation- “reeling”- 25% improvement when competing next to another person) • 1920s Griffith US Sport Psychology in the New Millennium Primary emphasis- providing performance enhancement services to athletes (very performance based- don’t care about outside life) Provider- unlicensed sport psychologists Do these services work? What’s the evidence? (Empirical evidence is not listed) 1). Borrowed Theory 2). Personal Experience/Common Sense 3). Expert Opinion/Testimony Borrowed Theory • Brought their theory over from regular psychology- sport psychology is always 10 years behind general psychology • It is also based on the wrong group- general psychology theories are based on research with non- athletes (“target population”) • Come from second-hand sources- books, magazines, or internet Personal Experience • Can be misleading or can be useful (difficult to tell the difference) • Personal experiences can be manipulated “The Barnum Effect”- you experienced it, but it is not true • Test of the Barnum Effect- gave everyone the same description and 90% of people thought it described themselves Expert Testimony • Relying on the perspective of others because of their education, authority, title, or reputation • 16 internationally recognized sport psychologists were asked, “What percent of elite athletes would worry about choking before a performance?” o All 16 said 0% of the athletes would say “yes” o 31% of 131 elite athletes said “yes” o Experts were basing their response based on speculation, not based on research o This is a BIG problem because this means that this question is not on sport psychologist’s mind when asking elite athletes how they feel o “Sport psychologists should abandon the goal of scientific objectivity and instead rely on personal “experiential knowledge”- the opinion of the most influential US sport psychologist on the use of personal experience as a source of information Research and Methodology in Sport Psychology Ergogenic Aid- anything that creates energy (not always drugs- sometimes phenomenon) • marketed to anyone, not just athletes (ex: vitamin water, water, coffee, caffeine in general) • substances- pain killers, stimulants, hormones, dietary additives, vitamins • phenomena- music, mental practice, relaxation, psyching up, praise, hypnosis, imagery, goal setting Ergogenic Aids in Sport: Type: substances vs. phenomena (these are not mutually exclusive as meth creates a mental state) Acute vs. Chronic Acute- short, take it once, helps you immediately, only feel it short term (caffeine) Chronic- have to keep taking it to maintain its benefit (creatine has a loading dose and a maintenance dose) Sport Task: power vs. endurance Power- steroids, insulin, ammonia Endurance- steroids- prevent wasting disease, EPO (blood doping), carbo-loading Gross vs. Fine motor tasks Gross- amphetamines, ammonia Fine- beta blockers (for heart disease, decrease HR, BP, stroke volume- blood circulating the body will be slower- professional musicians do this, overdose= passing out very slowly), or alcohol to calm tremors Dosage If you take more creatine, your body will simply flush out the rest The Consumer Fitness Level Motor skill level Personality Characteristics Attitude/Belief- power of belief with placebos (make it taste bad so people believe that it will work) Classic Response Curve- the more you increase the dose, the more the response increases Plateau Response Curve- at first as you increase dose the response also increases until you reach a certain point then your response levels off even with increasing doses (Creatine does this) Threshold Response Curve- response begins to increase as dose increases until a certain point is reached then the response is weakened when the dose increases How do we know if ergogenic aids work? – If our performance improves • Physiological maximum is always greater than maximal performance (2% greater) • Most people will say they are done (in VO2 max test) long before they actually reach their VO2 max The Scientific Ideal Step one: Identify a problem or question “how can we improve athletic performance?” Step two: Come up with a potential solution/answer Step three: Test the hypothesis Step four: Conduct a new test with your modified hypothesis Model- A simple description or explanation of some aspect of reality (more is better) Theory- A more complex, complete and sophisticated description or explanation of reality (overload principle) Hypothesis- an educated guess about some part of reality • A coaches “hunch” may be based on personal experience, philosophy, research, a model or a theory • The scientist’s hypothesis may come from personal experience or philosophy, but it is more often influence by models or theories 3 Levels of Science 1). Description- what happens to performance when we train athletes? 2). Prediction- how much does performance change when we train athletes for six months? Who benefits the least and most? What about sea level versus altitude training? 3). Causality- why does performance improve with training? What is the mechanism/explanation? 5 Types of Research Techniques 1. The laboratory Experiment- you can control everything, artificial 2. The laboratory Stimulation- still in a lab but they bring props in, still have control but it feels more like the real world 3/4. Field study/Experiment- lose control but they actually experience the situation 5. The survey- questionnaires or interviews Ecological Validity- the extent to which a study’s setting approximates the real-world situation being studied • High ecological validity means greater confidence that the results of the study can be used in “real world” settings • Important for studies that have practical or applied consequences but it is not always necessary or even desirable • High ecological validity in field study and field experiment • Low or some ecological validity in the laboratory experiment and laboratory simulation External Validity- the degree in which your findings can be applied to the population of interest (target population) based on who the study is done with *this needs to be high to get people to believe your conclusions • Target population- the population of interest (a lot of the time- elite athletes) • Sample- a portion of the target population- it should mirror the characteristics of the population of interest • External validity is particularly important when you want the results to apply to a population with unusual or specific circumstances (elite athletes) Volunteerism- the tendency for people with certain characteristics to either volunteer or participate in research studies • People who tend to volunteer are alike • Brings down external validity • NASA did a study on 3 months of bed rest▯ who volunteered? Lazy people. This is not true for most astronauts- they are not lazy. This threw off the external validity of the study “After-Only Design”- cross-sectional design • One point in time • Test post-treatment • One measurement • Compare control group to experimental group • PROBLEM- the differences between the control and experimental group could have been due to chance (randomization failed and one group started out stronger or weaker than the other) “Before-After Design”- longitudinal design • Test before & after treatment • Know change/time • Randomly assign groups to control/experimental • Conduct a pre-test “baseline” to insure groups are similar • Administer the test and evaluate the results • Pre-Test Sensitization▯ changes in before-after measures may be due to the inhibition (“holding back” of initial performance, conscious inhibition “sandbagging” o Solution- counterbalance or change the order of the treatments • Learning- improvement due to knowledge acquired between the pre and post test • Habituation- inhibition due to uncertainty with the procedure or environment (ex: doing a race on an unknown terrain and then doing it again when you know the course, hills, etc) No Order Effect- experimental is always higher than control regardless of if it comes first or second in the experiment Order Effect- only get better when they do it the second time, even when experimental is first they still don’t do better Methodological Problems • Halo Effect o Contamination that occurs because the experimenter either actually knows or thinks they know something about the participant o Solution- conduct a single blind study- the study is run by experimenters who are not told the purpose of the study (hypothesis) and they are not given information about the participants • Hawthorne Effect o “The special attention effect” o Improvements in experimental treatments/conditions may be partly or entirely due to the special attention associated with these treatments o Placebo Effect- a substance or procedure that results in a genuine psychological or physiological effects, but which lacks the active ingredients or therapeutic basis to cause those effects o Solution- conduct a double blind study (gold standard of research)- a study that is ran by experimenters who are not told the purpose of the study or given information about the participants. The subjects in the experiment also do not know if they are receiving the real treatment or a placebo (phony) treatment • Rosenthal Effect o Contamination that occurs because the experimenter actually knows or thinks they know something about the desired results o These expectations can cause demand characteristics- cues or clues given by the experimenter to the participant in the study. These cues alert the participant to the hypothesis (expected results) ▯ the participant then changes her behavior in order to fulfill the hypothesis o The pact of ignorance- when asked, the participant does not admit to having any knowledge about the hypothesis of altering her behavior and the researcher believes her o Solution- conduct a single blind study- the study is run by experimenters who are not told the purpose of the study (hypothesis) and they are not given information about the participants When should placebos be implemented? • In order to see if the treatment is actually working or if it is just the idea of getting the treatment, the Hawthorne effect is controlled by the use of placebos Why not to use placebos? • Have a cost- time, money, resources • Do not help everyone, some individuals do not respond at all and some individuals are negative responders • Relying on a placebo will not “cure” the problem and may inhibit the search for real solutions • Placebos promote a lack of credibility • Effects of placebos are temporary- special attention wears off • The use of placebos may indirectly promote ergogenic drug use Personality and Athleticism 1. What is personality? • Temporally stable (time stable), cross-situational individual differences that are related to cognition, emotions, and behavior • Personality traits are not always expressed/evident▯ specific circumstances may be needed to elicit a behavior related to personality (aggression) 2. What factors influence the development of personality traits? • Genetics, environment, developmental factors (growth, maturation), nature vs. nurture 3. What are the major personality factors? *Extraversion and neuroticism appear on all tests • Openness to Experience • Conscientiousness • Extraversion- sociability and positive affect/emotion • Agreeableness • Neuroticism- emotional instability and negative affect 4. How do you measure personality? • Projective Measures- used to infer psychological traits from interpretations of ambiguous or unstructured stimuli (Rorschach- ink blot test, TAT, PTH, DAH) • Non-projective Measures- questionnaires developed to measure specific psychological variables including personality traits (MMPI) 5. Test Validity- the degree that a personality test measures what it purports/claims to measure • Predictive Validity- a correlation/association between the test score and a target behavior o Prospective▯ SAT predicts college GPA o Retrospective▯ SAT shows high school GPA • Content Validity- the “content” or items on the test must accurately reflect the behavior or skill of interest o Algebra test must contain algebra questions o Important for alternative versions of a test (items should be similar in theme and difficult) • Construct Validity – the most important or highest form of test validity o Degree to which the test correlates or does not correlate to the same psychological variable through convergent or discriminant evidence o Constructs- abstractions or artificial variables. They do not have physical properties and cannot be directly measured. Yet, they are regarded as being useful for understanding or explaining behavior o Just about all psychological variables are constructs▯ anxiety, intelligence, personality, motivation, depression ▯ Convergent Evidence- the construct (test) must be substantially related/correlated with other measures of the same construct or with similar constructs (ex: ACT and SAT should be the same, ACT and LSAT should not be similar), correlated moderately .5-.7 ▯ Discriminant Evidence- The construct must NOT be substantially related/correlated with measures of constructs that are logically/theoretically dissimilar • Extroversion, SAT, and hand-eye coordination should not be substantially correlated Credulous Perspective- believes that traits are very useful and accurate predictors of behavior Skeptical Perspective- believes that traits are NOT useful or accurate predictors of behavior Controversy- Started in the1960s, when sport psychologists began using personality scales to test athletes. Most were not trained in academia; this often resulted in faulty research that yielded no findings in support of the skeptical perspective. Other sport psychologists claimed to have developed sport specific personality tests that could accurately identify successful and unsuccessful athletes. Are there psychological difference between athletes and non-athletes? Yes, but differences are often small and do not occur for all psychological factors Change Hypothesis- through exposure of sports, has athlete personality Gravitation Hypothesis- born with that sort of personality • Most research supports the gravitation hypothesis. Athletes appear to be ‘born’ psychologically rather than develop psychological differences once they begin participation in sport Are there special personality types for different sports? • No, most research has failed to find consistent sport-related personality types▯ not all football players have the same personality type Do men and women athletes have different personality structures? • Same, iceberg profile The Mental Health Model of Sport Performance • Psychopathology is inversely correlated with sports performance • As mental illness grows, performance diminishes • Tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue and confusion are measured Iceberg Profile of Successful Athletes • Successful athletes scored higher in positive psychological variables (vigor) and lower in everything else • Unsuccessful wresters weren’t “iceberg enough” • Successful athletes also tend to be more extroverted • Psychological differences between successful and unsuccessful athletes are consistent over time Limitation of the Mental Health Model • Prediction rates do not reach the level of accuracy required for application • Some athletes are misidentified- false positive, false negative • Some athletes have intermediate profiles and cannot be identified as either successful or unsuccessful • The mental health model does not account for important physiological factors in athletics success • The use of psychological information to select athletes for teams presents ethical problems, confidentiality and professionalism Extroversion • Increased pain tolerance o Perceptual Reducer- consistently decrease the level of a given stimulus • Increased physical strength o Extroverts are more likely to go to a loud gym Adherence 45% of people are “physically active”▯ this has been the same for past two decades 22% of people are training regularly enough and intensively enough to actually improve fitness 50% of people will drop out within 6-8 weeks, this is the SAME drop out rate as rehab programs • Even in cardiac patients the drop out rate is the same ▯ a greater health need for exercise will not consistently motivate people to adhere to physical activity Greater access to gyms ▯ greater obesity: having more gyms does not make it more likely that people will adhere to a program Physical/Physiological • Age, sex, height/weight, fitness level▯ have no impact on if you stick to an exercise program • Percent Body fat▯ people that are higher in body fat generally don’t adhere to their fitness regime as well as people that are lower in body fat Psychological • Self-motivation is the only thing▯ we can’t change our self-motivation • Intrinsic Motivation- increases adherence (competence, mastery, mood change, self-image, body satisfaction) • Extrinsic Motivation- decreases adherence (money, praise, prizes) Social Support- the only thing that has a VAST impact on adherence that we can do anything about • Higher credit scores are better at adhering because they are used to doing things that aren’t fun • Lower SES goes to the gym less because they have more stressful and longer jobs. Not as many parks or sports leagues available to them • Married singles dropped out way more than married pairs Major Strategies that have been used to improve exercise adherence? • More access to gyms? Still more obesity • Changing the modality- adding more options/choices? Does not improve exercise adherence, no “type” of exercise mode has consistently produced better exercise adherence • The more intense an exercise program is ▯ lower adherence rate, the more moderate the exercise ▯ higher adherence rate • Long workout ▯ lower adherence • Short workout▯ higher adherence GOALS influence performance by 1.) Directing activity 2.) Mobilizing Effort 3.) Increasing persistence 4.) Motivating the search for appropriate task strategies SMART Method S-specific M-measurable A-action-oriented R- reasonable T- timed- short term is best Abstinence Violation • The “All or Nothing” syndrome • A single exercise session is missed • Even when the absence is due to a legitimate reason it may lead to o Feelings of inadequacy and personal weakness o Participant may feel like a failure at exercise o Despite near perfect compliance, the participant drops out Exercise and Mental Health Depression- 12% Anxiety- 20% *the most depressed/anxious people benefit the most from exercise 4 Major Hypothesis of how exercise influences Mental Health • Thermogenic- exercise raises the body temperature by several degrees • Monoamine- hormone regulation of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine • Endorphin- when endorphins were blocked with naloxone the subjects felt more anxious (naloxone has a side effect of anxiety though, when endorphins were blocked with naltrexone the difference was basically the same, endorphins are NOT responsible, same change with or without endorphin o Problems in Endorphin Research ▯ 2 sources, brain and adrenal (torso) ▯ Measuring endorphin using blood samples does not allow you to determine the source of where the endorphin is coming from ▯ The blood-brain barrier in the carotid arteries prevents endorphin in the bloodstream from reaching the brain and influencing pain or mood ▯ Animal studies have failed to find a prediction correlation between blood and brain levels of endorphin, so blood assessments tell us little about what is happening in the brain • Distraction- exercise and quiet rest have the same effect initially but then 180 minutes after exercise lasts longer and systolic blood pressure stays lower long after compared to quiet rest. There is more to exercise than simply distraction alone o Exercise is a “vaccine”- immediate stress reduction and vaccine against future anxiety o State anxiety improvements last from 2 to 4 hours following a bout of aerobic exercise and more than just distraction Acute Exercise • Traditional Perspective stated that extra intense workouts would add to anxiety • New Study: different intensities provide the same amount of benefit • Intense work outs: initially feel more anxiety, after 120 minutes following exercise, they show the same effect • Acute anxiety is reduced the same with different intensity workouts • Aerobic Activity vs. Anaerobic Activity? o Anaerobic does not reduce state anxiety o In highly anxious people they may see a reduction in state anxiety following resistance training (anaerobic) *people who need it the most benefit the most Chronic Exercise • Long-term programs • Depression o Chronic exercise is equally effective to Time-Limited psychotherapy, and more effective than Time-Unlimited psychotherapy o Time-Unlimited isn’t very effective o Exercise vs. Medication? ▯ Exercise works as well as medication ▯ Exercise has the highest drop out rate 26.4%, but this is significantly lower than regular exercise programs ▯ Medication resulted in a more rapid rate of improvement, particularly in the more depressed participants ▯ The least depressed participants responded more quickly to the combined treatments ▯ Exercise lasts longer! 6 months after the study was conducted hardly none of the exercise group had depression where 40% of the medication group had relapsed and was still depressed ▯ ▯ Chronic Exercise is preventive in depression ▯ Increased likelihood of becoming depressed if you’re inactive Exercise and Anxiety Disorders Traditional Perspective, “Physical activity may be a trigger for panic attacks in patients with panic disorder” Study- examined the effects of lactate (byproduct of high intensity exercise) infusion in healthy and clinically anxious samples Results- 93% of the anxious subjects experienced anxiety attacks following lactate infusion However, lactate infusions raise blood pH (alkaline- buffering alkalosis cause anxiety attacks), and exercise lowers blood pH (acid). Infusing with lactate does not accurately show how exercise affects the body Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Forms of Exercise in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders 1.) Significant reductions in anxiety symptoms and phobic avoidance 2.) Exercise conditions were equally effective 3.) 89% adherence to the exercise regimen 4.) No reported or observed cases of panic Physical Activity vs. Medication in reducing anxiety • Placebo- ineffective • Exercise- less effective • Medication- most effective Exercise Addiction • Cannot easily identify the exercise addict • Questionnaires and Exercise Dependency scales have been developed to try to identify exercise addicts; however, people catch on and will begin to lie • Exercise is not a substance and is typically seen as a “positive addiction” • Symptoms o Exercise is the only priority o Continual attempts to increase the dose▯ the only goal is to exercise more o Exercising while injured o Withdrawal Symptoms ▯ Mood disturbances- anxiety, depression, irritability ▯ Sleep disturbances ▯ Appetite Changes ▯ Physical Symptoms Effects of 3-day exercise deprivation on habitual exercisers • Mood disturbance goes up significantly on the 2 day nd • Decreased on the 3 day because they knew they only had to wait 24 hours until they could exercise again • All but 1 exercised within 10 minutes of completing the study Common Workout Characteristics 1.) Poorly defined exercise goals 2.) Emphasis on quantity rather than quality of training 3.) Seldom has a workout partner Causes of Exercise Addiction • Physiological- endorphin, other hormones • Psychological- personality traits (obsessive-compulsive), poor self-esteem, body dissatisfaction Treatments • Reduced training volume- training logs (can backfire) • Reduced training stress- cross training • Counseling/Psychotherapy Challenges for Treatment • Denial of problem • Reluctant to seek medical care • Want a quick fix • Refusal to cross-train ▯ until they physically cannot do what they’re currently doing Anxiety and Performance Traditional View: “increased levels (of anxiety) have a detrimental effect on performance” *Need to have stress in order to have anxiety Stress= a stimuli or situation that is perceived as threatening which leads to anxiety or other unpleasant emotions BF Skinner- Stress (stimulus) leads to Anxiety (response) Anxiety= an emotional reaction consisting of a combination of unpleasant thoughts, worries, feelings, and physiological changes Stressor= quantifiable feature of stress A Cognitive S-O-R Model of Stress Stress▯ Perceptional/Cognition▯Anxiety *This model is one-dimensional: any stress will result in anxiety A Multidimensional cognitive S-O-R Model of Stress Stress▯ perception▯ Eustress or Distress (anxiety) *some perceptions will not lead to anxiety Traditional Approach to Measuring Anxiety • Measure heart rate, stress hormones, ventilation, EEG • Arousal: a diffuse, global state of physiological activation. It can range from very low to very high Problems with correlating Anxiety with Arousal • Lack of correlation • Individual differences in responses • Poor correlation with anxiety Drive Theory- performance increases as anxiety/arousal increases Relaxation Theory- performance decreases as anxiety/arousal increase, best performances are done when anxiety is low Threshold Theory- too much is a bad thing, but some anxiety and arousal is good for optimal performance The Inverted-U Hypothesis- needs some anxiety, not too much (has not received clear support from a single study” • For any given sport, there is an optimal moderate level of anxiety, lower or higher levels will harm performance The Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning Model (IZOF) • Yuri Hanin • Empirically-based approach • Russian Sport Psychologist developed o Each individual athlete possesses an optimal anxiety range associated with optimal performance o This range may lie anywhere on the anxiety continuum from extremely low to extremely high o The optimal anxiety range is not predictably influenced by factors such as motor task requirements or skill o Everyone has different levels of optimal anxiety Ways of Establishing Optimal Anxiety • Direct Method o Assess prior to many competitions until a personal-best occurs o This is considered “optimal anxiety” • Indirect Method o Fill out a questionnaire regarding how they felt prior to their very best performance o Good enough Shotgun Psychology- treat everyone on the team the same way Applied Sport Psychology: Ergogenic Aids Mental Imagery- most commonly/widely used technique, studied for about 100 years • Touch • Taste • Smell • Vision • Kinesthetic • Visceral- organs Uses for Mental Imagery • Systematic Desensitization- phobia treatment o Have them imagine being on a cliff and work up to them actually being on a cliff • Relaxation-Anxiety Control o Public speaking, test anxiety • Skill Acquisition-Learning o Correction of mistakes • Rehearsal o Gymnasts, bobsled▯ visualize routine • Cognitive Strategy o Negative thought stopping, confidence enhancement • Disease Treatment o Illness/injury recovery, imagine your body cancer free • Performance Enhancement o Mental practice/training, “imagine yourself stronger without lifting the weights” reduce training and reduce injury Factors in Mental Imagery • Perspective o Internal- familiar event o External- unfamiliar event, because we’ve never done it before • Modality o Single sense vs. combinations • Vividness/Clarity o Very clear or not so clear ▯ we don’t know the quality of their visualizations • Control o Think about shotput not eating a burger • Outcome o Successful vs. unsuccessful performances How Does Imagery Work? The proposed mechanisms… 1.) Muscle Memory (No research)- controlled by brain 2.) Efferent Outflow (Some research)- low level EMG activity to working muscles 3.) Neuromuscular Theory (Some research)- reinforcement of motor programs, actual brain patterns 4.) Enhanced Self-Efficacy- confidence applied to a single behavior/movement, greater belief in success 5.) Mind-body Unit- brain cannot distinguish between actual and imagine training Mental Imagery- intellective/cognitive- visual only Visuo-Motor-Behavioral-Rehearsal (VMBR) • Relaxation • Total sensory experience GOALS • Performance/Technique enhancement • Error Analysis/Correction • General Preparation for Competition • Confidence Enhancement Issues in Imagery • Don’t know the true mechanism of how it works • Self-reporting on your own mind- internal experience • No knowledge of results • Substituting imagery may result in detraining “Centering”- Negative Thought Stopping • Identify negative thoughts and replace with more constructive thoughts Confidence Enhancement • Self- confidence was positively correlated with success in wrestlers • Positive correlation with self-confidence and success “Psyching up!” • Not beneficial for speed or balancing tasks • No evidence that it creases an increase physiological activation/arousal • Effects on strength tasks are mixed • Athletes found to use very different psyching techniques • May interfere with skill acquisition in beginners Attention Focus” Dimensions Width- narrow to broad (dial) Direction- internal to external (switch) Overinclusion (beginners)- taking in more information than the athlete can process, taking in irrelevant information Under-inclusion (advanced)- taking in too little information Coaching Psychology Positive control- positive reinforcement of good behavior Aversive control- elimination of negative behavior through punishment (fear) Reinforcement (increase behavior) vs. Punishment (decrease behavior) Reinforcement • Using rewards to increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future • Positive Reinforcement- adding a rewarding stimulus o Extra playing time o Trophy/Medal o Money o Praise • Negative Reinforcement- taking away a non-rewarding or punishing stimulus o Skip laps at the end of practice o Shorter/easier practice Punishment • Using punishment to decrease the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future • Positive punishment- adding a punishing stimulus (running laps) o Extra laps o Longer/harder practice o Yelling at athletes • Negative punishment- removing a rewarding stimulus o No/less playing time o No scrimmage o Not on travelling squad Eliminating Mistakes Through Punishment The FEAR Approach The fear of failure may lead to • Decreased enjoyment of sport • Increase in drop-out • Sub-par performance (doesn’t win but also doesn’t fail) • Increased risk of injury Competition is thought to shift from a challenge ▯ threat How are some coaches successful even with a negative approach? 1.) Communication of caring and regard for the athlete so punishment isn’t taken personally 2.) Performance of talented athletes- independent of coaching skills or style 3.) Teaching skills and game strategy overshadow negative interpersonal style Reinforcement Schedules • Continuous- get rewarded every time they do it correctly • Partial o Random▯ stay motivated o Fixed▯ become unmotivated Eating Disorders in Athletes: The Stress of Appearance Anorexia Nervosa • Self-enforced starvation • Constant appetite- deny it (self-worth: I’m so hungry but I will not cave) • Distorted and changing perception of appearance • Denial of symptoms, denial of hunger • Excessive physical activity • Wear loose clothing because they feel fat • 90% female • Entered into the DSM in the 1950s▯ competitive advantage of being small and aesthetically pleasing to social • Compulsive personality- hard working, struggle to achieve, social insecurity, conformity, desire to please others (coach, social ideas) • Eventually lose appetite entirely—treatment get them on a regular eating schedule to get their hormones back on track Bulimia Nervosa • Binging and Purging • Distorted perception of appearance • Obsession with food • Able to maintain appearance while hiding binging and purging • Often begins as a means of weight control • Not always excessively thing: between binges they eat semi-normally • Destruction of esophagus, teeth, stomach, heartburn, loss of enamel, ulcers, lose gag-reflex, eventually lose the ability to swallow Prevalence • 2% in general population • 3-19% in college women • 26-79% of college women have binged at least once • 30-80% of bulimics have a past history of anorexia • 47% overlap between symptoms of anorexia and bulimia Currently, more women become bulimic first then may develop anorexia Who is at highest risk? Athletes, young people, women Excessive exercise ▯ anorexia ▯ anorexia with bulimia Exercise as a causal factor 1.) feelings of control 2.) preoccupation with body image 3.) low weight and sport performance (wrestlers, Crew) Reverse Body Dysmorphia • Preoccupation with body size and musculature • Primarily male • Think they’re too SMALL • Hide body with clothes • Dissatisfaction with personal appearance and size Perceived Exertion of Physical Activity A cognitive-Perceptual Process Cognitive- objective information Perception- bodily feelings and sensations Physiological Factors Influencing Perceived Exertion 1.) heart rate 2.) ventilation 3.) lactate Long-Distance Exercise▯ perceived exertion increase but heart rate stays relatively the same- same effort throughout Low-intensity Exercise▯ heart rate doesn’t increase much but your rate of perceived exertion goes up a lot Bicycle Exercise- RPE and HR responses • Both unsuccessful and successful athletes said their RPE was around the same number • However, when looking at HR, the unsuccessful athletes HR was MUCH higher than the successful athletes • The unsuccessful athlete under perceived their perception of effort ▯ they get will get tired faster than they think they will Self-One • Mind over body • “shut up legs” • Mind is in control of body Self-Two • Body over mind • Automatic pilot- mind as spectator Pay as you Go • Only spending what you have at the time • Moderate • 75% of maximum Buy Now Pay Later • Have to recover and pay it back Cognitive Strategies During the Marathon • Association o Directing attention to the sensations of effort and fatigue o “I pay attention to my body” o To pay close attention to all sensations, signs of exertion and effort during training or competitions o Usually used to modulate pace o Self-Two o Elite Marathoners • Dissociation o Recreational Marathoners o Directing attention away from feelings of effort or fatigue o Ex: building a house in your mind while you’re running o To deliberately ignore or distract oneself from the sensations of exertion during training or competition o Self-One o Body is along for the ride A test of Dissociation in the Laboratory • Cognitive strategy allowed them to go farther than control Potential Dangers of Dissociation • Injury • Overexertion • Poor Performance Overtraining and Staleness Overtraining- a systematically planned period of maximum training volume and intensity intended to result to optimum performance, when followed by a taper, overtraining results in improved performance among most athletes (2-3% increase in performance) Staleness/Overtraining Syndrome- a chronic drop in performance that is not alleviated by short layoffs or reductions in training • Not planned! • 20-30% performance degraded • Depression/Mood disturbances • Medical Illness • Muscle Soreness • Sleep Disturbances • Loss of Appetite Overtraining does not work for everyone▯ for some it leads to adaptation and improved performance and to others it leads to staleness and worsened performance Seasonal Incidence of OTS- 10% Career Prevalence of OTS: Adult Athletes 60% in elite female distance runners 63% in elite male distance runners 33% in non-elite female distance runners Career Prevalence of OTS: Young Athletes 35% in age-group swimmers 37% in Swedish Jr. National high school athletes Treatment of OTS • Rest/recovery for 2 weeks or longer • Medical treatment- hormones, nutrition, dialysis • Psychological Treatment- depression, mood disturbance Prevention of OTS • Do not over train athletes • Identify early warning signs/symptoms and treat before the athlete develops staleness • Psychological factors are best for identifying OTS Peak Training OTS- flipped Iceberg, vigor is low and all negative aspects are high Total Mood State Changes to a Gradual Increase in Training • As total distance increases, mood disturbance increases as well • When you taper them down they come down • Overtrained swimmers do not reduce their mood disturbance after a taper Mood State Responses to a Rapid increase in Swim Training • Significant mood disturbance in 3 days


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