Study Guide for Exam 1 (Drug Misuse and Abuse)
Study Guide for Exam 1 (Drug Misuse and Abuse) CJUS 4152-001
University of Memphis
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke W. on Tuesday August 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJUS 4152-001 at University of Memphis taught by Professor McCutcheon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Drug Misuse and Abuse in Criminal Justice at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 08/02/16
Study Guide for Exam I The Study of Psychotropic Drug Misuse and Abuse -Pharmacology: the knowledge of drug action -Neuroscience: the science that encompasses study of neurochemistry and experimental psychology in relation to the nervous system. -Psychoactive/Psychotropic drugs: Drugs that affect feelings, thoughts, or behavior -Illicit: drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is illegal -licit: the opposite of Illicit -drug dependence: condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug. The drug assumes a big central role in the person’s life -Recreational use: the motivation of a drug user who takes a drug to only get “high” or to get a pleasure effect -Objective drug effects: scientifically observable psychotropic effects that can be measured and quantified Measurable: operating heavy machinery on alcohol Quantifiable: Statistical evidence of an association between drinking and behavior and abilities -Subjective drug effects: Experiential affects that are usually user based; cannot be measured or quantified Objective Route of Administration o Intravenous injection (IV): (fastest) o Subcutaneous injection: applied under the skin o Intramuscular: injection directly into the muscle o Intranasal administration: (fast) o Inhaling o Sublingual: under the tongue o Oral o Transdermal Absorption: delivered across the skin -Most psychoactive drugs must be somewhat soluble in water and lipid The higher the ratio of lipid solubility to water solubility the faster the absorption through the Blood Brain Barrier Particle size Drug concentration pH levels Objective Effects: -Acute Drug Effects: Immediate effects that present themselves while drug is in the system o Reduced once the drug works its way out of the system -Chronic Drug Effects: Accumulate over time through continued use -Toxicity: the physical or psychological harm that a drug might present to the user -Acute toxicity: The physical or psychological harm a drug might present to the user immediately or soon at the drug is ingested in the body - Dose response curve: An S-shaped graph showing the increasing probability of a certain drug effect as the dose level rises -Effective Dose: The minimal dose of a particular drug necessary to produce the intended drug effect in a given percentage of the population -Lethal Dose: The minimal dose of a particular drug capable of producing death in given percentage of the population -Potency: The measure of the dose or quantity required for an effective dose o The higher, the less concentration needed to gain the effect -Purity: The amount or percentage of the drug sample that is actually the drug - Polydrug use: Using another drug, while others are still in the system -Addictive Effect: the combined effect produced by the action of two or more drugs, being equal to the sum of their separate effects -Antagonistic Effect: When one drug cancels out the other -Synergistic or Idiosyncratic Effect: One drug’s effect can be increased with the addition of another drug, which will be muted or increased as well o EXAMPLE: SPEEDBALL -Physical Dependence: Potential of a drug to generate a withdrawal syndrome -Psychological Dependence: Behavioralistic response to positive reinforcement of repetitive drug use ; similar to a craving - Extrapharmalogical Factors: Factors that may be an indirect effect of the drug; can also pertain to effects that are not objective -Social Construction of Reality: Society creates frameworks based on perception and group agreement -Set: Expectations prior to use ; Mood emotional state -Placebo effect: Perception influences a psychological or physiological reaction Subject-Expectancy effect: Unconscious response that the subject expected Classically conditioned: Expected relief leads to symptom relief Cannabis -Schedule 1 drug -“Marijuana” -1850 Pharmacopeia treatment included rabies, alcoholism, opiate addiction, and cholera -Two groups stood in opposition of the Marihuana Tax Act: AMA and Poultry Farmers -Cannabis indica: in history used more for its medical and psychotropic effects -Cannabis sativa: in history was used more for its hemp qualities -Most important to farmers is the ratio between Cannabinoids and THC -Appetite Stimulant, euphoria, nausea relief, small/moderate doses benefit asthmatics, increases and decreases anxiety, approved in treatment of epileptic seizures Psychedelics LSD -LSD: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide -Created by Albert Hoffman in 1938 -Once in the brain: Serotonin, Adrenergic, Dopamine -Active in the cerebral cortex (mood, cognition, and perception) and activates serotonin receptors - Overdose is rare -Bad trips include anxiety and mental illness -Hallucinogen Persisting Perceptual Disorder (HPPD) -The name of the program that attempted to weaponize LSD was MK Ultra Psilocybin - These mushrooms can be found in Mexico - Used by ancient cultures in South America in 7000 BCE -Treatment includes: chronic headaches, migraines, PTSD, and other trauma Neurotransmission Reading 1. What purpose synapses serve. -The purpose that synapses serve is that they are the place where chemical based signals travel between neurons, but are not static. 2. The brain is an organ that regulates body functions, behaviors, and emotions. Neurons are the cells that fulfill these functions. How do neurons do this? - The way that neurons fulfill the functions of regulating body functions, behaviors, and emotions is by using fibers that are called dendrites that intake signals. Neurons also send information to other neurons using electrical signals. 3. What is the difference between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters? - The difference between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters is that excitatory neurotransmitters are the reason for the start of changes that cause an action potential and inhibitory neurotransmitters are the reason for the hinder of changes that cause an action potential. 4. What are the function of receptors? - The function of receptors is to work with neurotransmitters to connect molecules with the correct shape in order to create an action potential and if the molecule is not the correct shape, no action potential will be created. 5. What is the blood brain barrier? What is its’ function? - The blood brain barrier is what secures the neurons, which are the nerve cells and the glial cells, which are classified as microglia or macroglia in the brain from matter that could be dangerous to it. Its’ function is to stabilize the environment of neurons, but it also brings complications for scientists who are looking to find cures for brain disabilities. 6. What is Action Potential? - Action potential is what allows signals to move very quickly along neuron axons, which are created specially to maneuver messages from the body of the cell and to other cells. Action potential is the outcome of the flow of ions. It’s also created when a copious amount of neurotransmitter molecules connect to their receptors. 7. What is the purpose of reuptake? - The purpose of reuptake is to take back in the neurotransmitter that did not connect to a receptor and put it into the axon terminal, which is where the destruction and repackaging occurs for the neurotransmitter to be placed into new vesicles. 8. Briefly explain the process of neurotransmission. - The process of neurotransmission is described as a process of which is chemical. When the neuron is triggered, the action potential moves towards the axon terminal. Once the action potential has gotten to the end of the axon, in the terminal, a series of changes is created. The neurotransmitters are pushed by calcium ions into terminal. In order for the neurotransmitter to be disconnected from the neurons, the membrane sacs in which are called vesicles merge with the membrane of the neuron and the neurotransmitter by what is called exocytosis. The neurotransmitters are released in order to be able to connect with a receptor to connect with molecules to cause action potential. Dompamine o Emotion o Attention o Pleasure Serotonin o Appetite o Regulates mood o Inhibitory Norepinephrine o Fight/flight response o Increases heart rate o Priming muscle engagement o Concentration -THC mimics natural neurotransmitters in the brain called endocannabinoids
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